Volume-6 ~ Issue-3
- Full PDF
Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence of anemia and socio-demographic factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal hospital. Material and methods: Total 100 pregnant women were selected for the study and the study was carried out from Sep 2011 to Jan 2012. Pretested and prestructured questionnaire was used to collect general information. Blood samples were collected by qualified technician for hemoglobin estimation. Socio-economic classification by B.G. Prasad was adopted. Classification of anemia by WHO was used. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall prevalence of anemia among the pregnant women was found to be 63%. Factors such as level of education and socio-economic status were found to be significantly associated with prevalence of anemia. Conclusion: There is a need for realization that health system should focus on various factors that contribute to the occurrence of anemia and include them as important mediators in the National Health Policy.
Key words: - Anemia, Socio-economic classification, Hemoglobin.
. World Health Organization, Technical Report series; 1968.
. Dr. Madhu Ahuja, Senior Consultant; Max Health Care, Caring for you for life; A max Indian Institution , 2002 , Anemia in pregnancy.
. Tinker A. Women's health : The unfinished agenda. Int J. Gynecology obstet 2000 ; 70 : 14 9 - 158 .
. US Department of Health and Human services women and smoking : a report of surgeon general. Rochville, MD : US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 2001.
. Tolentino K, Friedman JF. An Update on Anaemia in less developed countries. Am J Trop Med Hygiene & 2007; 77(1) : 44-51.
. Toteja GS, Singh P., Dhillon BS et al. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 distrcts of India. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2006; 27(4) : 311-315.
. Prema Rama Chandran Nutrition in Pregnancy. Women and Nutrition in India, Nutrition Foundation of India (1989) 153-193.
. Saleem S, McClure EM. Pregnancy behaviour of Pakistani Women over their Reproductive life span. Al Ameen J Med Sci 2010; 3 : 228-236.
. Shen and Wei. Adverse Maternal Outcomes for Women with Different Health Insurance Status in Nevada. J Nevada Public Health Assoc 2008; 5.
. AK Agarwal. Social Classification : The need to update in the present scenario. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. Vol. 33, No. 1, January 2008.
- Full PDF
Abstract: Malaria infections in a stable endemic malaria community of Abagana, a rainforest community in southeastern Nigeria was studied between April and August 2012. Advocacy visits to the traditional ruler and opinion leaders of the community and proper explanations of the project were used to obtain permission to carry out the study. The community was mobilized through public announcements in the churches, schools, markets and group meetings. Thick and thin blood films were used to concentrate, and identify malaria parasites using oil immersion lense of bright field light microscope. Estimates of parasite intensity per person was made on each positive slide by parasite count in the microscope fields. Participants were grouped into sexes, age, education and occupation. A total of 141 participants made up of 59(41.84%) males and 82(58.16%) females were involved in the study. Of the 141 participants, 76(53.90%) were positive with malaria parasites, among whom 32(42.11%) were males and 44(57.89%) were females. Of the positive malaria cases, malaria intensity among the participants were light 32(42.11%), moderate 35(46.05%) and heavy 9(11.84%) and was spread across all the groups and villages. These results revealed holoendemicity of malaria in the community. Intervention efforts including massive educational campaigns were suggested.
 D. Warrell, Pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria in man. Symposia of the British Society of Parasitology, Parasitology. 24(94),1987, S53-S76.
 J. Sahr, Malaria and its effect on vertebrate host. J. Clin. Med., (21), 2000, 97-202.
 A.V. Kondrachine, and P.T.Trigg , The current global malaria situation 11-12 in Sherman ed. Malaria parasite biology, pathogenesis and protection. ASM press. (Washington DC, 1997) 123-126.
 WHO, Making every mother and child count. World Health Organization, Geneva. The World Health Report., 2005a.
 I. Sherman, A brief history of malaria and discovery of the parasite lifecycle. In malaria parasite biology, pathogenesis and protection. Sherman I.W.ed. (ASM press, Washington DC. 1998) 347-353.
 Roll Back Malaria, Facts about malaria in Nigeria,Abuja.Publication on the Roll Back Malaria, 2005, 1-2.
 Federal Ministry of health, National Treatment Guidelines Federal Ministry of Health. Publication of the FMH, Nigeria, 2005a, 44.  F. Ukoli, The Biology and natural history of malaria. Proceedings of the annual convention and scientific assembly. Archives of Ibadan medicine 1(2), 2003, 35-36.
[9.] K. Abdullahi., U. Abubakar., and T. Adamu, Malaria in Sokoto,North western Nigeria., African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(24), 2009, 7101-7105.
 B. Uzochukwu, and O. Onwujekwe, Socio-economic differences and health seeking behaviour for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the Bamako initiative programme in south- east Nigeria., International Journal for Equity in Health, 2001.
- Full PDF
Abstract: Photochemical crosslinking is a best alternative method when compared to conventional crosslinking methods such as chemical and physical methods, by using vitamins like riboflavin and ascorbic acid as photochemical initiators to enhance the physicochemical properties of collagen poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) blend without any toxic by products. Collagen and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) blends were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Swelling studies, Tensile testing and the surface properties were studied by Contact angle measurements and Microscopy. Collagen and PVP blended samples were irradiated with the UV light wavelength λ=300nm for 30 minutes by using 0.03% riboflavin and ascorbic acid as photosensitizers and the samples were air dried at room temperature. Collagen- PVP blended hydrogels showed good swelling properties and the lower contact angles indicate their hydrophilic nature. The photochemical crosslinking also improved the thermal stability of the hydrogels which can be confirmed by broad endothermic peak between 80-1800C in the thermoscan. The FTIR spectral changes clearly exhibited that these two polymers were strongly crosslinked and miscible.
Keywords - Collagen, Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), Photochemical crosslinking, Vitamins, Hydrogel, Drug delivery
1]. K.T. Nguyen, J.L. West, Photopolymerizable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications, Journal of Biomaterials.2002;23:4307–4314.
. W.E. Hennink, C.F. van Nostrum, Novel cross linking methods to design hydrogels, Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 54, 2002, 13–36.
. M. Ahearne, Y. Yang, K. Y. Then and K. K Liu, Non-destructive mechanical characterisation of UVA/riboflavin crosslinked collagen hydrogels, Journal of Ophthalmology,.92, 2002, 268-271.
. K. Fujioka, M. Maeda, T. Hojo, A. Sano, Protein release from collagen matrices. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 31, 1998, 247-266.
. N. Nishad Fathima, M. Chandra Bose, J. Raghava Rao , U.N. Balachandran , Stabilization of type I collagen against collagenases (type I) and thermal degradation using iron complex. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 100, 2006, 1774–1780.
. A. Sionkowska, J. Kozlowska, A. Planecka, J. Skopinska-Wisniewska, Photochemical stability of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) in the presence of collagen Polymer Degradation and Stability, 93 , 2008, 2127–2132.
. S. Benamer, M. Mahlous, A. Boukrif, B. Mansouri, S. Larbi Youcef, Synthesis and characterisation of hydrogels based on poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). Nuclear Instruments and. Methods in Physics Research B 248, 2006, 284–290.
. H. Kaplan , A. Guner, Characterization and determination of swelling and diffusion characteristics of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels in water, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 78, 2000, 994-999.
. K.P. Rao, K.T. Joseph, CRC Press, Collagen graft copolymers and their biomedical applications, in: M.E. Niimi (Ed.), Collagen Volume III Biotechnology, Boca Raton, FL. 1988; 63–86.
. A. Sionkowska, Interaction of collagen and poly vinyl pyrrolidone in blends, European polymer Journal, 39, 2003,2135-2140.
- Full PDF
Abstract: The current orthodox treatment modalities for diabetic mellitus have many setbacks including undesirable side effects and the high cost of long term treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-diabetic effectsand compare some biochemical parameters of four plants; Ocimumgratissimum (OG),Aloe vera (AV), Brassica oleracea(BO) and Ipomoea batatas(IB) on alloxan induced diabetic rats. The preliminary phytochemical screening reveals the presence ofalkaloid, tannin, cardiac glycoside, resin and steroids in all four plants. Diabetic was induced by interperitonial injection of alloxan monohydrate while treatment was done for 21 days. Diabetic rats had significant increased (P˂0.05)cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and artherogenic index (AI). Treatment of experimental rats with 150 mg/kg bw. of aqueous extractsof plants significantly decrease (P˂0.05) the levels of cholesterol and LDL in OG and BO treated groups when compare with the control. Computed artherogenic index was significantly reduced (P˂0.05) in AV treated group when compared to the control. Aqueous extracts also significantly (P˂0.05) alter serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a similar manner with metformin treated group. Result showed that decrease in plasma glucose was in the order IB˃OG˃BO˃AV. All plant extracts possess antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic effects and were able to ameliorate the weight loss observed in diabetic rats. Keywords: Aloe vera,Brassicaoleracea,Comparativestudies,Diabetics,Ipomoeabatatas,Ocimumgratissimum
 J. Owolabi,E.K.I. Omogbai,andO. Obasuyi, Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Kigeliaafricana (Bignoniaceae) stem bark, Afr. J. Biotechnol,6 (14), 2007, 882-85.
 P. E. Albert and V. Francis,African Natural Plant Products; New Discoveries and Challenges in Chemistry and Quality, 7, 2009, 135-147.
 G.B. Kavishankar, V. Lakshmidevi, M.N. Mahadeva,H.S.Prakash,S.R. Niranjana,Diabetes and medicinal plants-A review, Int J Pharm Biomed ScI,2(3), 2011, 65-80.
 K.D. Effraim, T.W. Jacks., O.A. Sodipo,Histopathological studies on the toxicity of Ocimumgratissimumleave extract on some organs of rabbit,Afr J Biomed Res, 6, 2003, 21-5.
 K.S. Prabhu, R. Lobo, A.A. Shirwaikar, and A.Shirwaikar, Ocimumgratissimum: A Review of its Chemical, Pharmacological and EthnomedicinalProperties,The Open Complementary Medicine Journal,1, 2009,1-15.
 A. Mohammed, Y. Tanko, M. A. Okasha,R.A.Magaji, and A.H. Yaro,Effects of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimumgratissimumon blood glucose levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic wistarrats,Afr J Biotechnol, 6, 2007, 2087-90.
 A.A. Oryan, A.T. Naeini, B. Nikahval, and E. Gorjian, Effect of aquoues extract of Aloe vera on experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats, Vet. Arhiv,80, 2010, 509 – 522.
 A. Noor, S. Gunasekaran, A. Manickam, and M. Vijayalakshmi.Antidiabetic activity of Aloe veraand histology of organs in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats,Curr. Sci., 94, 2008, 1070-1076.
 M.F. Ahmed, A. Srinivasa,S.R.Ahemad, and M. Ibrahim,Protective Effect of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitataagainst Simvastatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats,Int. Res. J. of Pharmaceuticals, 02(04), 2012, 91-97.
 F. Hayase, and H. Kato,Antioxidative components of sweet potatoes, J. Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 30, 1984, 37-46.
- Full PDF
Abstract: The rural and marginal people of Bangladesh are deprived of modern treatment facilities and hence greatly depend on medicinal plants. Besides, the higher cost and toxicity of synthetic drugs drives scientists towards search for natural source of medication for a number of diseases. Cost-effectiveness, easy availability and fewer side effects are making the herbal medicine more popular both among rural and city people. Plants with Cytotoxic and clot lysis potential are good candidate as source of novel anti-tumor agents and thrombolytic drugs. This study aimed at screening out of phytochemical constituents and evaluation of cytotoxicity and thrombolytic potential of an important medicinal plant Achyranthes aspera methanolic leaf extract. In vitro phytochemical screening of A. aspera leaf extract carried out by qualitative tests revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids and saponins while phlobatannins were absent. Cytotoxicity test of A. aspera leaf extract carried out by Brine shrimp Lethality (BSL) Bioassay showed the highest percentage of mortality (90%) in 1250 μg/ml and LC50 value was 50.12 μg/ml. Thrombolytic test showed 32.87 ± 9.42% clot lytic activity for A. aspera while positive control (streptokinase) and negative control (water) showed 81.19 ± 3.78% and 6.67 ± 2.58% clot lysis, respectively. Synergistic effect of streptokinase and A. aspera extract also produced better result (56.30 ± 6.95%) than A. aspera alone.
Keywords: Achyranthes aspera, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, phytochemical screening, LC50
. Cos, P.; Vlietinck, A. J.; Vanden, B. D. and Maes, L.; Anti-infective potential of natural products: How to develop a stronger in vitro "proof-of concept‟. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106, 2006, 290-302.
. Emori, C.T. and Gaynes, R. Clinical Microbial Review, 6, 1993, 428-442.
. Srivastava, J., Lambert, J. and Vietmeyer, N. J. W.k Technical Paper.No. 1996, 320.
. Uniyal, K.S., Singh, N.K., Jamwal, P. and Lal, B. 2006. J. Ethnobiol., 2, 1-14.
. de Lange, P.J., Scofield, R.P., Greene, T. Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae), a new indigenous addition to the flora of the Kermadec Islands group. New Zealand J. Bot., 42, 2004, 167-173.
. Akter, A. and Zuberi, M.I. Invasive alien species in Northern Bangladesh: Identification, inventory and impacts, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 1(5), 2009, 129-134.
. Khan, M.S., Neela, F.A., Aktar, A., Rahman, M.M. and Alam, M.F. Antibacterial activity of Achyranthes aspera L.: An In- vitro study, J. Environ. Sci. Nat. Resour., 2, 2009, 45-48.
. Saravanan, P., Ramasamy, V. and Shivakumar, T. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn., Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(1), 2008, 823-825.
. Chakraborty, A., Brantner, A., Mukuinaka, T., Nobukuni, Y., Kuchido, M. and Konoshima, T. Cancer chemo preventive activity of Achyranthes aspera leaves on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters, 177(1), 2002, 1–5.
. Bafna, R.A. and Mishra, H.S. Ars Pharmaceutica, 45(4), 2004, 343-351.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Survey of Fungal Diseases of Some Vegetables and Fruits in Aswan, EGYPT|
|Authors||:||Mohamed S Massoud|
Abstract: Fifteen species belonging to 9 terrestrial fungal genera were isolated from diseased fruits and vegetables on PDA media during this investigation. Aspergillus came in high incidence genera and represented by three species namely; A. flavus var colamnaris, A. niger and A. ochraceus. Another four fungal genera were came in the second position after Aspergillus and represented by two identified species these were; Acremonium, Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium. The remaining four fungal genera which isolated were representative by only one species were; Botryotrichum sp., Gilmaniela humicola, Mucor hiemalis and Torula sp. Solanum lycopersicum was yielded the highest number of genera and species (7 and 11, respectively). Psidium guava was yield the lowest number of fungal genera and species (1 and 1). All fungal which isolated in this investigation were screened for their ability to cellulose production on CMC agar plates within 3 days, among all tested isolates Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium proliferatum were the highest fungal isolates produced clear zone (3.65 mm) and (3.15 mm) respectively.
Key Words: Aspergillus, Fruit, Psidium guava, Solanum lycopersicum, Vegetables
 Droby S., Improving quality and safety of fresh fruits andvegetables after harvest by the use of biocontrol agents and natural materials. Acta Horticul. 709, 2006, 45–51.
 Zhu SJ., Non-chemical approaches to decay control in postharvest fruit. In: Noureddine, B., Norio, S. (Eds.), Advances in Postharvest Technologies for Horticultural Crops. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India, 2006, pp. 297–313.
 Singh D, Sharma RR., Postharvest diseases of fruit and vegetables and their management. In: Prasad, D. (Ed.), Sustainable Pest Management. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 2007.
 M. Jayant, J. Rashmi, M. Shailendra and Y. Deepesh, Production of cellulase by different co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum from waste paper, cotton waste and baggase. Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research Vol. 2(2), 2011, pp. 24-27.  Yulia, E. and Shipton, W. A., Fungal leaf mycoflora of selected aromatic plants in north Queensland. Australasian mycologist, 27 (1), 2008, 7 – 12.
 Rolf, I. P., Roar, M., Hans, R. G., Growth of pot Roses and post-harvest rate of water loss as affected by air humidity and temperature variations during growth under continuous light. Scientia Horticulturae 114, 2007, 207-213
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Qualitative Analysis of Legume Pericarp (Pod Wall) and Seeds of Acacia Farnesiana L.|
|Authors||:||Sanjay Biradar, Bhagyashri Rachetti|
Abstract:Present study deals with the qualitative analysis of ethanolic extract of Legume pericarp (pod wall) and seeds of Acacia farnesiana (L). In which we analyze 22 Phytochemical, which are use full for controlling the diseases in Human beings. In India, Acacia farnesiana L. is known as Mulla tumma, Kampu tumma in local area and it is commonly known as Aroma and sweet acacia also. The aim of the present study is to investigate the presence or absence of phytochemicals such as Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Steroids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Tannin, Amides, Terpenoides, Amines, Phenol, Test for Unsaturation, Carboxylic acid, Test for NH2, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Halogen, Starch, Saponin, Ascorbic acid, Glycosides, Reducing Sugar and Triterpenoids contents of the selected medicinal plants. The ethanolic extract of legume pericarp indicates the presence of major bioactive compound compare to seeds.
Keywords: Acacia fernesiana L., qualitative analysis, bioactive compound.
. Duke, J.A. 1981a. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press. New York.
. R. Bino Kingsley,S. Aravinth Vijay Jesuraj , P. Brindha,A. Subramoniam, Atif M,(2013) International Journal of PharmTech Research CODEN (USA): IJPRIF ISSN : 0974-4304,
. King H, Auberti RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1414-1431.
. Ogbonnia SO, Odimegwa JI, Enwaru VN. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic extracts of Treculia Africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. And their mixture on streptozotozin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biotechnology.2008;7(15):2535-2539.
. Edem DO. Hypoglycemic effects of ethanol extracts of alligator pear seed in rats. European Journal of Scientific Research 2009;33:669-678.
. Watt M. aroma medical. Oils hyped by aromatherapy suppliers to increase their soles. Accessed on 10/11/07 from http://www.aromamedical.com/articles/hypedoils.htm
. Swarbrick, J.T. (1997). Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper no. 209. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. Pp. 124.Vol.5, No.1, pp 112-118, Jan-Mar 2013
. EI Sissi HI. EI Ansari MA, EI Negoumy SI, Phenolics of Acacia fernesiana, phytochemistry 12:2303,1973.
. EI Sissi HI, Saleh NAM, EI Negoumy SI, Wagner H, Iyengar MA, Seligmann O.Prunin-o-6"-gallate fromAcacia fernesiana,phytochemistry 13:2843-2844,1974.
. Barakal HH, Souleman AM,Hussein SAM, Ibrahiem OA, Nawwar NAM, Flavonoid galloyl glucosides from pods of Acacia fernesiana, phytochemistry, 51:139-142,1999..
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of the Biochemical Composition of Four Marine Algae and Its Nutritional Value for Brine Shrimp.|
|Authors||:||Cordilea Hannah, Mathumathi Mani, Rengasamy Ramasamy|
Abstract: Microalgae are utilized in aquaculture as a live feed for the crustaceans, ablone, zooplanktons, etc. The present study was aimed to examine the nutritional status of Artemia sp. nauplii enriched with four different algal sources namely Chaetoceros calcitrans, Skeletonema coastaum, Duniella salina & D. bardawil and also the amount of beta-carotene assimilated when enriched with the two green algae. Artemia sp. nauplii enriched with D. salina showed high amounts of protein and carbohydrate, whereas Artemia sp. fed with Chaetoceros calcitrans showed high amounts of lipid. The protein profile of Artemia sp. enriched with different algal sources did not show prominent differences in the polypeptide bands. However, high amount of beta-carotene was assimilated in Artemia sp. nauplii when enriched with D. salina. Hence this study showed that the microalgae D. salina can be used as a potential feed to improve the nutritional status of Artemia sp. nauplii.
Keywords: Microalgae, nutritional status, Artemia sp., beta carotene.
. Annon. 2000. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Food and agriculture organisation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. pp: 142.
. Bernado, B. 2003. Feature Article: the promise of blue revolution. Aquaculture magazine, 29 – 36.
. Boonyaratpalin, M. S., Thongrod, K., Supamattaya, G., Britton.and L.E Schlipaulis. 2001. Effect of β- carotene source, Dunaliella salina, and astaxanthin on pigmentation, growth, survival and health of Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture research.32: 182- 190.
. Bradford, M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of micro quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.
. D‟Souza, F.M.L. 1999. The nutritional value of microalgae to penaeid prawn larvae. PhD Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane. pp. 199.
. D‟souza, F.M.L. and Loneragan, N.R. 1999. Effects of monospecific and mixed algae diets on survival, development and fatty acid composition of penaeid prawn (penaeus spp.) larvae. Marine biology. 133: 621-633.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration in Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq.-A Potent Medicinal Herb|
|Authors||:||Nissar Ahmad Reshi*, M S Sudarshana& N Rajashekar|
Abstract:An efficient protocol was devised for rapid callus induction and plantlet regeneration from the leaves of Orthosiphon aristatus. For callus induction, auxins such as 2, 4-D, IAA, NAA alone and in combination with cytokinin BAP were used. The most effective medium for callus induction and shoot regeneration was MS medium fortified with 8mg/l BAP and 2mg/l NAA, on which multiple shoots were obtained after 15 days of callus induction. All the in vitro raised shoots with length of 3-5 cm were transferred to rooting medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA. The best rooting response was observed on half strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 3mg/l IBA. The established plantlets obtained were subjected to hardening and acclimatisation bytransferring to polycups containing sterile soil for 3-4 weeks and then to the field, where 85% survived to maturity.
Key words: Orthosiphon aristatus, leaf, Callus induction, plant regeneration, acclimatization.
 A. Mariam, M. Z. Asmawi, and A. Sadikum, Hypoglyceamic activity of the aqueous extract of Orthosiphon aristatus, Fitoterapia, 67, 1996, 465-468.
 L. N. Shantanova, S.M. Nikolaev, A. G. Mondodoev, The influence of nephrophyte preparation on the functional state of liver and kidneys during intoxication by carbon tetrachloride. Rastitel'nye- Resursy, 33, 1997, 101-109
 S. M. Nikolaev, A.G. Mondodoev, L. N. Skantanova, V. I. Glyzin, Pharmacotherapeutic effectiveness of nephrophyte in cases of renal ischaemia. Rastitel'nye- Resursy 32, 1996, 1117-121.
 J. Englert, G. Harnischfeger, Diuretic action of aqueous Orthosiphon extract in rats. Planta Med., 58, 1991, 237-238.
 T. Masuda, K. Masuda, N. Nakatani, Orthosiphol A, A highly oxygenated diterpene from the leaves of Orthosiphon staminus, Tetrahedron Litt. 33, 1992, 945-946.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Coconut Oil, Coconut Water and Palm Kernel Oil on Some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats.|
|Authors||:||Mohammed, A, Luka, C.D|
Abstract: The coconut oil, coconut water and palm kernel oil was administered orally at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight to white albino rats to check for some effect on biochemical parameters. Twenty (20) rats divided into four (4) groups of five (5) rats each. One group was treated with distilled water and feed only serving as control, second group was treated with coconut water only while the third group was treated with coconut oil only and the fourth group was treated with palm kernel oil only. The treatment lasted for 7 days. Effect of the coconut oil, coconut water and palm kernel oil on lipid profile, glucose and protein were analysed, also toxic effect was determined using biochemical enzyme markers.Treatment showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in glucose and protein levels. Treatment with coconut oil, coconut water showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in Triglyceride, Total cholesterol, LDL while it shows significant (p<0.05) increase when treated with palm kernel oil. Also, treatment with coconut oil, coconut water showed significant (p<0.05) increase in HDL while treatment with palm kernel oil showed significant (P<0.05) decrease.Treatment with coconut oil, coconut water and palm kernel oil showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in enzyme activities except for ALP when treated with palm kernel oil, ALT when treated with coconut oil. Treatment with coconut oil, coconut water and palm kernel oil showed hypoglycaemic properties and also shows no toxic effect on the liver at the concentration employed.
Keywords: Coconut, palm kernel, lipid profile, enzymes, haematology.
 Dayrit, C.S. Coconut oil: Atherogenic or not? (What therefore causes atherosclerosis?). Philippine journal of cardiology, 31(3) 2003, 397-104.
 Pamplona-Roger. Coconut has been implicated in the treatment and management of prostate pathogens. 2005, 187-217.
 Poku, Kwasi."Origin of oil palm".Small palm oil processing in Africa.Agricultural services.Food and agricultural organization (FAO).2002, 277-312.
 US federal food, drugs and cosmetic act, 21 CFR 101.25 as amended in federal register 1990, 55, 139, 29472.
 Mensink, R.P., Katan, M.B. Effect of dietary fatty acid on serum lipids and lipoproteins. 1992
 William, J.H. Arecanae: "The palms, tolweb.org.version. 1997, 217-332.
 Muanya, C. Researchers validate coconut water as nature's energy drink. 2009.
 Cocoinfo international. 2004, 2, 1: ISBN 0854-5006
 Barham, D and Trinder, P. An improved colour reagent for the determination of blood glucose by oxidase systems.1972, 97, 142.  Trinder, P. Ann. Clinical biochemistry. 1969, 6, 24
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In-Vitro and In-Vivo Assessment of Anti-Asthmatic Activity of Polyherbal Ayurvedic Drug|
|Authors||:||Kajaria Divya*, Kajaria Ankit, Tripathi. J.S, 1tiwari. S.K|
Abstract: About 80% of asthmatic turn to alternative or complementary therapies typically in conjunction with their regular allopathic medication. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in adult asthma treatment is limited because these approaches have been insufficiently researched and their effectiveness is largely unproven. In the present study in –vivo and in-vitro effectiveness of a polyherbal Ayurvedic drug is evaluated for its anti-asthmatic activity. For in –vitro assessment of anti-asthmatic property of drug antiinflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulator effect, and antihistaminic, anti-cholinergic, mast cell stabilizing activity, anti-anaphylactic activity and bronchodilator effect were screen on animal models. Evaluation of Effect of Drug Distribution on Lung Mechanics is also evaluated using MATLAB. In a randomised,open, placebo controlled trial the effects of drug was compared with placebo medication (normal saline) in 60 adults with mild to moderate asthma as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Animal studies showed that drug possess significant mast cell stabilizing activity, immunomodulator activity, bronchodilator activity and anti-anaphylactic activity. Insignificant anti-cholinergic activity was found in the drug. There was significant improvement found in pulmonary function test (including FEV1, FVC and PEFR)in the group treated with polyherbal drug .Improvement remain constant in consecutive follow-ups signifies that there is no reverse bronchoconstriction after discontinuation of drug. This study signifies that polyherbal drug (Shirishadi ) may prove beneficial future alternative remedy for asthma and its effect is similar to that of modern contemporary drug when given through nasal route.
Key Words: Shirishadi polyherbal compound, immunomodulation, MATLAB, PFT.
. Achinto Saha and Muniruddin Ahmed; The Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory activities of the extract of Albizzia lebbeck in animal model; Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.22, No.1, January 2009, pp.74-77.
. Babu N P et al; Anti-inflammatory activity of Albizzia lebbeck Benth., an ethnomedicinal plant, in acute and chronic animal models of inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Sep 7;125(2):356-60. Epub 2009 Mar 9.
. Mohammad Yaheya Mohammad Ismail. Antiasthmatic Herbal Drugs - A Review ; International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.Vol 2, Issue 3, 2010.
. Pichairajan Venkatesh et al ; Anti-allergic activity of standardized extract of Albizzia lebbeck with reference to catechin as a phytomarker; Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 32(2):272-6 (2010).
. Tripathi R .M, Sen P. C, Das P K . Studies on the mechanism of action of Albizzia lebbeck, an Indian indigenous drug used in the treatment of atopic allergy; Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Vol 1, Issue 4, December 1979, pp 385-396.
. Jain, et al. Effect of S. xanthocarpum on pulmonary function. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol.1977, 22(1):31-32.
. Jain J.P. A clinical trial of Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum) in case of Kasa roga. J.Res Ayur Siddha. 1980,1:447-460.
. Shraddha Anwikar & Milind Bhitre. Study of the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn. IJAR. 2010, 1: 3,pp : 167-171.
. Srivastava S, Gupta PP, Prasad R, Dixit Kspalit G, Ali B, Misra G, Saxena RC, Evaluation of Antiallergic activity (type I hypersensitivity) of Inula racemosa in rats. Indian J physiol Pharmacol. 1999 Apr; 43(2): 235- 41.
. D'Amour FE and Smith DL. A method for determining loss of pain sensation. J. Pharmacol. Exp.Ther.1941, 72: 74-79.