Volume-7 ~ Issue-6
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Abstract: Carbofuran (Furadan) is a broad spectrum carbamate pesticide that kills insects, mites, and nematodes on contact or after ingestion. It has a potential to cause damage to the reproductive system and to health by prolong exposure. The widespread of pesticide in public health and agriculture has caused severe environmental pollution and health hazards. This study describes the effects of furadan on male reproductive organ of the mice. The animals (n=20) were grouped a (control), I, II, and III C (experimental).The experimental animals of group I were administered with 0.1 mg/Kg body weight/ day carbofuran in saline for 30 days, group II were administered with 0.2 mg/Kg body weight/ day carbofuran in saline for 30 days and III were administered with 0.4 mg/Kg body weight/ day carbofuran in saline for 30 days and then we see the effect on testosterone serum concentration by using ELISA method and leydig cells were fixed and processed to examine the histological changes.
Keywords: Optical microscope, Furadan , Toxicity, Testosterone, Leydig cells
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Abstract: Pharmacists' instructions at the time of dispensing ophthalmic medications are crucial in terms of patient compliance and efficacy of therapy. The aim of this study was to appraise knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs) of pharmacists attending specifically to ophthalmic patients with regards to ophthalmic dispensing. It was a prospective, non-randomized study based on fully consented consecutive respondents. There were 30 respondents, 16 (53.3%) were males and 14 (46.7%) were females. The average age of the study group was 32 years +/- 8.36.Majority, 23(76.7%) were either unaware or disagreed with the potential benefit of puctal occlusion following eye drop application. Less than 50% of the respondents got the order of applying various forms of topical preparations and know eye ointment should mostly be applied at bed time to avoid blurring patients' vision. The waiting interval between topical medications were found to vary significantly with as much as 8(26.7%) giving no specific interval. No respondent knew other forms of local routes of ophthalmic drug administration aside topicals. It is concluded that pharmacists in these institutions will benefit from education related to ophthalmic dispensing and drug administration.
Keywords: Ophthalmologists, pharmacists, ophthalmic patients, ocular pharmacology, ophthalmic dispensing.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of Oxidant Status and Lipid Profile In Vegetarians and Fish Eaters|
|Authors||:||Dr. Nalla. Viswabharathi, Dr.S.R.Manjula, K.Siddhartha|
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and disability in the developed world. Habitual consumption of moderate amount of fish was associated with reduced mortality from coronary heart disease. It was also acclaimed that vegetarians in general will have low serum cholesterol and a better anti oxidant status than fish eaters. In view of this a comparative study of oxidant status and lipid profile was done in vegetarians and fish eaters. This study enrolled 50 vegetarians and 50 fish eaters of age 35-55 years. Statistical Analysis by the students "T" Test or Mann Whitney "U" Test was applied depending upon the nature of the data. Pearson's correlation co efficiencies were used to compare the correlations. It showed significant difference in HDL-C levels among fish eaters when compared to vegetarians; this study showed no significant difference in the lipid peroxide levels and the other lipoproteins. The correlation of malondialdehyde (MDA) with HDL-C was negative in the vegetarians and weakly positive in the fish eaters. LDL-C showed a positive correlation with MDA in both the groups. Triglycerides showed a positive correlation with MDA and correlation was strong in fish eaters.
Key words: Atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, Lipid profile, Oxidants, Antioxidants, Nutrients in fish.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Authors||:||Satish Chand Saini , Dr. GBS Reddy|
Abstract: Medicinal plants or their bioactive compounds have been utilized by developing countries for primary and traditional healthcare system since very long period of time. In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, Murraya koenigii, a medicinally important herb from mainly Asian origin has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in bronchial disorders, piles, vomiting, skin diseases etc. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for leaf, stem, bark and oil. The well studied pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. koenigii and therapeutic potential of this plant needs to be compiled in form of review. The present review incorporates the description of M. koenigii, its phytochemical constituents and various pharmacological activities of isolated compounds as well as bioactivity of extract studies carried out by various numbers of laboratories. In addition to that, it highlights its potential to be the important nutraceutical for diabetes and cardioprotection. Plants have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. India is perhaps the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". Murraya koenigii commonly known as Meethi neem, belongs to the family Rutaceae. The curry tree is native to India and it is found almost everywhere in the Indian subcontinent excluding the higher levels of Himalayas. Curry leaves used traditionally as antiemetic, antidiarrhoeal, febrifuge and blood purifier. The whole plant is considered to be a tonic and stomachic. Curry leaves is found to be effective as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antihypertensive, cytotoxic and also in the treatment of bronchial respiratory difficulties. The leaves are used traditionally as spice in curry and other eatables. The aim of the present review study is to update information about pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Murraya koenigii.
Key Words: Murraya koenigii, phytochemistry, biological activity, Rutaceae, medicine, Ayurvedic, plant extracts, review
. Satyavati GV, Gupta AK, Tendon N, Medicinal Plants of India, Vol-2, Indian council of medical research, New Delhi India, 1987,289-299
. Kumar VS, Sharma A, Tiwari R, Sushil K. Murraya Koenigii-a review, JMAPS 1999
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. Shah KJ, Juvekar AR. Positive inotropic effect of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng extract on an isolated perfused frog heart. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2006; 44:481- 484.
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Abstract: Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 57% of Adults living with HIV are Women.HIV prevalence in Cross River State is 7.1%, compared to National of 4.1%. This study aims to ascertain the HIV prevalence rates among men and women assessing HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services in Nigeria's South-South region. Methods: Cross-Sectional quantitative study was conducted in November, 2011 among clients who received HTC services in 34 Primary Health centers across 5 LGAs of Cross River state. Relevant data of HIV Sero-Status of clients were collected from provider administered HTC client intake forms. Data was analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square. Results: 690 clients 316 (45.8%) male and 374 (54.2%) females were tested for HIV using Determine Abbott test kits. Age distribution of clients ranged from 18-41 years with mean age of 29.5 years. Prevalence of HIV among clients is 4.2% (29/690) with women contributing 7.0% (25/374) as compared with Men 1.2% (4/316). There was a significant association between HIV Sero-Status of Men and Women, (Pearson Chi-Square, P= 0.01). Conclusion: This result indicates that HIV Prevalence among women is disproportionately greater than that among men in Cross River state which appeared significant at the 95% confidence interval.
Key words: HIV Sero-prevalence, HIV test kits,HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC), Key population, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT).
. Boswell, D. and R. Baggaley, 2002. Voluntary counseling and Testing (VCT) and Young People: A Summary Overview. Family Health International, USA.
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. Chadborn, T.R., C.A. McGarrigle, P.A. Waight and K.A. Fenton, 2004. On behalf of the HIVtesting Surveillance collaborative group. Sex.Transm. Infect 80: 145-150.
. Creek, T.L., R. Ntumy and K. Seipone, 2007. Successful introduction of routine opt-out HIVtesting in antenatal Care in Botswana. J. Acquir. Immune.Defic.Syndr. 45: 102-107.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Cloning and Sequencing of a Coleopteran specific Novel cry gene of a local isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis|
|Authors||:||Kausar Malik, Mir Muhammad Ali Talpur|
Abstract: A cry gene, obtained from a locally isolated Bt. strain, CAMB # 30382 (isolated from grain dust of Shakargarh, Punjab, Pakistan), highly effective against Tribolium castaneum (Commonly known as red flour beetle), was amplified through Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using specific primers. The gene was ligated to a cloning vector pGEM-T and was cloned into an E.coli strain DH5α. The positive clones were screened for the cry gene content. The partial sequencing of the cloned gene from this strain was accomplished and sequence homology was analyzed. The alignment of the sequenced gene with gene sequences present in gene data bank showed two silent mutations, at nucleotide 676 and 701. However, two other nucleotide changes at position 2887 and 2902 of holotype cryIIIf (cry8Ca) gene were resulting from amino acid change near 3 end were observed. These changes were causing change in the stretch of amino acids from valine, tyrosine, serine & glutamine in the holotype cryIIIf to glycine, phenylalanine, alanine & asparginine respectively in the clone from CAMB isolate 30382. This change may have drastic effect on the toxicity spectrum of the Cry protein isolated from this local isolate in comparison with the Cry protein from the Buibui. serovar japonesis. Partial sequencing has shown it to be a varient of cryIII gene, which may be a novel cry gene.
Key Words; Cloning, Bacillus thuringiensis, cry gene, Sequencing, Coleopteran.
. Andow, D. A, Huet, A.-S. and Altosaar, I. 2001. An ounce of prevention enough to stem Asia's appetite for rice? Bt rice conference report – Hangzhou, PRC, 27 Nov-1
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. Chambers JA, Jelen A., Gilbert MP, Jany CS, Johnson TB and Gawron-Burke C (1991). Isolation and characterisation of a novel insecticidal crystal protein gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai. Journal of Bacteriology 173: 3966-3976
. Coyle DR, MC Millan, JD, Krause, SC Hart, E.R, 2000. Laboratory and field evaluations of two Bacillus thuringienesis formulations Novodor and Raven, for control of cottonwood leaf beetle (Coleoptra Chrysomelidae), J. Econ. Entomol 93(3): 713-720.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Double Antibody EIA of Cortisol using Peroxidase as Label|
|Authors||:||Adil Mohammed Hashim , F. M. Karim, A.W. R. Hamad|
Abstract: An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique for plasma cortisol was Established by using cortisol-3 (carboxymethy1)oxime covalently linked To the horseradish peroxidase as the label antibody raised in the rabbits against cortisol -3- (carboxymethyly.)oxide –bovine serum Albumin was used as the first antibody .sheep ant-rabbit gamma-globulin Serum with & percent poly-ethyleneglycol were used to separate Antibody-bound and free cortisol. The enzyme activity of the bound fraction was measured with ortho-Phenylenediamine as substrate. the procedure performed at room Temperature was evaluated though sensitivity which was found to be 50Pg/tube .The correlation coefficient between our enzyme immunoassay Technique for determination of plasma cortisol was 97 percent.
Keywords: Double Antibody , EIA , Peroxidase ,cortisol.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Insilico Designing and Development of Drug Inhibitor to PSEN 1 Protein in Alzheimer's disease|
Abstract: There are at least four well-confirmed genes responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. In addition, many reports indicate an association between the disease and genetic variations in different gene candidates. Approximately 5-10% of patients develop an early age-at-onset AD (before 65 years). The disease in up to 50% of such cases is explained by mutations in one of three genes: APP, presenilin 1 (PS1), and presenilin 2 (PS2) . Pathological mutations in these genes PS1 on Chromosome 14q24.3 and PS2 Genes on Chromosome 1q31-q42 are responsible for an autosomal dominant trait and cause A-beta accumulation in the brain.[ However, the pathological consequence of some mutations detected in small AD families is uncertain and needs further investigation. Recently, we proposed to use a systematic algorithm to classify mutations in known AD genes as possibly, probably, or definitely pathogenic. Leads were identified based on several physiochemical properties and we created our library with those new molecules that were generated based on Lipinski's rule of five. We carried out high throughput screening and molecular docking on 65 molecules from scaffolds selected. Screening of molecules was based on the criterions such as, TOPKAT and ADMET properties. Among the ligands used, only three compounds were identified to have interaction within the targeted domain. To be more specific about our drug candidate we suggest noname 3 to be the most potent molecule in terms of physiochemical and docking properties. These results suggest that the identified compounds have the potential to inhibit PSEN-1 binding in Alzheimer. Keywords: PSEN-1, modeling, TOPKAT, ADMET, receptor, ligand, docking, pharmacophore
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Abstract: American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) harbor and disseminate the microorganisms to the environment. They play important role in the transmission of different diseases either mechanically, occasionally and biologically. The presence of these cockroaches in the kitchens is an indicator of poor food hygiene. These pathogenic bacteria along with their vector not only detoriate our environment but also contaminate our food. Cockroaches may spread a range of diseases. Cockroaches are a health hazard. They carry bacteria on their bodies from sewers, drains and garbage areas and then transmit it to individuals by visiting their kitchens. The study was attempted to isolate the pathogenic bacteria from the household kitchens or the kitchen areas of different hotels/restaurants. Cockroaches were collected from kitchens by using sticky traps or direct collection. All the collected cockroaches were selected for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. From the collected Periplaneta americana, pathogenic species of bacteria like E.coli, salmonella, staphylococcus and streptococcus were isolated and identified by growth in their selective media using microbial techniques. The external body parts of all the collected American cockroaches were found contaminated with above mention species of bacteria. These findings proved potential role of Periplaneta americana in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria to the humans. Results showed that presence of cockroaches in the kitchen due to unhygienic conditions can threaten the health of individuals and cause serious diseases. Key words: Pathogenic microorganisms, Periplaneta americana, E.coli, salmonella, staphylococcus.
. Agbodaze, D. and Owusu, S. B. 1989. Cockroaches (Periplanetta americana) as carriers of bacterial diarrhoea in Accra, Ghana. Central African Journal of Medicine, 35:484–486.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Determination of lethal dose (LD50) of Exotoxin A from seudomonasaeruginosa26A in mice histopathology|
|Authors||:||Essam F, Al-Jumaily, Bushra H. Saleh, Shalal M. Hussain|
Abstract: This study was conducted for investigating to determination of lethal dose (LD50) of purified toxin A produced frompseudomonas aeruginosa(26 A) strain in mice histopathology. LD50 of purified toxin A produced from pseudomonas aeruginosa26A strainwas detected after injection different concentration of purified toxin A (0.05 ,0.1, 0.2 ,0.25 ,1,2 and 4) μg/ ml in mice and lethality were recorded for five days which reveal that LD50 of purified toxin was 1 μg /ml. On the other hand histopathological examination of liver ,spleen and kidney in mice injected with high doses reveal significant histopatholgical degeneration .
Key words: lethal dose, Exotoxin A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, mice histopathology
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Abstract: The effect of pretreatment with carrot juice on the cytotoxic response of the antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidneys of rats exposed to mild doses of cadmium was examined. Male wistar strain rats (200-250 g b.wt) were exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water for two days following a 5-day oral supplementation with carrot juice as drinking water at the end of which membrane lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and cadmium content were determined in the liver and kidney samples and the results subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that pretreatment with carrot juice effectively countered Cd-induced membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of the non-enzymic antioxidants, ascorbic acid, and glutathione, and induction of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver and kidney as well as effectively reduced cadmium accumulation in the liver and kidney and cadmium-induced liver tissue cell injury, all of which effects are consistent with a protective effect of carrot juice The protective effect of carrot juice pretreatment against Cd-induced lipid peroxidation and tissue ascorbic acid and glutathione depletion was more pronounced in the kidney than in the liver. The active antioxidant principle was not determined but is presumed to be carotenoids. Keywords: Cadmium, Carrot, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymes endogenous antioxidants.
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Abstract: Gongronema latifolium is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The effect of ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolium on body weight, glucose level, lipid profile and hepatic markers was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. For the investigation, rats were divided into four groups (control, diabetic untreated, diabetic treated with two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) extracts of G. latifolium) . The control rats were administered tap water and normal rat diet while alloxan monohydrate in a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight was administered once intraperitoneally to all the groups except control after the rats were confirm to be diabetic, G. latifolium extract in two doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered for 14 days to diabetic treated rats goups C and D respectively. The results revealed that treatment with alloxan monohydrate significantly increase (p<0.05) glucose, Serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and a significant decrease in body weight and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in diabetic untreated rats when compared with the control. However, treatment with G. latifolium extracts significantly reduces (p<0.05) or reverses the changes caused by alloxan treatment in all examined parameters. This study showed that G. latifolium extracts exerted a hypoglycemic effect; improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats and positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.
Keywords: Alloxan monohydrate, Diabetes, Gongronema latifolium, Lipid profile, Liver marker enzymes
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