Volume-5 ~ Issue-3
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Study on the Morphometric Variation in Selected Ichthyofauna under Genus Puntius Hamilton-Buchanan (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)|
|Authors||:||S. Choudhury, Dr. K. Dutta|
Abstract: Morphometric studies were conducted using eleven quantitative body parameters of six species of Puntius genus – Puntius chola, P. gelius, P. conchonius, P. sophore, P. sarana sarana and P. ticto ticto occurring from Assam, India, in order to study the morphometric variation and interrelationship among these species. All measurements were taken on a continuous scale using digital vernier caliper parallel to the anterior-posterior body axis except for the body depth that was taken perpendicular to the body axis between dorsal and ventral margins. The means of all measurements were standardized. A correlation study between total length vs. other morphometric parameters and a multivariate principal component analysis were conducted using MS Excel and bdpro32 software. The results obtained showed a significant correlation between total length and other morphometric parameters (p < 0.05) except for total length and pre-orbital length. The scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 were found to be most similar for P. sarana sarana and P. gelius indicating these two species to be most closely related followed by P.ticto ticto , P. chola and P. conchonius, while the PC scores of P. sophore were the most dissimilar. The findings of this study will help in developing new strategies for conservation and breeding programmes of these species.
Keywords: Morphometric studies, Puntius genus, morphometric variation, interrelationship, principal component analysis.
methods with a newer geometric method applied to New World cichlids. Environ Biol Fishes, 67, 2003, 417–431.
 Rohlf, F.J. and Marcus, L.F. A revolution in morphometrics..Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8, 1993, 129–132.
 Bookstein, F. L. Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology (Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991).
 Loy, A., Corti, M. and Marcus, L.F. Landmark data: size and shape analysis in systematics. A case study on old world Talidae
(Mammalia, Insectivora). In LFMarcus, E.Bellow, A.Garcia – Valdacases, (eds). Contributions to morphometrics, 1993, 213- 240.
 Rohlf, F.J. Morphometric spaces, shape components and the effects of linear transformations. In LF Marcus, M.Corti, A.Loy,
G.Naylor, DE Slice (eds). Advances in morphometrics. NATO ASI series. A life sciences Vol.284. New York: plenum, 1996, 117-
 Humphries, J. Bookstein, F.L. Chernoff, B. Smith, G. Elder, R. and Poss, S. Multivariate discrimination by shape in relation to size.
Syst. Zool. 30, 1981, 291–308.
 Bookstein, F., Chernoff, B., Elder, R., Humphries, J., Smith, G., and Strauss, R. Morphometrics in evolutionary biology (Special
Publication 15: Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1985).
 Jayaram, K.C. The Freshwater Fishes of the Indian Region. Vol 27. (New Delhi, Narendra Publishing House, 1991) 551.
 Quilang, J. P., Basiao, Z. U., Pagulayan, R. C., Roderos, R. R. and Barrios, E. B. Meristic and morphometric variation in the silver
perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), from three lakes in the Philippines. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 23, 2007, 561–
 Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries Vol 1. (A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991)
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Abstract :Nutrient management is one of the most important factors in successful cultivation of plants. Biofertilizers can affect the quality and quantity of crop. Low phosphate solubility is one of the most important factors limiting the plant growth in various soils. Many microorganisms can enhance phosphate solubility, but little is known about the magnitude of their phosphorus solubilizing ability. The native populations of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and fungi were studied in different rhizospheres soil samples obtained from banana plant and its effect on spinach plant (Amaranthus cruentus L.) in order to compare the results. The present study focuses on the phosphate-solubilizing capacity of bacteria and fungi in rhizospheres soil samples obtained from banana plant, revealing the dominance of Aspergillus species (234.12 mm) as major phosphate solubilizers, along with Bacillus subtilis (160.82 mm) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 126.11, Penicillium sp., 99.02 and Micrococcus sp., 89. 4. In the present study potent solubilizers were identified as A. niger and B. subtilis. Hence an attempt was made to optimize the phosphate solubilization of the potential solubilizers at different pH with temperature. It is found out that both bacteria and fungi showed maximum phosphate solubilization at pH 3.0 with its specific temperature at 280 C and 370 C.
Keywords: Aspergillus, Bacillus, phosphates, Amaranthus cruentus, rhizospheres soil
 Afzal, A., Ashraf, M., Asad, A.S. and Farooq, M. (2005). Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on phosphorus uptake, yield, and yield traits of wheat (Tritium aestivum) in rain fed area. Int. J. Agri. Biol. 7 (2): 207-209.
 Afzal, A. and Ashgari, B. (2008). Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing bacteria improve the Yield and Phosphorus Uptake in Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Int. J. Agri. Biol. 10(1): 85-88.
 Chen, Y.P., Rekha, P.D., Arun, A.B., Shen, F.T., Lai, W.A. and Young, C.C. (2006). Phosphate solubilizing Bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Appl. Soil. Ecol. 34: 33-41.
 De Souza, M.J.B.D., Nair, S. and Chandramohan, D. (2000). Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian Peninsula. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. 29: 48-51.
 Deubel, A. and Merbach, W. (2005). Influence of microorganisms on phosphorus bioavailability in soils. In: buscot F, varma A (Eds.), microorganisms in soils: roles in Genesis and functions. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp: 177-191.
 Del Campillo, S.E., Van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M., Torrent, J., 1999. Modelling long-term phosphorous leaching and changes in phosphorous fertility in selectively fertilized acid sandy soils. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 50, 391–399.
 Fasim, F., Ahmed, N., Parson, R., Gadd, G.M., 2002. Solubilization of zinc salts by a bacterium isolated from air environment of a tannery. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 213, 1–6.
 Glick, B.R., 1995. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 41, 109–117.
 Hilda, R., Fraga, R., 1999. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. BiotechnoL, Adv. 17, 319–359.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Ciprofloxacin induced hormonal changes in the thyroid gland of rats and Anti-oxidant vitamin A, C and E as rescue agents|
|Authors||:||Dr.G.Vanithakumari., *Dr. K.M.Priyadharshin|
 Ayoma, A., Natori, Y., Yamaguti, N., Koike, S., Kusakabe, K., Demura, R. and Demura, H. (1990). The effect of diclofenac sodium
on thyroid function test invitro and invivo Rinsho Byori (Japan), 38 (6). P. 688-92.
 Barlow, J.W., Curtis, A.J., Raggatt, L.E., Loidl, N.M., Topliss, D.J. and Stockigt J.R. (1994). Drug competition for intracellular triiodothyronine
binding sites. Eur. J. Endocrinol., (Norway), 130 (4) P. 417 – 21.
 Bauernfeind, J.C.(1988). Vitamin A deficiency, a staggering problem of health and sight. Nutrition Today,. pp. 34.
 Beckett, G.J., Nicol, F., Rae, P.W., Beech, S., Guo, Y. and Arthur, J.R.(1993). Effect of combined iodine and seletium deficiency on
thyroid hormone metabolism of proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide. Horm. Metab. Res., 32 (1):10-4
 Bishnoi, A., Carlson, HE., Gruber, BL., Kaufman, L.D., Bock, J.L. and Lindonni, M. (1994). Effect of commonly prescribed
NSAIDs on thyroid hormone measurements. Am. J. Med., Mar 96(3): 235 – 8.
 Bland, G.W. (1998). Vitamins: molecular and biological function. Proc Nutr. Soc. 53: 251-262.
 Capen, C.C and Martin, S.L.(1989).The effects of xenobiotics on the structure and function of thyroid follicular and C- cells.
Toxicol.Pathol., 17(2): 266-93.
 Capen, C.C.(1994). Mechanisms of chemical injury of thyroid gland. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., 387:173-91.
 Centres for Disease Control (CDC) Special Report (2001). Emerging Mechanisms of Fluroquinolone Resistance. David C. Hoope
Massachusetts general Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
 Clinical Toxicology Review. (1997). What are Fluroquinolones? CTR, Massachusetts Poison Control system, Vol. 20, No. 3.
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Abstract :In vitro transcorneal permeation of itraconazole from oil drops and ophthalmic ointments was studied using freshly excised goat and sheep corneas. Permeation of itraconazole from castor oil was found maximum and minimum with kardi oil formulation. The higher permeation of itraconazole from castor oil formulation could be attributed to the lower partition coefficient of drug between oil and aqueous phase. The addition of benzyl alcohol, a preservative, in oil drops, increased the permeation of itraconazole. Partition experiments indicated increased partitioning of itraconazole in the aqueous phase in the presence of benzyl alcohol. The addition of phenyl mercuric acetate, phenyl mercuric nitrate and thiomersal as preservative, in castor oil drop decreased the permeation of itraconazole. Corneal hydration was within the desired limit below 80 %. Permeation of itraconazole from ointment containing dissolved drug was higher than the ointment containing solid drug. In antifungal study, the castor oil formulation showed maximum zone of inhibition against Candida albicans. Stability study conducted at 400 C and 70% RH indicated the formulations as quite stable to ensure 2 years shelf life.
Keywords: - itraconazole, partition coefficient, permeation, preservative, stability.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The bacteriological quality of Hamburger patties from fast-food restaurants in Umuahia, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Edward, K.C., Ikpawho, E. and Ibekwe, V.I.|
Abstract :Bacteriological analysis was conducted on sixteen samples of Hamburger patties from eight (A-H) f ast-food restaurants in Umuahia. Eight of the samples were made of ground chicken (A1-H1) and the other eight samples were made of ground beef (A2-H2). Both C1 and E1 samples gave the highest Escherichia coli count of 3.9 Log10 cfu/g while sample E2 gave the highest count of 3.7 Log10 cfu/g amongst the beef samples. Samples C1 and C2 gave the highest Staphylococcal count of 3.95 Log10 cfu/g and 3.7 Log10 cfu/g respectively. The Salmonella count of 2.4 Log10 cfu/g was recorded by samples C1 and E2. The highest total aerobic plate count was 4.29 Log10 cfu/g from sample E2 while the lowest was recorded by sample D1 with a count of 3.3 Log10 cfu/g. Bacterial species isolated includes; S.aureus, E.coli, Bacillus spp, Proteus spp, Micrococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp and Salmonella spp. The presence of food-borne pathogens beyond the acceptable limit is of public health importance.
Keywords- Bacteriological quality, Fast-food, Hamburger patties, Umuahia
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poultry composition, Journal of Food Science, 60(3), 1995, 600-610.
 M.R.S. Clavero, L.R. Beauchat and M.P. Doyle, Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 isolated from ground beef and
bovine faeces, suitability of media for enumeration. Journal of Food Protection, 61(4), 1998, 285-289.
 S.T. Cowan, and K.J. Steel, Manual for identification of bacteria 2nd ed. (London: Cambridge University Press, 1965), pp163-169
 M.A. Hague, K.E. Warren, M.C. Hunt, D.H. Kropf, C.L. Kastner, S.L. Stroda and D.E. Johnson, End point temperature, internal
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 J.M. Jay, Modern Food Microbiology (New York :Chapman and Hall, 1992) pp 507-526
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 J. Leach, H. Mercer, G. Stew and S. Denyer, Improving food hygiene standards- a customer focused approach, British Food
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Microbial Quality of Raw Milk from four locations in Abia State, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Edward, K.C. , Inya, I.M.|
Abstract :The microbiological quality of raw milk from four locations (Umudike, Lokpa, Umuahia and Aba) in Abia State, Nigeria was investigated. The result of the different counts showed that the Umudike sample gave the lowest Total Heterotrophic count (THC) of 9.88 x 107 cfu/ml while the Lokpa sample gave the highest THC of 1.26 x 108cfu/ml. The coliform count ranged from 5.40 x 106cfu/ml to 9.50 x 106 cfu/ml with the lowest count from Umudike while Lokpa sample recorded the highest count. The staphylococcal count had the highest and lowest counts to be 1.07 x 108cfu/ml (Lokpa sample) and 6.70 x 107cf/ml (Umudike sample) respectively. The fungal count ranged between 6.40 x 107 and 9.20 x 107 cfu/ml with Aba sample being the lowest and Lokpa sample being the highest. The bacterial isolates include Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungal isolates were Candida spp and Mucor spp. The results indicated poor hygienic standard of raw milk from uncontrolled environments and the increased public health risk of those consuming raw milk from such uncontrolled sources.
Keywords: Aba, Lokpa, Microbiological quality, Umuahia, Umudike, raw milk
 S.B. Javaid, J.A. Gadahi, M. Khaskeli, M.B. Bhutto, S. Kumbher and A.H. Panhwar, Physical and chemical quality of market milk
sold at Tandojam, Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 29(1), 200), 27- 31.
 M.L. Srivastava, Handbook on milk microbiology, (Delhi: Daya Publishing house, 2002) 216pp
 N.N. Potter and J.H. Hotchkiss, Food science 5th ed. (New York Chapman and Hall ITP,1995) 279.
 R. Lawley, Liquid milk products, LFRA Microbiology Handbook :Dairy products, 2nd ed. (Surrey,UK: Leather head food Research
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 K.P.Talaro, Foundations in Microbiology 5th ed. (New York: McGraw-hill Higher education, 2005) 815-817.
 S.C Murphy and K.J. Boor, Trouble shooting sources and causes of high bacteria counts in milk, Dairy food environmental
sanitation, 20, 2000, 606-611.
 D.R. Arora, Bacteriology of milk. Text book of Microbiology 2nd ed. (New Delhi, India: CBS Publishers and Distributors, 2003).
 B. Bonfoh, A. Wasem, A.N. Traore, A. Pane, H. Spillman, C.F. Simbe, J.O. Alfaroukh, J. Nicolet, Z. Farah and J. Zinsstag,
Microbiological Quality of cow's milk taken at different intervals in Bamako Mali, Food Control. 14(17), 2003, 495-500.
 R.L. Richter, R.A. Ledford and S.C. Murphy, Milk and milk products, in C. Vanderzant and D.F.(Splittstoesser, (Ed.),Compendium
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 E.T. Ryser Public health concerns, in E.H. Marth and J.L.Steele (Ed) Applied Dairy Microbiology (New York: Marcel Dekker Inc,
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Abstract :This study was carried to assess the prevalence and death resulting from iron deficiency anemia among children of 0-5 years in Ondo State, Nigeria. This study further examined the contribution of infant feeding practices and dietary intakes of mothers to the prevalence and mortality from iron deficiency anemia. Four State Specialist Hospitals in the State were used for the study.
Key words: Iron Deficiency Anemia, Prevalence, Ondo State, Food, Mortality
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 Tatala S. Svanberg U and B Mduma (1998). Low dietary iron available is a major cause of anemia, a nutrition survey in the Lindi
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 Erin Mclean, Mary C, Ines E, Daniel W and Bruno de Benoist (2007). Worldwide Prevalence of Anemia in preschool aged children,
Pregnant women and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Sight and Life Magazine.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Nutrients Composition of Some Traditional Soups Consumed By Postpartum Mothers In Nigeria|
 AOAC (1990). Official methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, AOAC, Washington DC.
 Chukwuma, S.L. (2008). Special traditional postpartum foods. Herbal remedies for postpartum women. Quarterly Journal of Hospi tal Medicine, 18:137-141.
 De Brouwere (1998). Strategies for reducing maternal mortality in developing countries. Tropical medicine and International Health,
 Jain N., Neelan J., Sharma V., and Ramawat K. (2011). Therapeutic potentials of medicinal plants traditionally used during postpartum period and their molecular targets. Journal of Ecobiotechnology 3(10):30-39
 Kayode O.F., Ozumba A.U., Ojeniyi S., Adetuyi D.O. and Erukainwe O.L. (2010). Micronutrient content of selected indigenous soups in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(10):962-965
 Liu N., Muo L., Sun X.F., Liu L.G., Chen B.H. and Ding Q. (2006). Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing
factors in 3 regions of Hubei, China. BMC public health. 6:274
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 psychiatric press. Journal of American Medical Association, 274(6):420-308. National Institute of Nutrition (2000). Nutrients
requirements for pregnancy and postpartum mothers. Journal of Women health and Gender Based Medicine, 10(10):983-989
 Nurdeide G.S. and Laden P. (1995). Evaluation of antinutrient properties of medicinal plants used in diet therapy during postpartum
healthcare in Nigeria. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4:128-132
 Parry L., Forbes G. and Specker B.L. (2001). Postpartum HEALTH AND CARE: Importance of postpartum care to mother and child. Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2:12-22
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Consumption of Iron-Rich Foods by Teenage Students In Owo, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Koleosho A.T., Akinrinmade R., *Uloko Mabel E., Ehinola O.M., and
Abstract :This study was carried out to find out the consumption of iron-rich foods by teenage students and to know their nutritional status. A total of 120 students were randomly selected from four secondary (2 private and 2 government) schools, i.e. 30 students from each school. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from the students. Anthropometric measurements of the students were taken using the standard techniques described by World Health Organization (20). Weights were recorded to the nearest 0.1kg using a standard bathroom scale; and their height were measured to the nearest 0.1cm with the use of a standard tape rule. The result revealed that 41.7% (50) of the respondents were males, 58.3% (70) were females. The result also showed that 94.2% of the respondents were in good health, 23.3% had some knowledge about anaemia; 5% had taken blood transfusion, 67.5% usually take iron supplements while 32.5% do not. The anthropometric parameter showed that 26.7% of the respondents were underweight, 65% had normal weight and 8.3% were overweight in private schools; while 53.3% were underweight, 41.7% had normal weight and 5% were overweight for the government schools. It was observed that many of the students (53.3%) from the government schools had lower BMI, compared to that of students (26.7%) from the private schools; which implies that the students from the private secondary schools are better nourished than those from the government schools. As regarding iron-rich foods, 31.7% of the respondents eat vegetables (3.8mg/100g) three times daily, 23.3% eat meat (3.1mg/100g) thrice daily, and 15.8% eat legumes (5.0mg/100g) thrice daily. Generally, we conclude that their diet is adequate in iron nutrient; being that they consume vegetables, fish, meat, cereals and legumes several times per day. We recommend that they take more meat, fish and poultry (chicken) because the body absorbs the most iron from these foods, and prevents the incidence of anaemia.
Key words: Iron, Anaemia, Teenage, Anthropometry, Nutritional Status
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