Volume-5 ~ Issue-6
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Abstract: Present paper deals with assessment of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) associated with different populations of Pandanus fascicularis found in coastal region of Konkan Maharashtra. All samples of P. fascicularis roots were colonized by AM fungi. The mean percentage of root length colonization ranged from 39% to 74%. Amongst the thirteen AM fungal morphospecies Kuklospora colombiana was the most widely distributed species. Species richness of AM fungi ranged from 3 to 6. Based on spore density and relative abundance, three species were dominant viz., Acaulospora bireticulata, A. scrobiculata, and K. colombiana. Details of AM fungal status in P. fascicularis are discussed in present paper.
Keywords - Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Pandanus fascicularis, Relative abundance, Species diversity, Spore density.
 C.J. Saldhana and D.H. Wicolson, Flora of Hassan district of Karnataka (Amerind Pub Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 1976).
 P.R. Rastogi, B.N. Mehrotra, S. Sinha, M. Srivastava and B. Bhushan, Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. 1st ed. (Lucknow; CSIR: Publications and Information Directorate, 1989) 4: 533-534.
 N.D. Prajapati, S.S. Purohit, A. Sharmak, and T. Kumar, A handbook of medicinal plants 1st ed. (Agrobios, Jodhpur; 2003).
 A.L. Udupa, N. Ojeh, S. Gupta, U.P. Ratnakar, Vijayalakshmi, R. Rajput, A. Rajput, HV Shubha, D. Benegal, A. Benegal, S. Rao and S. Nisarga. Analgesic Activity of Pandanus fascicularis Lam. Pharmacologyonline Newsletter 2: 2011, 837-840.
 Y.R. Rao Kewda (Pandanus fascicularis Lam), an economically important aromatic shrub in Ganjam district, Orissa, India, Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 22 (1B): 2000, 377-395.
 S.N. Yoganarasimhan, Medicinal plants of India Karnataka, Vol.1 (Interline Publishing Pvt Ltd, Bangalore 1996).
 P.C. Sharma, M.B. Yelne and T.J. Dennis Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, Vol. 3. (Dept. of ISM & H, Min. of Health & family Welfare, New Delhi 2001).
 V. Madhavan, J.C. Nagar, A. Murali, R. Mythreyi and S.N. Yoganarasimhan, Antihyperglycemic activity of alcohol and aqueous extracts of Pandanus fascicularis Lam. roots in Alloxan induced diabetic rats, Pharmacology online 3: 2008, 529-536.
 K.K. Panda, S. Mohapatra, L.N. Das, M.K. Mishra and B.B. Panda. Optimal utilization of Kewda Pandanus fascicularis to ameliorate economy and ecology of coastal India. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science, 22 (4a): 2000, 679-682.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Native AM fungal colonization in three Hibiscus species under NaCl induced Salinity|
|Authors||:||Babu A. Sonar, Vishal R. Kamble, Prakash D. Chavan|
Abstract: The pot experiments were conducted to study influence of sodium chloride salinity on Native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungal consortium (NAMC) with respect to three Hibiscus species viz., H. cannabinus, H. sabdariffa and H. tiliaceus (Fam. Malvaceae). All three plant species exhibited appreciable colonization and showed excellent salt tolerance potential at 300 mM NaCl treatment. Results obtained revealed that Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungal (AM) species spore recovery (SR) was in the range of 50-100% in treated plants. AM species studied in present paper were viz., Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Sclerocystis coremoides (H. cannabinus); Acaulospora myriocarpa, Acaulospora spp. (H. sabdariffa) and Acaulospora foveata, Acaulospora spp., C. etunicatum, Glomus botryoides, G. caledonicum & G. formosanum (H. tiliaceus).
Keywords - AM, Hibiscus, root colonization, NAMC, salinity.
 R. Nair and S.V. Chanda, Antibacterial Activities of Some Medicinal Plants of the Western Region of India, Turk J Biol 31, 2007, 231-236.
 M.M. Iwu, Handbook of African Medicinal Plants (CRC press INC., Florida, 1993).
 G.A. Agbor, J.E. Oben and J.Y. Ngogang, Haematinic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(8), 2005, 833-837.
 K. Abe, Y. Ozaki and K. Mizuta, Evaluation of useful plants for the treatment of polluted pond water with low nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, Soil Plant Nutr., 45(2), 1999, 409-417.
 D. Mohta, D.N. Roy and P. Whiting,. Refiner mechanical pulping of kenaf fibre: Such a process might reduce the demand for expensive softwood Kraft pulps. Pulp and Paper Can. 101(8), 2000, 27-31.
 Leung and S Foster, [Eds] Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996).
 R.R. Schippers, African Indigenous Vegetables. An overview of the Cultivated Species (Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK. 2000).
 H. Neuwinger, African Traditional Medicine. Stuttgart: Medpharm (Scientific Publication, 2000).
 J.B. Waalkes, Malesian Malvaceae revised. Blumea, 14, 1966, 1– 251.
 H. Nakanishi, Dispersal ecology of the maritime plants in the Ryukyku Islands, Japan. Ecological Research, 3, 1988, 163–173
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Histological effects of pre-exposure prophylactic consumption of sulfa drugs on Liver and Kidney of albino Wister rats (Rattus novergicus).|
Abstract: Health concerns over pre-exposure prophylactic abuse of drugs have been reported. However, histological perspectives are not very common. This work is designed to investigate the morphological alteration of visceral organs (kidney and liver) of albino Wister rats pre-exposed to prophylactic consumption of sulfonamide based drugs. 30 albino rats of both sexes, with average weight of 198.50g were randomly selected into 4 treatment cages (A, B, C & D) and a Control cage (E) making a total of 6 rats per cage. Graded dose of Laridox(sp) were orally administered to the rats. Cages A-D received 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 mg/kg body weight respectively. Cage E serves as the control group and received no drug treatment. Commercially purchased drinking water, standard top feed(R) was given ad libitum, for 21 days. The animals were weighed before and after commencement of drug administration. Dullness and restlessness were observed and was carefully noted on all treated animals, but were marked in high dose treated animals in (Cages C and D). On day 22, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation; gross examination was done and was quickly fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for routine histological study. Cut tissue at 3-5mm was processed according to paraffin embedding technique while section was cut at 3-5microns using haematoxylin and eosin method for light microscopy. Grossly, the organs of the high dose treatment animals in Cage C and D showed no apparent changes while histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treatment sections showed inflammatory cells, congested glomerulus, haematoma, thickening of the interstitial cells and vacuolation with congestive and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Decrease in body weights of the rats at the end of the study were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the treatment groups B, C and D. Hence, this study shows that pre-exposure prophylactic consumption of sulfonamide based drugs used at a higher doses may have such cellular defects /adverse effects on the visceral organs of human in a similar circumstances.
Keywords: Histological technique, Laridox(SP), Prophylaxis, Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine.
. World Health organization; World Malaria Report, http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241563697/en/index.html 2008.
. SOO Ajiboso, Influence of chloroquine and sulfadoxine on biochemical and hematological indices in albino rats, Indian Journal of Drugs and Diseases, 1(5) 2012, 117
. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria 2nd ed. 2010, 194. ISBN 978-92-4-154792-5
. J. Riviere, A.L. Craigmill, S.F. Sundlof, Handbook of comparative pharmacokinetics and residues of veterinary antimicrobials. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1991, 339-407.
. J.F. Prescott and J.D. Baggott, editors. Antimicrobial therapy in veterinary medicine, 2nd ed. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1993,119-26.
. H.M. McIntosh and B.M. Greenwood, Chloroquine or amodiaquine combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as a treatment for uncomplicated malaria—a systematic review. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 93, 1998, 265–270.
. K.P. Poonguzhali, C. Hariprasad, A.N. Chandrasekaran, C. Gowri and N. Ganesan, Effect of Cynodon dactylon and tenoxicam on the lysosomal enzyme activities in the cartilage tissue of osteoarthritic guinea pigs. Journal of Clinical Biochem Nutr 24(3), 1998, 141-146.
. S.E. Omaima, A. Samy, A. El-Azim, M.E. Kamal and M.B. Maged, Is Lysosomal Enzymes Changes Important In the Pathogenesis of Liver And Kidney Injury Induced By Short and Long Term Administration of Some NSAID' Drugs in Rats? Life Science Journal, 9(4), 2012
. J.D Bancroft and G. Marilyn, Theory and practice of histological techniques. 5th London Edinburgh New York Philadelphia St. Louis Sydney, Toronto, 2002
. MA Khandkar, D.V. Parmar, M. Das and S.S. Katyare, Is activation of lysosomal enzymes responsible for paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity? J. Pharm. Pharmacol 48, 1996, 437-440.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Accretion Profile of the Rosy Barb, Puntius Conchonius (Hamilton- Buchanan, 1822) From the Water Bodies of Nagaland, India|
|Authors||:||Amenla And S.C.Dey|
Abstract: Present study was made on 50 freshwater wild Puntius conchonius (Hamilton - Buchanan) of various sizes ranging from a total length of 5.2 cm to 7.6 cm and weighing 1.6 gm to 7.1 gm. They were sampled from different lentic and lotic water bodies of Nagaland, to investigate the weight-length relationship. Each fish was measured and weight was taken. Log transformed regressions were used to test the growth trend. It was observed that growth in weight is not proportional to the cube of its length. Coefficient of correlation values for both male and female as well as for mixed population were found to be highly significant.
Key Words : Puntius conchonius, weight-length relationship, predictive equations.
. Berverton, R. J. H. and Holt, S. J. (1957). On the dynamics of exploited fish population. Fish. Investigation, 2 : 533.
. Clark, F.N. (1928). The length-weight relationship of the California sardine, Sardina Caerulea at San Pedro Calif. Fish game, Bull. 12.
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Abstract: The study involved 400 subjects, 200 each of the two ethnic groups(100 males and 100 females). The age range was 18-35years. Subjects with facial deformities or surgeries that involved the nasal region were excluded from the study. Subjects that have both parents and grandparents of each ethnic group and who have lived in that environment for at least the first 18years of their lifetime were selected for the study. The nasal length and width were measured using spreading calipers and nasal indices deducted from these measurements. Test for significance was done using the students' t-test. Results showed the nasal indices of the Ibibio males and females to be 86.58±1.20 and 81.75±1.14 respectively and for the Yakurr males and females, it was 77.76±0.82 and 102.27±1.13 respectively. There was significant ethnic and gender differences in all the nasal parameters (nasal length, nasal width and nasal indices) at p<0.05. From the nasal indices the nose type of the Ibibio males is platyrrhine while that of the Ibibio females is mesorrhine, the Yakurr males also have mesorrhine nose type while the Yakurr females have platyrrhine nose type. With this result, nasal parameters could be a useful tool in gender and ethnic differentiation between the Ibibio and Yakurr ethnic groups.
Keywords: Mesorrhine, platyrrhine, nasal index, gender, ethnic group.
 N. Powell and B. Homphresy. Proportion of aesthetic face. Theme–Stratton, New York, 1984.
 Z. Heidari, H. Mahmoudzadeh-Saghed, T. Khammar and M. Khammar. Anthropometric measurement of the external nose in 25-year old Sistani and Baluch aborigine women in the South-West Iran. Folio morphology, 68 (2), 2009, 88-92.
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 B. Daniel. Racial anthropology and genetics of the Lebanese. Available in www.nasalindexoflebanese.com.2002,1-2.
 L. Kashmira. Different types of Noses, 2011. Available in: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/diferent-types-of-noses.html.
 G. Staka, F. Dragidella and M. Disha. Anthropometric studies of nasal index of the Kosovo Albanian population. Antrocom Online Journal of Anthropology, 8(2), 2012, 457-462.
 B. Xu, Y Wang, J. Ma, M. Li, and L. Xu A computer-aid study on the craniofacial features of Archang race in Yunnan Province of China. Hua Xi Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, 19 (6), 2011, 394-396.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effects of Fenitrothion on some histo-architecture of freshwater fish Channa punctatus|
|Authors||:||M.A. Akhter, A.K. Saha|
Abstract: The presence of insecticide in the environment, due to extensive use in agriculture is of potential toxicological concern for fish. Histotoxicological studies have been widely used as biomarkes in the evaluation of the health of fish exposed to the pesticides studies. In the present study the hazardous effect of the organophosphate insecticide, Fenitrothion on the histology of the fresh water fish (Channa punctatus) after exposure for 21 days was investigated. Fish used in the experiment was nearly similar weight and length. The treated groups were compared with the control group for the histological changes in the selected tissue (kidney, liver and heart) and marked changes were observed.
Keywords - Fenitrothion, Histology, Liver, Kidney, Heart
 L. Maltby, and C. Naylor, Preliminary observations on the ecological relevance of the Gammarus 'Scope for Growth' Assay: Effect of Zinc on Reproduction - Functional Ecology. New Horizons in Ecotoxicol, 4(3), 1990, 393-397.
 A.S. Prakasam, S. Ethupathy, and S. Lalitha, Plasma and RBCs antioxidant status in occupational male pesticide sprayers. Clin. Chim. Acta, 310, 2001, 107-112.
 P.J. John, Alteration of certain blood parameters of freshwater teleost Mystus vittatus after chronic exposure to Metasystox and Sevin. Fish Physiol and Biochem, 33, 2007, 15–20.
 D.S. Rathod, M.V. Lokhande, and V.S. Shembeka, Toxic impact of dimethoate on the biochemical composition of vital tissues of fish arias dussumieri . Shodh, Samiksha aur Mulyankan, 2(7), 2009.
 P.K. Sibley, and N.K. Kaushik, Toxicity of microencapsulated permethrin to selected nontarget aquatic invertebrates. Archives of Environ. Contamination and Toxicology, 20, 1991, 168–176.
 O. Mohmed, Al-Jahdali, S. Ameen, Bin Bisher, and M. Islam Abu Zeid, Physiological and histological alterationas in rats liver induced by Sumithion®NP25/2.5EC, an insecticide used in dengue fever vector control in jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 14(1), 2007, 43-51.
 V.S. Leblond, and A. Hontela, Effects of in vitro exposures to cadmium, mercury, zinc, and 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4- chlorophenyl)- 2, 2-dichloroethane on steroidogenesis by dispersed interrenal cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Toxicol Applied Pharmacol, 157, 1999, 16-2.
 M. Lacroix, and A. Hontela, Regulation of acute cortisol synthesis by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C in a teleost species, the rainbow trout (Onychorhynchus mykiss). J. Endocrinology, 169, 2001, 71-78.
 J.M. Law, Issues Related to the Use of Fish Models in Toxicologic Pathology: Session Introduction. Toxicol Pathol, 31, 2003, 49-52.
 R. Shiekh, and J.S. Lee, Fish models in Impact assessment of carcinogenic potential of environmental chemical pollutants: an appraisal of Hermaphroditic Mangrove Killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. Interdisciplinary studies on Environmental chemistry- biological responses to chemical pollutants. (Eds.) Y.Murakami, K., Nakayama, S., Kitamura, H., Iwata and S. tanabe, S. terrapub. 2008, 7-15.
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Abstract: The relationship between soil-transmitted helminth infections and the knowledge and practice of preventive measures among school children in rural communities in Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area of Enugu State, South-Eastern Nigeria, was investigated. Stool samples were obtained from 1,296 school children (ages 4 – 15 years) from six schools randomly selected from the study area. Structured epidemiological questionnaires were administered to the children. Out of 1,296 school children examined, 106 (8.1 %) of the children were infected by soil-transmitted infections thus: 64 (4.9 %) with Ascarislumbricoides, 33 (2.5 %) with hookworm, and 9 (0.7 %) with Trichuristrichiura. There were significant differences in the prevalence of these infections (P < 0.05). Soil-transmitted helminth infections showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) relationships with knowledge and practice of preventive measures among school children in the study area. The study revealed that soil-transmitted helminth infections were abundant among school children of the study area, indicating the necessity of implementing control measures such as chemotherapy, provision of adequate sanitary facilities and safe drinking water.
Keywords -Preventive measures, rural communities, school children, soil-transmitted helminths
. WHO, It's a wormy world. World Health Organization (Document WHO/CTD/SIP/98.4), Geneva, 1998.
. N. R. De Silva, H. L. Guyatt and D. A. Bundy, Morbidity and mortality due to Ascaris-induced intestinal obstruction, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 91, 1997, 31 – 36.
. L. S. Stephenson, M. C. Latham, S. N. Kinoti, K. M. Kurz and H. Brigham, Improvement in physical fitness of Kenya schoolboys infected with hookworm, Trichuristrichiuraand Ascarislumbricoides following a single dose of Albendezole,Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 84, 1998, 277 – 282.
. WHO, Deworming for health and development. Report of the third global meeting of the partners for parasitic control. Geneva, 2005.
. J. Bethony, S. Brooker, M. Albonico, S. M. Geiger, A. Loukas, D. Diemert and P. J. Hotez, Soil- transmited helminth infections: Ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet, 367, 2006, 1521 – 1532.
. D. W. T. Crompton, How much human helminthiasis is there in the world? Journal of Parasitology, 85, 1999, 397 - 403.
. World Bank, School deworming at a glance.Public health at a glance series (http://www.worldbank.org/hnp), 2003.
. M. Albonico,A. Montresor,D. W. T. Crompton and L. Savioli, Intervention for the control of soil- transmitted helminthiasis in the community. Advances in Parasitology, 61, 2006, 311 – 348.
. A. Montresor,D. W. T. Crompton, A. Hall,D. A. P. Bundy and L. Savioli,Guidelines for the evaluation of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis at community level: A guide for managers of control programmes (Geneva: WHO, 1998).
. C. Andrade,T. D. E. Alava, I. A. Palacio,P. Del Poggio,C. Jamoletti, M. Gulletta and A. Montresor, Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the city of Portoviejo (Ecuador). Memorias do InstitutoOswaldo Cruz, 96 (8), 2001, 1075 – 1079.
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Abstract: The protein sequence of insulin of zebra fish is obtained from UniProt. Due to lack of their structure, structure prediction is necessary, because the structure of protein plays an important role in their function. Our work is based on the production of two protein structure, from the same sequence, by computational approach and finally validates these generated structures. In this work two different widely acceptable online web tool are used for generating structure from the protein sequences of insulin of zebra fish. These are Swiss Model web server and ESyPred3D web server. After getting structure from this two web tool, the structures are passed by a series of quality tests. ProQ web software is used for checking quality of these generated structures. 3d-ss web tool is used for superimposition between two generated structures. It can compare between two structures. The Ramachandran plot is calculated by using VegaZZ software. CASTp (Computer Atlas of Surface Topology of protein) is a web tool, used to predict active sides with their respective volume and area. Finally ProFunc tool is used for analysis of two structures.
Key-Words: CASTp, Homology Modeling, ProQ, VegaZZ, Zebra fish insulin
 C Lambert, N Leonard, X De Bolle, E Depiereux, ESyPred3D: Prediction of proteins 3D structures, Bioinformatics, 18(9), 2002, 1250-1256
 R A Laskowski, J D Watson, J M Thornton, ProFunc: a server for predicting protein function from 3D structure, Nucleic Acids Res., 33, 2005, W89-W93.
[3 ] R A Laskowski, J D Watson, J M Thornton, Protein function prediction using local 3D templates. J. Mol. Biol., 351, 2005, 614-626.
 Björn Wallner and Arne Elofsson, Protein Sci., 15(4), 2005, 900-913
 K. Arnold, L. Bordoli, J. Kopp, and T. Schwede , A web-based environment for protein structure homology modeling, Bioinformatics, 22, 2006, 195-201.
 Joe Dundas, Zheng Ouyang, Jeffery Tseng, Andrew Binkowski, Yaron Turpaz, and Jie Liang, CASTp: computed atlas of surface topography of proteins with structural and topographical mapping of functionally annotated resiudes, Nucleic Acid Research, 34, 2006 W116-W118.
 F Kiefer, K Arnold, M Künzli, L Bordoli, T Schwede, The SWISS-MODEL Repository and associated resources, Nucleic Acids Research. 37, 2009, D387-D392.
 S. Brindha, Sangzuala Sailo, Liansangmawii Chhakchhuak, Pranjal Kalita, G. Gurusubramanian and N.Senthil Kumar, Science Vision,11(3), 2011,125-133
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Extract of Ailanthus Excelsa on Red Cotton Bug (Dysdercus Cingulatus)|
|Authors||:||Harshalata Sontakke, Irshad Baba, S.M. Jain, R.C. Saxena and Mahesh Ningwal|
Abstract: Botanical pesticides have pesticidal or ovicidal or repellent activities. The development of resistance to existing conventional synthetic pesticides and the increasing public concern over environmental pollution and health hazards created by synthetic pesticides, generate a great need for new types of pest management agent's advantage with higher activity against the target pests, and lower impact on humans and environmental quality. Repellents are the chemicals which cause an insect to make an oriented movement away from its source. Due to their odoriferous nature, oils of plants have been used for this purpose. Repellency in the present study has been noted visually in the treated insects and the observations recorded have been depicted. The results showed 95% repellency in the treated arms of petridish in fraction of Ailanthus ecxcelsa.
Key Words: Pesticides, repellent, odoriferous and Ailanthus ecxcelsa.
. Cotcorp. (2010). The Cotton Corporation of India Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India. Available at http://cotcorp.gov.in (accessed March 2011).
. Cox, M. L. (1993). Red palm weevil, Rhyncvhophorus ferrugineus in Egypt. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 41(1): 30-31.
. Dave Kain. (2000). Update on Pest Management and Crop Development. Scaffolds fruit Journal, V. 9, No. 20.
. Don Pedro, K.N. (1985). Toxicity of some pests to Dermestes maculates Sig. and Callosobruchus maculates Fabr. J. Stored Prod. Res. 21(1):31-34.
. Jaiswal, A.K. and Srivastava, U.S. (1992). Mating disruption in Dysdercus cingulatus caused by Blumea laciniata extracts. J. Appl. Zool. Res., 3: 151-153.
. Prabhu, V.K.K., John, M. and Ambika, B. (1973). Juvenile hormone activity in some South Indian plants. Curr. Sci., 42: 725-726
. Saradamma, K. (1989). Biological activity of different plant extracts with particular reference to their insecticidal, hormonal and antifeeding actions. PhD Thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 252p.
. Schmutterer. H. and Singh. R. P.(1995). List of insect pests susceptible to neem products. In The Neem Tree Source of Unique Natural Products for Integrated
. Schoonhoven, L. M. (1981). Chemical mediators between plants and phytopagous insects. In, Semiochemicals, Their Role in Pest Control, ed. by D. A. Nordlund, K. L. Jones, and W. J. Lewis, pp. 31±50, Wiley, New York.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Curative Effect of Parinari curatellifolia Leaf Extract on Epiglottitis|
|Authors||:||Eze, Henry Tochukwu, Wurochekke, Abdullahi Usman|
Abstract: The curative effect of Paarinari curatellifolia leaf extract on epiglottitis was investigated. The air dried lef of Parinari curatellifolia was extracted using the soxhlet extractor. Crude extract of the plant was found to be rich in phytochemicals of medicinal importance such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides. Acetic acid extract had the highest antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 20.0 ± 0.6 to 28.3 ± 0.3 against the test organisms. This activity was not significantly (P<0.05) different from leofloxacin with zones of inhibition ranging from 25.0 ± 0.6 to 29.3 ± 0.3 which was the highest activity among the standard drugs used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was found to be 5mg/ml against Pseudomonas sp and Staphylococcus aureus, indicating broad spectrum activity. Results were discussed in respect to traditional treatment of epiglottitis.
Key words: Antimicrobial, medicinal plant, leofloxacin, crude leaf extract, epiglottits
. J.S. Keyser, C.S Derkay. Haemophilus influenza type b epiglottitis after Immunization with HaOC conjugates vaccine. Am J Otolaryngol 15(6), 1994, 436-43
. J. McEwan, W. Giridharan, R.W. Clarke, P. Shears, Pediatric acute epiglottitis: not a disappearing entity. Int. J Pediatric.Otolaryngol. 67(4), 2003, 317-21.
. H. Faden, The dramatic change in the epidemiology of pediatric epiglottitis. Pediatr. Emerg Care. 2006 22(6):443-4.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Hepatoprotective Activity of Chara Parpam in Ccl4 Induced Rats|
|Authors||:||Arunmozhi P*, Pitchiahkumar M, Kumar A, Gnanavel IS, Velpandian V|
Abstract: Siddha system of medicine provides most frequently and to the extent possible and promising therapy for the relief of signs and symptoms of liver disorder over the generations. Their high therapeutic quality and lack of toxicity are exceptional. The present experimental work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of Siddha herbo-mineral formulation Chara Parpam by CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Two doses of Chara Parpam (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) were administered to rats. Protection of hepatocytes was evaluated by estimate the level of ALT, AST, ALP, serum bilirubin, total protein, serum albumin, sodium and potassium during the exposure of CCL4 on wistar albino rats and to evaluate the effect of different doses of Chara Parpam against hepatotoxicity induced by CCL4. Liver histology was performed 24 hours after the administration of trial drug Chara Parpam. The result indicated that the concentration of ALT, AST, and ALP, released by hepatocytes were significantly reduced in the presence of Chara Parpam. The cytoprotective effects of the Chara Parpam are dose-dependent. Through this work, we demonstrate for the first time the direct protection of liver cells by administration of Chara Parpam confirming its hepatoprotective properties.
Key words: CCl4, Chara Parpam, hepatoprotective activity, histopathology, Serum transaminase, Siddha Medicine
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Abstract: This study compares the level of Nitrite in urine, protein concentration and nitrite concentration in post mitochondrial fraction of rats fed different levels of dietary protein with concurrent administration of precursors of N-nitrosamine; dimethylamine hydrochloride (DMA-HCl) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Thirty Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and were kept for four weeks. Group one was given high protein diet (64%), group two was given a normal protein diet (27%) and group three was given low protein diet (3.5%). All the groups were administered with 3mg NaNO2 and 20mg DMA-HCL/kg, using the application of spectrophotometric analysis, centrifugation, as well as colorimetric methods. Following administrations of the chemicals to the test animal groups, the concentration of 24 hours urinary excretion of nitrite was 7.417μg/ml in high protein fed rats, 2.063μg/ml in normal protein fed rats and 0.569 μg/ml in low protein fed rats. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the nitrite concentration in the group fed high protein diet with concurrent administration of NaNO2 and DMA-HCl. The wistar rats fed with high protein diet, excreted 5.8 to 7 times more nitrite in urine than the severely protein deprived animals. The protein and nitrite concentration of the post mitochondrial fraction of liver was highest in rats that were fed high protein diet. This study has revealed that nutrition status affects metabolism of foreign compounds including nitrites and dimethylamine hydrochloride. .
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Abstract:Primates have proportionately three times larger brain as compared to that of other mammals of comparable size and humans, in turn, have three times larger brain as compared to that of all other primates of similar size. So we need to meet higher energy demands because brain is energetically expensive. This has a significant impact on our dietary patterns in addition to shaping of our body composition. Here we propose that our dietary patterns to meet our higher energy demands have been ultimately set by the instinct of higher energy intake and our larger brains have a stress effect on our metabolic organs (organs involved in energy metabolism like gut, liver, pancreas etc.). We discuss these two points from evolutionary (Evolutionary instinct) and physiological (Metabolic stress) point of view and argue that these two points explain the manifestation of diabetes primarily as a human disease and enhance our understanding of its mechanism.
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Abstract: In this study, a new amylase producer strain was isolated from sweet potato tuber. This strain was able to grow at 37 °C and produce α-amylase in high quantity compared to other standard strain cultures. In the first part, cultivation in shake flask in standard medium was carried out to give complete information about the growth and production kinetics of this strain. The results clearly demonstrate that the isolated strain is able to production α-amylase in submerged culture with concentration up to 2050 kat/L after 20 h cultivation. Furthermore, medium optimization was carried out by changing the starch concentration and cell cultivation in medium of mixed carbon source (composed of starch and glucose of ratio 15:5 g/g) to enhance the production process and to increase the growth rate. The volumetric and specific α-amylase production in this optimized medium were 4550 kat/L and 1060 kat/g, respectively. Further improvement in enzyme production process was achieved by scaling up the process from shake flask to 3-L stirred tank bioreactor under non-oxygen limiting condition. The maximal volumetric and specific α-amylase productions in bioreactor batch culture were 5210 kat/L and 1095kat/g, respectively, after only 14 h cultivation.
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Abstract: The search for new antibiotics continues in a rather overlooked hunting ground. In the course of screening for new antibiotic-producing microorganisms, isolates showing antimicrobial activity were isolated from waste soil samples from various habitats in the Industrial Areas in Dheradun, Uttarakhand, India. Existing methods of screening for antibiotic producers together with some novel procedures were reviewed. Both modified agar-streak and agar-plug methods were used in the primary screens. The use of selective isolation media, with or without antibiotic incorporation and/or heat pretreatment, enhanced the development of certain actinomycete colonies on the isolation plates. Antibiotics have long been considered the "magic bullet" that would end infectious disease. Although they have improved the health of countless numbers of humans and animals, many antibiotics have also been losing their effectiveness since the beginning of the antibiotic era. Bacteria have adapted defenses against these antibiotics and continue to develop new resistances, even as we develop new antibiotics
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