Volume-6 ~ Issue-5
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Antimicrobial Screening of Vanga Vennai and Mathan Thailam for Diabetic Foot Ulcer|
|Authors||:||Elangovan.S, Jeeva gladys.R, Kalai arasi.R, Mubarak.H, Velpandian V.|
Abstract: Siddha medicine is one of the ancient traditional science which is specialized in external medicines (Pura marunthukal). Diabetic patients develop foot ulcers as a major complication of Diabetes mellitus due to high susceptibility to infection which often leads to amputation. Diabetic foot infection is a combination of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Thus there is a need for effective and selective treatment strategies. This article focuses on antimicrobial screening of Vanga vennai (VV), Mathan Thailam (MT) and combination of both (VV+MT) which are the classical Siddha preparations. The methodology involved in the study is Agar well dilution method for anti microbial activity. Thus it paves a new way in treating infections of Diabetic foot ulcers. This preliminary study reveals these Siddha formulations as an effective therapeutic strategy for the management of Diabetic foot ulcer.
Keywords: Anti microbial activity, Diabetic foot ulcer, Mathan thailam, Siddha medicine, Vanga vennai
. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H: Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27:1047-1053, 2004
. Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA: Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA 293:217-228, 2005
. Levin ME, O'Neal LW, and Bowker JH, eds. The Diabetic Foot, 5th ed. St. Louis, Mosby Year-Book, 1993.
. Bowering CK: Diabetic foot ulcers: pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy. Can Fam Phys 47:1007-1016, 2001
. Zochodone DW: Diabetic polyneuropathy: an update. Curr Opin Neurol 21:527-533, 2008
. Paraskevas KI, Baker DM, Pompella A, Mikhailidis DP: Does diabetes mellitus play a role in restenosis and patency rates following lower extremity peripheral arterial revascularization? A critical overview. Ann Vasc Surg 22:481-491, 2008
. Warren clayton, Tom A.Elassy, A review of the pathophysiology, classification and treatment of foot ulcers in diabetic patients, Clinical diabetes spring 2009 vol27no:2 52-58
. Kuppuswamy Mudhaliyar N.K, Uthamarayan K.S, Siddha Pharmacopoeia, Department of Indian medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai, page:306
. Thyagarajan.R, Siddha Materia Medica-Thaathu vaguppu , Department of Indian medicine and Homeopathy Chennai,4th edition, 2004, page: 555
. Atlas, R.M. (2004). Handbook of Microbiological Media. London: CRC Press. p. 1226.
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Abstract: Biological marker suPAR was used in many pathological conditions, including infection. suPAR was correlated with the severity of sepsis. The purpose of this study to determine levels of suPAR infants with risk of infection as a prognostic indicator for sepsis. Groups of infants with the risk of infection (n = 43) were followed prospectively on days 0, 3rd and 7th and observed for the incidence of sepsis compared to the control group (n = 10). suPAR was measured by ELISA and the course of infection measured by clinical criteria. Results suPAR day 0, 3 and 7, displayed in the form of bloxpot and AUC as prognostic power. suPAR control levels 9.32 ng / mL, sepsis cutoff 15, 41 ng / mL and AUC of 80.3% [95% CI 65.7%, 94.9%, p = 0.00]. Graph shows ROC AUC sepsis suPAR day 0, the 3rd and 7th respectively 61.9%, 66.6% and 94.4%. Sepsis with improved output 16.53 ng / mL and worsening 22.19 ng / mL and AUC of 80.8% [95% CI (0.62 to 0.99), p = 0.02]. suPAR levels was increased in neonatal sepsis patients. suPAR could be used as a prognostic factor for neonatal sepsis.
Keywords -Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, Neonatal sepsis.
 A. Aminullah, M. Gatot, Kosim S , R. Rohsiswatmo, F. Indarso, R. Dharma, penatalaksanaan sepsis neonatorum, Universitas indonesia, Jakarta, 2007.
 A. Deorari, S. Broor, R. Maitreyi, D. Agarwal, H. Kumar, V. Paul, M. Singh, Incidence, Clinical Spectrum, and Outcome of Intrauterine Infections in Neonates. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 46, 2000, 155-160.
 I. IRNA, Laporan tahunan instalasi rawat inap IV, Malang, dr. Saiful Anwar Hspital, 2009, 67-71.
 N. Pak, H. Lam, Diagnostic markers for neonatal sepsis. Current Opinion of Pediatrics, 18, 2006, 12531.
 K. Jessen, S. Lindboe, A. Petersen, J. Eugen-Olsen, T.B. T, Common TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis. BMC Infectious Disease, 7, 2007, 108-15.
 M. Jo, S. Thomas, L. Wu, S.G.S. L, Soluble Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Invasion by Direct Urokinase-independent Effects on Cell Signaling. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278 (47), 2003, 46692-46698
 Y. Gürdal, S.I. Köksal, C Karahan, A. Mentese, The diagnostic and prognostic significance of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Clinical Biochemistry, 44, 2011, 1227-1230
 Y. Backes, K. Sluijs, A. Boer, J. Hofstra, A. Vlaar, R. Determann, P. Knape, D. Mackie, M. Schultz, Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in patients with burn injuries and inhalation trauma requiring mechanical ventilation: an observational cohort study. Critical Care, 15 (R270), 2011, 2-11.
 J. Ville, Y. Runkuan, L. Rita, H. Heini, O. Marjatta, V. Tero, P. Ville, T. Jyrki, SuPAR and PAI-1 in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. Intensive Care Medicine, 39 (3), 2012, 489-496.
 A. Koch, S. Voigt, C. Kruschinski, E. Sanson, H. Duckers, Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is stably elevated during the first week of treatment in the intensive care unit and predicts mortality in critically ill patients. Critical Care, 15, 2011, 1-14..
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Optimization of Cultural Parameters for Cellulase Enzyme Production from Fungi Species Isolated From Degradation Corn Cob|
|Authors||:||Bamigboye, O. O.|
Abstract: Cellulalytic fungi synthesize cellulose enzyme for biodegradation of cellulose. This depends on various condition which include the source f isolation. This study was designed to determine the optimum condition necessary for cellulose production by fungi. Cellulose activities at different temperatures, pH and nitrogen sources by Rhizopus oryzae Aspergillus niger; A. flams, P. expansum and A. oryzae in liquid medium was studied and cellulose enzyme assay carried out by dinitrosalicylic acid method. All the fungal isolates have their highest cellulose activity at 400c except Penicillium expansum whose highest value of 1.28mg/ml was obtained at 320c. Cellulase produced 6m was found to be highest in all the isolate at pH 4.0 exception P expansum which occur at pH 5.5 (1.21mg/ml). The highest value e1.45mg/ml was obtained in A niger. Highest cellulose activity for A. niger, A. oryzae & P. expansum occurred in peptone. The study shows the need to determine the best physiological condition that allow for the optimal cellulose activity of fungal isolate. This will enhance their enzyme production.
Key Word: Cellulase, fungi, pH, Nitrogen, temperature
. Abo-State, M.A.M., Hammad, A.E., Selin M. and Gannam R.B. 2010. Enhanced production of cellulases by Aspergillus sp on agricultural wastes by solid state fermentation. American – Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science. 402 – 410.
. Akiba, S., Kimura, K. and Kumugal, H. 1995. Purification and characterization of protein resistant cellulase from Aspergillus niger. Journal of Fermentation Bioengineering 79: 125 – 130
. Gautam, S.P., Bundela, R.S., Pandey, A.K., Khan, J. Awashi, M.K. and Sarsaiya, S. 2011. Optimization for the production of cellulose enzyme from municipal solid waste residue by two novel cellulolytic Fungi Biotechnology Research Tnternational 2011: 8.
. Hoffman, R. M and Wood, T.M. 1985. Isolation and partial characterization of a mutant Penicillium for the saccharification of straw. Biotechnology. Bioengineering 27: 81-85.
. Immanuel, G., Akila Bhagavath, C. M. Iyapppa Raj, P., Essakking, P. and Palavessam A. 2007. Production and partial purification of cellulase by Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus fermented in coir waste and saw dust. Internet Journal for Microbiology 3:1 – 17.
. Koomnok, C. 2005. Selection of cellulose producing thermophilic fungi. 31st congress on Science and Technology of Thailand.
. Milala, M.A., Shugaba, A., Gidado, A., Ene, A.C. and Wafar, J.A. 2005. Studies on the use of aricultural wastes for cellulase enzyme production by Aspergillus niger. Research Journal of Agriculture and biological Sciences 1. 4: 323-325.
. Nishida, Y., Suzuki K.I., Kumayai, Y., Tanaka, H., Inove, A. and Ojima, T. 2007. Isolation and primary structure of a cellulose from the Japanese sea urchin. Strongylocentrotus nudus. Biochime. 1-10.
. Siddigni, K.S., Saqib, A.A.N., Rashid, M.H. and Rajoka M.I. (2000). Carboxyl group modification significantly altered the kinetic of purified carboxymethylcellulase from Aspergillus niger. Enzyme and Microbial Technology Vol 27, No 7, Pp 467 – 474.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Protective Role Of High Dietary Protein On Arsenic Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rat Model;A Possible Role Of Antioxidants.|
|Authors||:||Dr. Shyamal Kanti Das|
Abstract: The objective of the present investigation was to study the protective role of High dietary protein on arsenic induced hepatotoxicity model in adult male albino rats. Hepatotoxicity in rats was caused by arsenic tri oxide at a dose of 3mg- /ml/kg body weight. Hepamerz, a drug used as standard hepatoprotective agent, was administered orally as standard hepatoprotective agent for 14 consecutive days prior to arsenic treatment at a dose of 10mg- /ml/kg body weight. This drug has many side effects. These side effects have prompted the scientific world for the search of alternative natural remedies of liver damage. The High dietary protein was administered orally to rats along with arsenic. The biochemical parameters were investigated. The results indicated that biochemical changes produced by arsenic were restored to almost normal by High protein diet. The High protein diet produced hepatoprotective effect through the modulation of antioxidant - mediated mechanism by altering serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels - against arsenic induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Key words:- Arsenic trioxide, Hepamerz, hepatotoxicity, High protein diet.
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. Roy C, Ghosh TK, Guha D. The antioxidative role of Benincasa hispida on colchicine induced experimental rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Biogenic Amines 2007; 21: 44-57.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Formulation and Evaluation of Liquisolid Compacts of Carvedilol|
|Authors||:||P. Sandhya, Shadab khanam, Divya Bhatnagar, K. S. K. Rao Patnaik, C. V. S. Subrahmanyam|
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a novel liquisolid technique to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug Carvedilol, a BCS class II drug, which is a β-blocker, by using different excipients. The main components of a liquisolid system are a non volatile solvent, carrier and coating materials and a disintegrant. Liquisolid system refers to the formulations that are formed by conversion of liquid drugs, drug suspensions or drug solution in non-volatile solvents into dry, non adherent, free flowing and compressible powder mixture by blending with suitable carrier and coating materials. Hence the dissolution step, a pre-requisite for drug absorption, is by passed and better bioavailability of poorly soluble drug is achieved. Liquisolid tablets of carvedilol are prepared by using PEG, PG, glycerine as non volatile liquid vehicles and Avicel PH 101 and 102, Aerosil as carrier and coating materials respectively. Optimized formulation containing 20% drug in PEG 400, with Avicel 101 as carrier and Aerosil as coating material has shown 98.4% drug release within 20 min which is better than marketed product (CARCA 12.5mg, Intas). The DSC and X-RD studies are performed to investigate the physicochemical properties of formulation and drug excipient interactions. The results are found to be satisfactory.
Keywords :, drug release, DSC, liquisolid technique and X-RD studies.
. KumarSK , PrabhaSK , Satish.K , Satyanarayana.K and Kumar RH. Solubility Enhancement Of a Drug By Liquisolid Technique , International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences .2010; 1 : 83-89.
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. Karmarkar AB, Gonjari ID, Hosmani AH , Dhabale PN , Bhise SB. Liquisolid Tablets: A Novel Approach for Drug Delivery.International Journal of Health Research. 2009; 2 : 45-50 .
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Abstract: The effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Vitex doniana leaves in serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated using standard analytical protocols. A total of 35 albino rats divided into seven groups of five rats each comprising one normal untreated group as animal control, one diabetic untreated group as diabetic control, one normal treated with 750mg/kg body weight as reference group, three diabetic groups treated with 250, 500 and 750mg/kg body weight respectively and one diabetic group treated with 5mg/kg Glibenclamide as standard. The result of acute toxicity test obtained indicated lethal dose (LD50) of greater than 5000mg/kg extract. The results showed that induction of diabetes caused significant (P<0.05) elevation in the serum level of total cholesterol, triacylglycerides and low density lipoproteins, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and significant (P<0.05) reduction in serum high density lipoproteins. The results indicated dose dependent significant (P<0.05) reductions in the elevated total cholesterol, triacylglycerides and low density lipoproteins, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and significant (P<0.05) increase in high density lipoprotein in the reference and diabetic groups when compared to normal and diabetic control groups respectively after oral administration of Vitex doniana leaf extracts. It could therefore be concluded that Vitex doniana leaf extract is safe, medicinal and have anti-lipidemia properties and hepato-protective effects.
Key words: Vitex doniana, Serum lipid profile, Liver marker enzymes, Diabetes, Lethal dose.
. Abdulrahman,F.I. (1992). Studies in natural Products Chemistry: The Moraceae in African traditional medicine and management of psychiatry in Borno state. M.S.c. Thesis, University of maidugiri, Maidugeri, Borno State., Nigeria.
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Abstract: New accurate, selective, sensitive and precise methods were developed and validated for determination of paracetamol and diphenhydramine hydrochloride in the presence of P-amino phenol, the hydrolytic degradate and the most potential impurity of paracetamol and the N oxide degradation product of diphenhydramine in bulk form and in pharmaceutical formulation.Method A uses double divisor second derivative of ratio spectrophotometric technique, at 304nm for paracetamol and 256.4nm for diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Method B utilizes Principle Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) chemometric techniques for quantification of the four components using a UV spectrum range of 210-350 nm. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of the mentioned drugs either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulation without interference from other dosage form additives, and the results were statistically compared with the pharmacopoeial method.
Keywords: Paracetamol, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, P-amino phenol, double divisor spectrophotometric method, multivariate spectral analysis.
 Martindale, the complete drug reference(The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st Edition Pharmaceutical press London, 2007).
 The Merk Index, 13th Edition(Merk Research Laboratories Division Of Merk and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, 607, 2001).
 The United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (The official Compendia of Standards, Asian Edition, USP 30-NF 25.The United States Pharmacopeial Conversion Inc., Rockvill, MD, 2007).
 C.Martínez-Algaba, JM.Bermúdez-Saldaña, RM.Villanueva-Camañas, S.Sagrado, MJ.Medina-Hernández, Analysis of pharmaceutical preparations containing antihistamine drugs by micellar liquid chromatography,J Pharm Biomed Anal,40,2006, 312-321.  M. L.Qi, P.Wang, L.Zhou, Y.Sun, Simultaneous determination of four active components in a compound formulation by liquid chromatography,Chromatographia, 58, 2003, 183-186.
 H.Luo, L. J.Wang, J.Wang, Studies on quantitative determination of ingredients in Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Paracetamol Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride dispersed tablets by HPLC,YaowuFenxi Zazhi,22,2002, 222-224.
 D.Ying, S. Ying, R. Yuqiu, R. Yulin, Artificial neural network for simultaneous determination of two components of compound paracetamol and diphenhydramine hydrochloride powder on NIR spectroscopy,AnalyticaChimicaActa, 528,2005, 55-61.
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Abstract: The concept of mouth dissolving tablets known as MDTs has emerged with an objective to improve patient's compliance. Methods to improve patient's compliance have always attracted scientists towards the development of fancy oral drug delivery systems. Among them, mouth dissolving drug delivery systems (MDDDS) have obtained an important position in the market by overcoming previously encountered administration problems and contributing to extension of patent life. These dosage forms rapidly disintegrate in contact with saliva even within <60 seconds, an attribute that makes them highly attractive for paediatric, geriatric, bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and in travelling may not have access to water. This special dosage form has some prerequisite criteria for formulation and this also involves the use of special techniques for large scale industrial production. The aim of this article is to review the advantages and disadvantages of MDTs, common excipients used in the formulation especially highlighting the use of superdisintegrating agents and taste masking agents in formulation and finally the popular methods used to produce large scale tablets for commercial purpose.
Keywords- Drug delivery, Mouth dissolving tablets, Mucosal membrane, Superdisintegrant, Taste masking,
. S Dali, C Subhashis , S Sanjay, M Brahmeshwar, Mouth Dissolving Tablets I: An Overview of Formulation Technology. Sci Pharm. 77, 2009, 309–326.
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. CG Wilson, N Washington, J Peach, GR Murray, J Kennerley, The behavior of a fast dissolving dosage form (Expidet) followed by g-scintigraphy. Int J Pharm. 40, 1987,119–123.
. JA Fix, Advances in quick-dissolving tablets technology employing Wowtab. Paper Presented at: IIR Conference on Drug Delivery Systems.1998 Oct.; Washington DC, USA.
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Abstract: The crude methanol extracts of whole plant of Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. and leaf of Chenopodium album L. as well as their pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions were evaluated for membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial activities. At concentration 1.0 mg/ml, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of C. bicolor inhibited 43.92±1.63% and 38.08±0.83 % hypotonic solution and heat induced haemolysis of RBCs, respectively. Among the extractives of C. album, the aqueous soluble fraction inhibited 47.11±0.49 % and 36.73±0.76 % hypotonic solution and heat induced haemolysis of RBC as compared to 72.79% and 42.12% by acetyl salicylic acid (0.10 mg/mL), respectively. C. bicolor test samples demonstrated zone of inhibition ranging from 6.0 to 20.0 mm. The chloroform soluble fraction showed the highest zone of inhibition (20.0 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus. The test samples of C. album displayed zone of inhibition ranging from 7.0 to 13.0 mm. The highest zone of inhibition (13.0 mm) was showed by the chloroform soluble fraction against Salmonella paratyphi.
Keywords- Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent., Chenopodium album L., membrane stabilizing activity, hypotonic solution, disc diffusion method, zone of inhibition
 Adamu, H.M., Abayeh, O.J., Agho, M.O., Abdullahi, A.L., Uba, A., Dukku, H.U. and Wufem, B.M., An ethnobotanical survey of Bauchi State herbal plants and their antimicrobial activity, J Ethnopharmacol, 99 (2004) 1-4.
 Rios J.L. and Recio, M.C., Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity, J Ethnopharmacol, 100 (2005) 80 – 84.
 Chowdhury, J.A., Islam, M.S., Asifuzzaman, Sk. and Islam, M.K., Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity screening of leaf extracts of Vitex negundo (Fam: Verbenaceae), J Pharm Sci & Res, 1(4) (2009) 103-8.
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 Hossain, S.M., Islam, F., Sharmin, T., Sheikh, H., Hasan, A.M.R. and Rashid, M.A., In vitro Antioxidant, Membrane Stabilizing and Thrombolytic Activities of Glycosmis arborea, Bang Pharm J, 15(2) (2012) 141-43.
 Sarker, R., Sharmin, T., Chowdhury, S.R. and Islam, F., Thrombolytic Activity and Preliminary Cytotoxicity of Five Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Allamanda cathartica Leaf, J App Pharm Sci, 2(7) (2012) 129-32.
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Abstract: This study was designed to screen out free radical scavenging potentiality of 84 medicinal plants. Stock solution of different plant extracts and standard were diluted to achieve suitable concentrations. A control was also prepared without plant extract solution. Then 0.004% DPPH solution was added. The mixtures were incubated in the room temperature for 30 minutes. Then the absorbance was measured at 517 nm against solvent in UV-spectrophotometer and then IC50 was calculated. In this experiment two standard were used-ascorbic acid and BHT. Both showed a significant IC50 value of 15.5μg/mL, and 46.54μg/mL respectively. Among 84 medicinal plants Syzygim cumini, Casuarina littorea, Borassus flabellifer, Enhydra fluctuans, and Minusops elengi exhibited highest radical scavenging potential with an IC50 value of 12.816μg/mL, 14.467μg/mL, 15.755μg/mL, 15.653μg/mL, and 20.380μg/mL respectively. All these value are very close to the IC50 value of ascorbic acid and better than IC50 value of BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene). Syzygim cumini is the most powerful scavenger among all tested medicinal plants and also most strong scavenger than ascorbic acid and BHT. Scavenging activity was found to increase in dose dependent manner. Another 30 medicinal plants exhibited good scavenging property and 14 medicinal plants showed moderate scavenging activity. The rest presented lower scavenging activity. This present study indicates that plants having good scavenging property may have various health beneficial effects and these plants can be considered as valuable source of bioactive components with high antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Antioxidant, Ascorbic acid, BHT, DPPH, Medicinal plants
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 Braca A, Tommasi ND, Bari LD, Pizza C, Politi M, Morelli I, Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia terapotensis. Journal of Natural Products 64 (2001) 892-895.
 Liao KL, Yin MC, Individual and combined antioxidant effects of seven phenolic agents in human erythrocyte membrane ghosts and phosphatidylcholine liposome systems: Importance of partition co-efficient. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48 (2000) 2266-2270.
 Koleva II, Van Beek TA, Linseen JPH, Groot A, Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study of three testing methods. Phytochemical Analalysis 13 (2002) 8-17.
 Suresh PK, Sucheta S, Sudarshana VD, Selvamani P, Latha S, Antioxidant activity in some selected Indian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology 7 (2008) 1826-1828.
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Abstract: Zizyphus rugosa Lam. (Family: Rhamnaceae), locally known as "Bon Boroi" or as "Jongli Boroi" in Bangladesh generally found as a herb on the hills in bunches on thorny branches of the Zizyphus rugosa trees. Its bark and wood are used medicinally for dysentery in China, India, Laos, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. Phytochemical screening of the Leaf extract of Zizyphus rugosa Lam showed different phytoconstituents including carbohydrates (monosaccharides, reducing and mixed-reducing sugars), alkaloid, glycosides, steroids, tannins and saponin. No flavonoid was detected. In DPPH and NO radical scavenging methods, IC50 was moderately satisfactory. IC50 was found 179.713μg/ml and 769.909μg/ml respectively compare with the reference ascorbic acid (15.707μg/ml and 82.642μg/ml respectively). In LPO (Lipid peroxidation) assay the Leaf fraction extract showed moderate inhibition potentiality (IC50 402.835μg/ml) in comparison to standard drug BHT (IC50 32.94μg/ml). In CUPRAC assays, the fraction was found to possess low Total antioxidant content, good flavonoid, and moderate amounts of phenolics, tannin and alkaloid content. The Leaf fraction extract was found to show good toxicity to Brine Shrimp nauplii, (LC50 212.402μg/ml & LC90 10715.91μg/ml) compare with the reference anticancer drug vincristine sulphate (LC50 2.47μg/ml & LC90 42μg/ml). In the antimicrobial study the fraction showed moderate activity against only one bacterium (Shiggla sonni) while the standard drug Chloramphenicol showed very good zone of inhibition against all five types (Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Shiggla sonni, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella grb) of bacteria. These findings provide scientific basis for the use of Zizyphus rugosa Lam. leaf ethanolic extract in traditional medicine in the treatment of aforementioned diseases. The plant also possesses moderate antimicrobial activity, good cytotoxic and good to moderate antioxidant activity.
Keywords- Bon Boroi, Dysentery, Rhamnaceae, Zizyphus, DPPH.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Spatial Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging (SLIFIMG) Analysis to Assess Tissue Photosensitizer Uptake|
|Authors||:||Osama Fekry Ahmed|
Abstract: Fluorescence technique involves the optical detection and spectral analysis of light emitted by a substance undergoing a transition from an excited electronic state to a lower electronic state. The aim of this study is to assess the -amino levulinic acid (-ALA) uptake. Based on image processing technique, Matlab was used to analyze the fluorescence images resulted from activation of (-ALA) and follow its uptake along one week. Analyzing the RGB colours pixel profile from obtained results showed different profiles for malignant tissues, normal tissues, treated just after PDT and finally at one week post PDT. The treated tissues fluorescence profile showed changes from closer to malignant tissue profile till been closed to normal one.
Conclusion: The results indicate that ALA phpotosensitizer tissue uptake can be identified using image analysis and processing for tissue fluorescence images by MATLAB.
. Ron R Allison, Gordon H Downie, Rosa Cuenca, Xin-Hua Hu, Carter JH Childs, Claudio H Sibata, ―Photosensitizers in clinical PDT‖ Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy (2004) 1, 27—42.
. Ortner ME, Caca K, Berr F, Liebetruth J, Mansmann U, Hus- ter D, Voderholzer W, Schachschal G, Mössner J, Lochs H. Successful photodynamic therapy for nonresectable cholangio- carcinoma: a randomized prospective study. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 1355-1363
. Giuliano EA, Ota J, Tucker SA. Photodynamic therapy: ba- sic principles and potential uses for the veterinary ophthal- mologist. Vet Ophthalmol 2007; 10: 337-343.
. Gavryushin V, Vaitkus J, Vaitkuviene A. Methodology of medical diagnostics of human tissue by fluorescence. Lithuania J Physics 2000; 40: No. 1–4.
. Alfano RR, Pradhan A, Tang GC, Wahl SJ. Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissues. Optical Soc Am B 1989; 6: 1015–23.
. R A, Kollner T, Dietrich A, Strauss W, Schneckenburger H. Fluorescence formation during photodynamic therapy in the nucleus of cells incubated with cationic and anionic water-soluble photosensitizers. J Photochem Photobiol B 1992;12:403–12. . Suzuki T, Numata T, Shibuya M. Intraoperative photodynamic detection of normal . parathyroid glands using 5- aminolevulinic acid. Laryngoscope. 2011 . Jul;121(7):1462-6. doi: 10.1002/lary.21857. Epub 2011 Jun 6.
. Wagnieres GA, Star WM, Wilson BC. In vivo fluo- rescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological appli- cations. J Photochem Photobiol 1998; 68: 630-2.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Studies on the mycorrhiza of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr. from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.|
|Authors||:||Jyothsna B. S., Purushothama K. B.|
Abstract: Mycorrhizal association of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr. an endangered terrestrial orchid in the Western Ghats of Karnataka has been investigated. Anatomical studies of the fully grown orchid have revealed the presence of the fungal coils in the cells of the pseudobulb and in the cortical region of the root, indicating the continued association of the fungus with the plant. The degree of colonisation was extensive in the root . Pure culture of the fungus associated with the underground parts of the plant was obtained and identified as Rhizoctonia solani, a common mycorrhiza forming species with many orchids. The rhizosphere soil analysis of the nutrients was carried out which revealed the decreased level of phosphate when compared to nitrogen and potassium. Nutrient analysis supports the fact that mycorrhizal association occurs under the deficiency of soil nutrients like phosphate.
Key words : Geodorum densiflorum, orchid mycorrhiza, peloton, Rhizoctonia solani,
. G. Hadley , Orchid Biology : Reviews and Perspectives ( Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1982) .
. S.S. Sheelavantmath, H.N. Murthy,A.N. Pyati , H.G. Ashok Kumar and B.V. Ravishankar , In vitro propagation of the endangered orchid, Geodorum densiflorum (Lam) Schtr through rhizome section culture. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 60, 2000, 151-154.
. T. Ananda Rao, Conservation of Wild Orchids of Kodagu in the Western Ghats. ( The Karnataka Association for the Advancement of Science, Bangalore, 1998).
. P.K..Dash, S. Sahoo, S. Bal , Ethnobotanical Studies on Orchids of Niyamgiri Hill Ranges Orissa, India. Ethnobotanical leaflets. 12, 2008 , 70-78.
. J. Roy and N. Banerjee, Rhizome and shoot development during in vitro propagation of Geodorum densiflorum ( Lam.) Schtr. Scientia Horticulturae 94, 2002, 181-192.
. A. Saleha, Z .I. Mohammad and A. Tahira., Antimicrobial activity of different extracts of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr. pseudobulb – Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 3 (2), 2010, 47-48.
. J.L..Harley and S.E. Smith ( Ed.), Mycorrhizal Symbiosis ( Academic Press, London, 1983) 268-295.
. P. Davet, F..Rouxel, Detection and Isolation of Soil Fungi. (Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield, NH, USA , Plymouth, UK,2000).
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. A.Verena, S.,Supeni and Suharno,.Mycorrhizal associations of terrestrial orchids of Cycloops Nature Reserve, Jayapura. Biodiversitas 10(4), 2009, 175-180.
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Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a Resistance training program (BT) versus weight loss diet (DR) on body composition, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents. Methods: Thirty obese adolescents with a BMI above the 97th percentile participated in a training program and diet for 12 weeks. They were randomized into two groups: a diet group (DR, n = 16) with a caloric restriction of 500 kcal / day and Strength training group (BT, n = 14) for all major muscle groups, three sessions / week with an intensity of 50-80% (1.RM) for 3 months. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed for all of our subjects before and after the intervention program of 12 weeks. Results: Significant variations of body composition parameters were observed in both groups. The decrease of BMI, body weight, fat mass and (WC) for the group (DR) was more important than the group (BT) (p <0.01 and p <0.05 respectively). Strength training significantly increases the sensitivity to insulin (HOMA-IR of group (BT), was 4.53 ± 1.2 before and 3.47 ± 1.4 after the training program (p <0.05)), while there was no significant change for the group (DR). 12 weeks of strength training, improves the plasma concentrations of TG and HDL-C the LDL-C/HDL-C reports, TC / HDL-C and HDL-C / TG (p <0.05). The diet of weight loss induced a significant decrease only for the TC and LDL-C. (4,46 ± 0.24 before to 4.15 ± 0.37 after and 2.68 ± 0.18 before to 2.42 ± 0.14 after (p <0.05) respectively). Conclusion: Strength training improves much more the sensitivity to insulin and cardiovascular risk factors than weight loss diet program. The latter is more effective for weight loss, BMI and body fat in obese adolescent boys.
Keywords - Obese adolescents, Strength training, diet, lipid, body composition, Insulin resistance.
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. Fenicchia LM, Kanaley JA, Azevedo JL, Miller CS, Weinstock RS, Carhart RL, Ploutz-Snyder LL: Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 53:284–289, 2004.
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