Volume-7 ~ Issue-1
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Analysis of Cow's Urine for Detection of Lipase Activity and Anti-Microbial Properties|
Abstract: There is enormous amount of literature in Ayurveda stating the importance of cow's urine for all purposes, including its importance in our daily life. This research targets on the antimicrobial activity of urine and its biochemical content that can be the key potential factor for its usage as a medicine. A detailed biochemical analysis of cow's urine was done to understand its antibacterial/antifungal properties along with lipase activity which could make it a potentially effective anti-cancer agent. Various micro-organismal plating techniques were applied using Nutrient and Potato Dextrose Agar as the medium for bacterial and fungal growth, to study the inhibitory activity of cow's urine on these organisms. Thin layer chromatography, Volumetric analysis, Spectrophotometric analysis and Tributyrintests were conducted on cow's urine sample to analyze the lipase activity present within the urine content. Statistical comparisons, of the spectra obtained from the Spectrophotometric analysis of urine sample, were made with those already analyzedon various types of lipase activity detectionsfrom previous researches,and similarities were observed in both studies to ascertain the lipase factor potential within cow's urine sample. The tests proved that cow's urine was highly effective in inhibiting bacterial and fungal growth and also a potential natural source of lipase enzyme.
Keywords: Anti-fungal, Ayurveda, Cow's urine, Lipase, Skin-disease.
. K. Dhama, R. Rathore, R.S.Chauhan, S.Tomar. Panchgavya (Cowpathy): An Overview, International Journal of Cow Science2005; 1:1-15.
. R.S. Chauhan, K. Dhama, L. Singhal. The Indian Cow: The Scientific and Economic Journal 2009; 19:22-58.
. J. Edwin, E. Sheej,T. Vaibhav,G. Rajesh,T. Emmanuel. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cow urine, Global journal of pharmacology2008; 2:20-22.
Analysis ofCow's Urine for Detection of Lipase Activity and Anti-Microbial Properties.
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. K.J. Virender, Cow urine can cure many diseases, Articles on Ayurveda, Indore Publishers;2009.
. P.B. Flora, S.Gisela. Healing yourself using Urine. Urine Therapy: Nature's Elixir for Good Health;1999. p. 152.
. D. Nelson. India makes cola from cow urine to millions of devout Hindus, it's the real thing: a cola made from the urine of India's sacred cows,Article - The Daily Telegraph, London; 2010.
. B. Andrew. A cure for cancer – or just a very political animal?Article - The Independent, United Kingdom;2011.
. H. Bhadauria. Cow Urine- A Magical Therapy. Vishwa Ayurveda Parishad, Int J Cow Sci.2002; 1:32-6.
. R.S. Chauhan. Panchagavya Therapy (Cowpathy)– Current status and future directions. Indian Cow2004; 1:3-7.
. J. Sherma, D.W. Gruenwedel,J.R. Whitaker. Separation Techniques, Food Analysis – Principles and Techniques, Marcel Dekker, New York; 1987. p. 297.
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Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the sympathetic cardio vascular parameters in age matched overweight, underweight and normal weight school going boys in southern Odisha. 75 Boys between age group of 12-16 were subjected to study out of which 25 were overweight (BMI>25), next 25 were underweight(BMI<18.5),rest 25 were control group having normal BMI. Cold pressure test and hand grip dynamometer test were performed and blood pressure was measured during and after the tests as measures of cardiovascular parameter. Baseline SBP and MAP were significantly higher in overweight boys & lower in underweight boys. Maximum rise of SBP, DBP & MAP during hand grip dynamometer test were significantly higher in overweight boys & lower in underweight boys. Increase in SBP & MAP from their basal value during cold pressure test were significantly lower in overweight boys & higher in underweight boys. Thus it is concluded that both overweight & underweight boys have derangement of sympathetic cardiovascular function. SBP- Systolic blood pressure, DBP- Diastolic blood pressure , MAP- Mean arterial pressure
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. Katzmarzyk PT, Srinibash SR, Chen W, Malina RM, Bouchard C, and waist hip ratio as diagnostic tests for fatness in adolescents. Int J Obese 2004; doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802867, URL: www.nature.com.last accessed 3 Jan 2005.
. Bedi M, Babbar R, Chakrabarty AS, Sachdev HP. Comparative study of autonomic nervous system activity in malnourished and normal children in India. Inn Trop Paediatr 1999;19: 185- 189.
. Heinrich WL. Autonomic insufficiency. Arch Intern Med 1982; 142: 339-344.
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. Nageswari KR, Sharma R, Kohli DR. Assessment of respiratory and sympathetic cardiovascular parameters in obese school children. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;51(3):235-243.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Potential Biodeteriogens of Indoor and Outdoor Surfaces (Coated With Gloss, Emulsion and Textcoat Paints)|
|Authors||:||L. O. Odokuma, D. P. Berebon, C. B. Ogbonna|
Abstract: Potential Biodeteriogens of indoor and outdoor surfaces (coated with gloss, emulsion and text coat paints) within the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria were investigated. Potential Biodeteriogens implicated in deterioration of painted surfaces were bacteria, fungi, microalgae and cyanobacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria counts and total fungal counts for outdoor and indoor painted surfaces ranged from 2.8 x 106 to 9.00 x 106 cfu/g paint scrape, 1.56 x 104 to 6.6 x 104 cfu/g paint scrape; and 1.1 x 106 to 6.5 x 106 cfu/g paint scrapes, 1.31 x 104 to 9.8 x 104 cfu/g paint scrapes respectively. The result of THB and TF count expressed graphically showed surfaces with increasing order of microbial load: Gloss paints < Text coat paint < Emulsion paints. Predominant bacterial genera isolated from the surfaces include Bacillus (29.0%), Pseudomonas (22.6%), Proteus (19.4%), Serratia (16.1%), Citrobacter (6.5%), Enterobacter (3.2%) and Klebsiella (3.2%). Fungal genera isolated include: Alternaria, Aspergillus , Cladosporium , Fusarium ,Geotrichum , Gleosporium , Penicillum , Rhizopus , Saccharomyces and Stachybotrys . Fungi were the predominant biodeteriogens. Predominant microalgae isolated from the wet painted surfaces include Chorella , Characium , Closterium , Geminella , Oscillatoria , Totrogonnidium and Triceratium . Physicochemistry of various paint surfaces revealed the following: TOC (1.30 – 3.49%), Phosphate (0.39-8.82mg/100g), nitrate (4.64-187.58mg/100g), sulphate (99.78-285.00mg/100g), pH (8.55-9.59), oil and Grease (125.00-285.00mg/100g).Result showed that different consortia of biodeteriogens implicated in indoor and outdoor painted surfaces are dependent on the chemical compositions of the various paints, nature of the coating surfaces and physicochemical parameters influencing the microbial processes. Emulsion surfaces habour most potential biodeteriogens on their surfaces than the other surfaces. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the various potential biodeteriogens, categories of painted surfaces, indoor and outdoor surfaces.
Keywords: Biodeteriogens, indoor, outdoor, painted surfaces
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Abstract: Health care professional are a high risk group for Hepatitis B and are advised vaccination against hepatitis B. The protective antibodies induced by Hepatitis B vaccination wane gradually over period of time and may reach very low or even undetectable levels. A cross sectional prospective study was undertaken to investigate the persistence of anti-HBs levels in health care professionals who had been immunized with HBV vaccine and the need for booster doses of the vaccine. In this cross-sectional study, health care professionals (18 -55 yrs of age) who had received full course of HBV vaccination were sampled and tested for anti-HBs from May 2010 to June 2011. Plasma samples were tested for anti-HBs using ELISA. Titer >=10 mIU/mL was considered to be seroprotective. Individuals with titre <10 mIU/mL were advised full three doses of vaccine. A total of 112 samples were collected. Protective antibody levels were detected in 99.9% of subjects one year after vaccination. It decreased to 80.96% by 5 years after vaccination, and further decreased to 46.16% in 10 years after vaccination. Sero protection rates decreased significantly with increasing time from last vaccination due to waning anti-HBs titer (P<0.001).According to the above mentioned results, for a high risk group population such as medical students and residents, who are at continuous exposure to HBV, it is reasonable to determine the anti HBsAb response at one month post vaccination However, in order to confirm the persistence of immune protection, we strongly suggest detection of the anti-HBsAb titer at 5 – 10 years after the last inoculation.
Key words: Anti HBs, ELISA, vaccination, seroprotection rates
. Acharya SK, Panda SK, Duphare H. Chronic Hepatitis in a large Indian Hospital. Natl Med J India 1993; 6: 202-6.
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 Jules L. Dienstag, M.D. Hepatitis B Virus Infection. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:1486-1500.
 Gandhi S.S, Chadha MS, Arankalle VA. Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes And Serotypes In Western India: Lack Of Clinical Significance. Hepatitis Division, National Institute of Virology, Pune.J Med Virol. 2003 Mar; 69(3):324-30.
. Demicheli V, Jefferson TO. Cost-Benefit Analysis of The Introduction of Mass Vaccination Against Hepatitis B In Italy. J Public Health Med 1992; 14: 367-75.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Antibacterial Activity of Stem Bark Extracts of Oroxylum Indicum an Endangered Ethnomedicinal Forest Tree|
|Authors||:||Samatha Talari, Sampath A, Sujatha K., Rama Swamy Nanna|
Abstract: The present work has been under taken to study the antibacterial activity of stem bark extracts of O. indicum against disease causing gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts of stem bark of Oroxylum indicum has been studied to find out its activity against four important bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Staphylococcus albus and S. aureus . The antimicrobial activity of the stem bark extracts was done through well diffusion method and by measuring the inhibition zone around the disc. The results revealed that the aqueous extracts of O. indicum exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the microbes under study. The results provided evidence that the species O. indicum can be used as a potential source of antimicrobial agent. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Oroxylum indicum, Stem bark extract, Zone of inhibition
. Farnsworth Screening plants for new medicines. In: Biodiversity, ed. E.O. Wilson. Publication of National academy press, Washington D.C. USA, 1998, pp.83 – 97.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Ethnobotanical Euphorbian plants of North Maharashtra Region|
|Authors||:||Yuvraj D. Adsul, Raghunath T. Mahajan, Shamkant B. Badgujar|
Abstract: Euphorbiaceae is among the large flowering plant families consisting of a wide variety of vegetative forms. Some of which plants are of great importance, It is need to explore traditional medicinal knowledge of plant materials belonging to various genera of Euphorbiaceae available in North Maharashtra State. Plants have always been the source of food, medicine and other necessities of life since the origin of human being. Plant containing ethnomedicinal properties have been known and used in some forms or other tribal communities of Satpuda region. These tribal have their own system of Ethnomedicine for the treatment of different ailments. In the course of survey useful Euphorbian plants of Satpuda, 34 medicinal plants belonging to 18 genus is documented. This article reports their botanical identity, family name, local language name part used preparations and doses, if any. It is observed that tribes of this region uses various Euphorbian plant in the form of decoction, infusion, extract, paste, powder etc. Thus the knowledge area of this region with respect to ethnomedicine would be useful for botanist, pharmacologist and phytochemist for further explorations. It is concluded that the family is a good starting point for the search for plant-based medicines.
Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Tribals, Satpuda region, Euphorbian medicinal plant.
. Julius T.M. and Patrick V.D. 2011. Why do Euphorbiaceae tick as medicinal plants? A review of Euphorbiaceae family and its medicinal features, (2011). Review J. Med. Plants Resvol. (5) 652-662.
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. Falodun, A Agbakwuru EOP 2004. Phytochemical analysis and laxative activity of Euphorbia heterophylla linn (Euphorbiaceae) Park J. Sci. Res. 47(5) 345-348.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Antioxidant status on liver following Atrazine exposure and its protection by Andrographis paniculata|
|Authors||:||Shirisha K., Mastan M.|
Abstract: The efficacy of Andrographis paniculata (AP) extract was studied on atrazine induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract of AP (150mg/kg body weight) was found to protect the male wistar rats from hepato toxic action of atrazine as evidence by significant reduction in the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant defense system activity in the atrazine intoxicated rats. However, AP treatment ameliorated the effects of atrazine suggesting it as potential antioxidant against atrazine induced oxidative stress.
Key words: Andrographis paniculata, Atrazine, Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant enzymes.
. Sine C (ed) (1998) Farm chemicals handbook. Meister, Willoughby, OH
. Frank A (2007) The economics of Atrazine. Int J Occup Environ Health 13:37-45
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of astaxanthin on ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis|
|Authors||:||Manju Alex, Mathews V. Varghese, M. Abhilash, M. V. Sauganth Paul, R. Harikumaran Nair|
Abstract: Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common and painful of urological disorders with a high prevalence rate. The role of calcium oxalate crystals, which are the predominant component of kidney stones in generating oxidative stress, have been clearly demonstrated in previous studies. Astaxanthin, found in marine organisms is a dietary xanthophyll carotenoid with enhanced antioxidative properties and pharmacological effects. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of this natural antioxidant, at a daily dose of 25mg/kg in experimental calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in male Wistar rats. Liver function markers, hepatic antioxidants, albumin creatinine ratios, renal calcium content and changes in body and kidney weight have been studied to evaluate the effect of this carotenoid in vivo. The effect of citrate, a component of most pharmaceutical drugs for management of nephrolithiasis has also been evaluated for the purpose of comparison with astaxanthin treatment. Astaxanthin is seen to exert a protective effect on the liver and kidney tissues in ethylene glycol treated rats by improving the liver function, restoring the activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the albumin creatinine ratios and calcium levels and maintaining the organ to body weight ratio. Our results also indicate that astaxanthin administration is more beneficial than citrate treatment.
Keywords: astaxanthin, calcium oxalate, citrate, nephrolithiasis, nephroprotective.
 JR Asplin. Hyperoxaluric calcium nephrolithiasis. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 31(4), 2002, 927-949.  S Jafar, L Mehri , B Hadi and M Jamshid . The antiurolithiasic and hepatocurative activities of aqueous extracts of Petroselinum sativum on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Science Research Essays 7, 2012, 1577-1583.
 SA Bailey, RH Zidell and RW Perry. Relationship between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: what is the best analytical endpoint? Toxicological Patholology 32(4), 2004, 448–466.
 Singh A, Bhat TK, Sharma OP. Clinical Biochemistry of Hepatotoxicity. Journal of Clinical Toxicology 2011, S4:001.
 G Hussein, U Sankawa, H Goto, K Matsumoto and H Watanabe. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. Journal of Natural Products , 69(3), 2006, 443-449.
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 M Guerin, ME Huntley and M Olaizola. Haematococcus astaxanthin:applications for human health and nutrition, Trends in Biotechnology, 21(5), 2003, 210-216.
 S Saha and RJ Verma. Bergenia ciliata extract prevents ethylene glycol induced histopathological changes in the kidney. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica and Drug Research, 68 (5), 2011, 711-715.
 JA Beuge and SD Aust. The thiobarbituric acid assay. Methods in Enzymology 52, 1978, 306-307.
 P Kakkar, B Das and PN Viswanathan. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 21, 1984, 130-132.
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Abstract: Hyperlactatemia is one of the important metabolic abnormalities in HIV infected patients. The prevalence of hyperlactatemia in natural course of HIV disease is approximately about 2%. Aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hyperlactatemia in HIV patients receiving two antiretroviral regimens, advocated by NACO by monitoring the plasma lactate levels. This study was taken up with 200 patients to compare the prevalence of hyperlactatemia of two commonly used NACO regimens (zidovudine+ lamivudine+ nevirapine) Vs (stavudine+ lamivudine+ nevirapine). The plasma lactate levels were estimated between 9th to 18thmonth after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. The comparision and correlation between plasma lactate levels, CD4 counts and haemoglobin percentage in both regimens was done. There was statistically significant rise in the plasma lactate levels (p<0.05) in both regimens. The increase in plasma lactate levels is more in stavudine group compared to zidovudine group. There was low degree of positive correlation between plasma lactate and haemoglobin in Stavudine group but negative correlation between Plasma lactate and CD4 counts in both groups. More focus is needed on Pharmacovigilance of NRTIs induced hyperlactatemia especially Stavudine.
Key words: Hyperlactatemia, Stavudine, Zidovudine, HIV, NACO regimen.
 Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's principles of internal medicine, 17th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2008. ISBN 978-0-07-159991-7, Vol.I, Chapter 182, 1137-1203.  Yarasheski KE, Marin D, Claxton S, Powderly WG. Endocrine, Metabolic, and Body Composition Disorders. In: Powderly WG, editor. Manual of HIV Therapeutics. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; Philadelphia: 2001.
 Schambelan M, Benson CA, Carr A, Currier JS, Dubé MP, Gerber JG, Grinspoon SK, Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Mulligan K, Powderly WG, Saag MS. Management of metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection: recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Nov 1; 31(3):257-75. View in: PubMed
 Robert Manfredi, Leonard Calza Francesco Chido : How to evaluate a rise in serum lactate level in HIV infested patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy, data from a prospective control survey 'the journal of applied research p.5, Jmorrice @ janut.com@2000-2006  Eric Wool torton, HIV drug stavudine (Zerit, d4T) and symptoms mimicking Guillain–Barré syndrome- Health and drug alterts CMAJ. 2002 April 16; 166(8): 1067.
 A.Arenas- Pinto, AD Gant, S.Edwards, IVD wells, Lactic acidosis in HIV infected patients, systemic reviews of Published cases, sex, trans,infect.2003,79,340-344. www.stijournal.com
 Perry SW, Norman JP, Litzburg A, Zhang D, Dewhurst S, Gelbard HA. "HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein induces mitochondrial hyperpolarization and synaptic stress leading to apoptosis." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2005 Apr 1; 174(7):4333-44.
 Geddes R, Knight S, Moosa M, Reddi A, Uebel K, Sunpath H. A high incidence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-induced lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients in a South African context. South African Medical Journal. 2006; 96: 722-724.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Bryophyllum Pinnatum: A Potential Attenuator of Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rabbits|
|Authors||:||Apiamu Augustine, Ugbebor Gilbert, Evuen Uduenevwo Francis|
Abstract: Cadmium has been famously implicated in the stimulation of free radical production in biosystems resulting in oxidative deterioration of lipids, proteins and DNA, and initiating various pathological conditions in humans and animals. This study therefore, examined the antidotal and ameliorative capacity of crude ethanolic extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on cadmium-induced oxidative stress using rabbit models. A total of fifteen rabbits (1.30±0.05kg) were used for the study. After two weeks of acclimatization, the rabbits were randomly rifted into three experimental groups- (N, CD & CB) with five animals per group. The control group (N) was injected normal saline intraperitoneally (3mg/kg body weight) and the test groups (CD & CB) were administered cadmium once daily by subcutaneous injection (3mg/kg body weight). The ethanolic extract of the plant was orally administered once daily at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight. The oxidative and antioxidative stress parameters were assessed in tissues. The results showed significant difference (p˂ 0.05)in treated groups relative to the control group with the exception of glutathione peroxidase activity in leg muscles. Therefore, the results obtained in this study confirmed the potency of the plant to annihilate cadmium toxicity in animals.
Keywords: antioxidative stress parameters, Bryophyllum pinnatum, cadmium toxicity, oxidative stress
 R. Eisler. Handbook of chemical risk assessment, health hazards to humans, plants and animals. Louis Publishers, Cherry Hill, 2000.  G.E. Nordberg, K. Onowa. M. Nordberg and L.T. Friberg. Cadmium In; Handbook of toxicology of metals, 2nd ed. Elsevier Publisher,Amsterdam, 2007.
 K.K. Robert, P.W. Michael, L. Peter, L. Ben, S.M. Robert and S.I. Glem. Differential hepatotoxicity induced by cadmium in Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats, Toxicology of Science,65, 2002, 151-159.
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