Volume-8 ~ Issue-1
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Abstract: In recent times, there has been an astronomical increase in the cases of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics by medical personnel in Akungba Akoko,Ondo State,Nigeria.It is just right for a study of this nature to be carried out in order to provide the important microbiological pieces of information to help medical practitioners to tackle this menance.Bacteria were isolated from inanimate object in hospitals in Ondo State which include: General Hospital, Iwaro-Oka; Reva Clinic, Akungba Akoko; University Health Centre, Akungba Akoko; and Comprehensive Health Centre, Akungba Akoko. In this study seven organism were isolated, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Aeruginosa sp, Klebsiella sp, Bacillus sp and Escherichia coli. All these organisms were identified based on their morphology and biochemical characteristics. The incidence of Staphylococcusaureus (34.8%) was found to be dominant out of the gram-positive bacteria isolated. The incidence of E. coli (44.4%) was found dominant out of the gram-negative bacteria isolated. Of the 70 isolates recovered, 43 (61.4%) were gram-positive while 27 (38.6%) were gram-negative. Multiple resistances were recorded against antibiotics used in this study. This study reveals that staphylococci, streptococci, bacillus, pseudomonas and enterbacteriaceae are predominant organism associated with inanimate object in hospitals. Effective hospital control and aseptic precaution will help reduce the incidence.
Keywords: bacteria, hospital, antibiotics, inanimate objects, antimicrobial.
. Todar, K. (2003). Bacillus cereus and Food poisoning. Todar's online Textbook of Bacteriology.
. Nakade Dhanraj, B., 2012. Antibiotic sensitivity of common Bacterial Pathogens against selected Quinolones. ISCA J. Biological Sci. 1(1): 77-79.
. Adebayo-Tayo, A.C., N.N. Odu, M.U. Michael and I.O. Okonko, 2012. Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Organisms isolated from Sea-foods in Uyo, South-Southern Nigeria. Nature and Science, 10(3): 61-70.
. Colodner, R., Z. Samra, N. Keller, H. Sprecher and C. Block., 2007. First national surveillance of susceptibility of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. to antimicrobials in Israel. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect Dis. 57(2): 201-205.
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. Cheesbrough, M., 2006. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 1st Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK., ISBN-10: 0521665450, pp: 434.
. Bauer, A.W., W.M. Kirby, J.C. Sherris and M. Turck, 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standard single disc method. American Journal Clinical Pathology 451:493-496.
. Halawani, E. and M. Shohayeb, 2008. Molecular Characterization of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Eenteritidis Isolated in Saudi Arabia. World Journal of Medical Sciences 3 (2): 65-70.
. Hsu, L.Y., T.Y. Tan, R. Jureen, T.H. Koh and P. Krishnan, 2007. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Singapore hospitals. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 13(12):1944-1947.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Ocimum Sanctum. L.|
|Authors||:||Nita Supriya Massey, E.N. Siddiqui|
Abstract: A study of diversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in root of medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum. L. locally known as Krishna Tulsi was conducted at Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India. Microscopic analysis of the mycorrhizal status of roots has revealed that all recovered spores were found to belong to the class – Zygomycotina. The two genus found were Glomus and Acaulospora. The species recorded are G. fasciculatum and G. mosseae belonging to order Glomales and family glomaceae.
Key words : AM Fungi, Ocimum sanctum, Glomus, Acaulospora, Jharkhand.
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. Bisht, N.S., Singh, Y.P., Rajesh Kumar and Suresh, Sharma, L. (1995) : Mycorrhizal hot spots of Himalayas : Conservation strategies. In Mycorrhizal : bio festilizer for future The proceedings of Third National Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds. Adholeya, Alok and Singh, Sujan) TERI, Pub : 38-41
. De, C. (2003) : Ph.D. Thesis, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag.
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. Gerdemann. J.W. and Nicolson, T.H. (1963) : Spores of Mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting technique. Tsansactions of British Mycological Society, 46 : 235-243.
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. Gupta, M.L. and Janardhanan, K.K. (1991) : Mycorrhizal association of Glomus aggregatum with palmarosa enhance growth and biomass. Plants and Soil 13 (2) : 261-63.
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. Mycorrhizal association in medicinal plants of Maruthmalai Hills, Western Ghats, Southern India, J. Mycoal, PL. Pathol. 31 No. 2200, 180-184.
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Abstract: Effect of methanolic extract of musa sapientum sucker (MEMSS) in indomethacin-induced ulceration in Wistar rats was investigated. Thirty albino rats (120-150g) were divided into six groups. Negative and positive control rats (group 1 and 2) received no treatment and indomethacin (50mg/kg) respectively. Group 3 rats received Omeprazole (0.8mg/kg) 4hours following indomethacin (50mg/kg) intoxication. Groups 4, 5, and 6 received 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg of MEMSS respectively 4hour after indomethacin (50mg/kg) induction. Treatment last for fourteen days and dosing was via oral route. Rats were anaesthetized and sacrificed 24hours following last treatment. In our results, we scored ulcer induction by indomethacin using elevated biomarker enzymes. Indomethacin (50mg/kg) administered alone increased (p< 0.05) hepatic and renal alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (LALT, LAST and KALT, KAST) by 311.2%, 170.8% and 123.7%, 109.7% respectively when compared with control negative group. Similarly, MEMSS significantly reduced the elevated LALT, LAST and KALT, KAST quantitatively when compared with positive control (IDM) group. MEMSS when administered at graded doses (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) increased (p< 0.05) catalase levels, liver and kidney SOD levels (p< 0.05) when compared with control groups. 20mg/kg of MEMSS increased liver and renal reduced glutathione by 69.6% and 32.7% respectively. In conclusion, MEMSS possesses antioxidant benefits against indomethacin-induced ulceration and oxidative stress in rats which could attracts further histomorphological studies.
Key words: Musa sapientum sucker, Indomethacin, Ulceration, Antioxidants
. Adewoye E. O., Taiwo V.O., Olayioye F. A. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities of Musa sapientum root extracts in alloxaninduced diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2009; 38, 109–117.
. Agarwal P.K, Singh A, Gaurav K, Goel S, Khanna H.D & Goel R.K, Evaluation of Wound healing activity of extracts of plantain Banana (Musa sapientum Var. Paradisiaca) in rats. Indian journal of experimental Biology, 47: 32-40, (2009).
. Alisi C.S., Nwanyanwu C.E., Akujobi C.O., Ibegbulem C.O. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in pathogenic bacteria isolates by aqueous extracts of Musa paradisiaca (var. sapientum). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2008; 7(12): 1821-1825.
. Beutler E., O. Duron, and B. M. Kelly, "Improved method forthe determination of blood glutathione," The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 61, pp. 882–888, 1963.
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. Goel R.K., Sairam K. Anti-ulcer Drugs from Indigenous Sources with Emphasis on Musa sapientum, Tamrabhasma, Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2002; 34: 100-110.
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. Jachak S.M., Saklani A. Challenges and opportunities in drug discovery from plants. Curr. Sci., 2007; 92(9): 1251-1257.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Phytosociological Study At Tundun Wada, A Village Adjoining Wild Life Park Jos, Nigeria|
Abstract: Phytosociological study of woody vegetation was conducted at Tundun Wada, village adjoining Wild Life Park, Jos, Nigeria to determine the effect of human activities on the vegetation. Two sites were earmarked measuring 100m x 100m (10, 000m2 = 1ha). One site was close to human settlement (disturbed site) and the other within the park (undisturbed site) which served as control. At each of these sites, phytosociological studies by complete enumeration method was conducted to determine percentage, frequency, density, abundance, girth at breast height, diameter, dominance (Basal Area) and importance value index. The result indicated lower value, species composition and generally lower values of the phytosociological parameters studied at the disturbed site. A factor attributed to human interference. As no buffer zone exists, these human activities constitute a major threat, through encroachment, to the Wild Life Park. Urgent conservation measures are therefore need by the Nigerian National Parks Service.
Key Words: Phytosociological, Wild Life
. Costing, H.J. (1958). The Study of Plant Communities. WH. Freeman and Co. Sanfrancisco Inc.
. History of Jos and Political Development of Nigeria, Sen. Luka Gowon Zanaabadt.
. Hopkin . B. & Standfield, D.P. (1966). A fieldto Savana Trees of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press Ltd. Ibadan-Nigeria.
. Misra, R. (1968) Ecology Work Book. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.Calcutta. Pp 244.
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. Sharma, B.M. (1981). Phytosiological Study of Weed community in Fallow Land in Semi-Arid Zone of India. Weed Science 29:290.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Impact of Organic and Inorganic Manure on the Cultivation of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima)|
Abstract: A field experiment to assess the effect of organic and inorganic manure on cucurbita was conducted at the demonstration farm at Enugu metropolis Nigeria. The layout was four plots with four replications designed in a complete randomized block design. The treatment were applied at three levels viz: poultry droppings at 5, 10 and 15g, cow dung at 5, 10 and 15g, sheep dung at 15g and NPK at 5, 10 and 15g application rates per 195 Square meters respectively. The study revealed that cow dung gave the highest leaf yield, followed by NPK and poultry droppings which gave the next leaf yield. Sheep dung produced the lowest leaf yield during the experimental period. Suggestions were made as to which organic manure is best to be used as an alternative to the inorganic manure (NPK) for the production of cucurbita.
Key Words: Organic, Inorganic, Manure, Pumpkin
. E.H. Samray, (1979).Journal of agricultural Education Vol. I for Schools and Colleges Published by Ahmadu Bello University Zaira.17-21.
. E.M. Akinsanmi, (1991), Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools (3rd edition). Ibadan University Press Limited. 22-23.
. G.W. Cooke, (1982). Fertilizer for maximum yields. Journal of research and development. Auburn University Alabama.vo..1 (22): 396-100.
. I.I., Hignette, E.U., Onweremadu, & N.N. Oti, (2006). Effective of poultry manure on green cucurbita and amaratus leaf on Degraded Utisol of Owerri South Eastern Nigeria. JAVA 5 (1) 53-6.
. I.I., Ibeawuchi, E.U.,Onweremadu, & N.N. Oti, (2006). Effects of Poverty Manure on green and Curcubita on degraded utisol of Owerri South Eastern Nigeria. JAVA 5 (1) 53-6.
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. M.N., Alam, M.N., Jahan. M.K., Ali, M.S., Islam, & S.M. Khandakar, (2007).Effective of vermicompost and NPKS fertilizer on growth and yield components of red cucurbita. Australian Journal of basic and applied sciences 1 (4) 706-16.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Physico Chemical and Biological Study on the Lentic Water Bodies of Palakkad, Kerala|
|Authors||:||Jipsa.J.R, Divya.K.R, Dr.S.Logaswamy, Dr.K.Manonmani|
Abstract: The water analysis of physico-chemical and biological parameters is very important for public health studies. Ponds are found inside the temples or outside the temples.. However, temple ponds located outside the temples are used by peoples for bathing and even washing clothes. Limnological features of two such temple ponds, the Ramott pond and Guruswamiyar pond were undertaken in the present study. The biological parameters of the ponds were also made during the study. In the present investigation all the parameters showed higher values in Pond B compared to Pond A. All values are found to be within or less than the permissible limit. Both ponds showed an oligotrophic nature with the presence of poor nutrients and low vegetation. Both ponds are unpolluted fresh water bodies which have no chemical or sewage pollution.
Keywords: Pollution, Ramott, Guruswamiyar, Phytoplanktons, oligotrophic.
. Sukumaran, M., Brinth, M. and Mathavan Pillai. 2008.PH Species composition and diversity of phytoplankton of Pechparai dam. India. J. of Ther. And Expl. Bio. 4(4): 157-161.
. Pandey., Ushapandey Tyagi, H. R. and Rai, N. 1998. Algal flora and physico-chemical environment of Fatehsakerlake.Phycos.,37(187): 29-30.
. Wetzel, R. G. 1983.Limnology, 2nd ed.Saunders CO., Philadelphia.
. Kot, B., Baranowski, R. and Rybak, A. 2000.Analysis of mine water using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Polish J. Environ, Stud. 9.429.
. Anithakumari, L.R. and Aziz, P.K.A. 1989. Limnology of temple tank in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. J.inland fish.Soc. India., 21(2):31-36.
. Maya, S., Kumari, S. P. and Menon, S.V. 2001. Quality profile of selected temple tanks of southern Kerala - A study. Proc. 13th Kerala Science Congress, Thrissur. Pp. 511-517.
. Maya, S., Prameela, S. K. and Menon, S. V. 2000. A preliminary study on the algal flora of temple tanks of Southern Kerala. Phycos., 39(1&2), 77-83.
. Prameela, S. K., Maya, S. and Menon, S.v. 2001. Phytoplankton diversity of temple tanks of four coastal district of Kerala. Proc. 13th Science Congress. Thrissur. pp.203-204.
. Maya, S. 2002. Harvesting water in temple tanks through people's participation. A feasibility study. Nature Environ. Pollut. Tech., 1(4): 375-378.
. APHA . 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste waters, 21st Edn., Washington. DC.USA
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Subchronic Oral Toxicity of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of AnogeissusLeiocarpus on Albino Rats|
|Authors||:||Dayom DW, Wannang NN, Bukar BB, Afedia E|
Abstract: Background/Purpose:- Natural products are the cornerstone of healthcare delivery in many poor-resource countries like Nigeria. However, they pose great potentials for systemic toxicity which should be identified and avoided or at least minimized. Method:- The effect of Anogeissusleiocarpus leaves was tested on the haematological parameters and some isolated organ morphology of rats following subchronic oral feeding of the rats with the aqueous extract for between 7-28 days. Result:- The plant decreased (p<0.05) platelet counts at all doses in the first 7 days of treatment. After 14-day treatment, changes in WBCs, RBCs, PCV and Hb were not significant (P>0.1). However, following 28 days of treatment, RBCs, PCV and Hb increased (p<0.05) while changes in other parameters were not significant. There was no significant effect on kidney, liver and heart except a decrease (p<0.05) in dry weights of the isolated organs at 300mg/kg following 28-day treatment. There was no visible histopathologicchangs in the isolated organs sectioned. Conclusion: - Anogeissusleiocarpus leave extract caused fluctuating dose-independent changes in blood parameters and isolated organ weights. It is substantially non-toxic as the observed changes were not significant to preclude its use.
Keywords: Anogeissusleiocarpus leaf, rats, subchronic toxicity, oral feeding.
 P.A.Akah, Indigenous Knowledge and Medical Practice, In P.A. Akah (Ed.), Ethnopharmacology(Research Signpost, Kerela, India. 2008, 1-13).
 J.R. Appidi, D.S. Grierson, and A.S. Afolayan,Ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape South Africa. Pakistan J. Biol. Sc. 11,2008, 1961-1963.
 D. Sani, S. Sanni, and S.I. Ngulde, Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of aqueous extract of the stem of Anisopusmannii. J. Med Plant Res., 3,2009, 112-115.
 S.S. Baghel, S. Dangi,SoniP, P. Singh and Y. Shivhare,Acute Toxicity Study of Aqueous Extract of Cocciniaindica(Roots) Asian J. Res. Pharm.; Vol. 1(1),2011, 23-25.
 C.E. Ekpenyong, U.P. Akpan, E.E. Ben, E.O. Nwama and J.O. Ibu, Haematological effect of chronic administration of ethanolic extract ofGarciniaconruanaseed on rat,Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 4,2011, 173-176.
 A. Singh, R. Kumar, Nivedita, J.K. Singh andTanuja,Radioprotective effect of Eclipta alba (L.) against radiation induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice.Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 4, 2011, 177-183.
 E.E. Ilodigwe, P.A. Akah, C.S. Nworu, Evaluation of the Acute and Subchronic Toxicities of Ethanol Leaf Extract of SpathodeacampanulataP.Beauv. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 3 (2), 2010, 17-21.
 A. Lagarto, V. Bueno, I. Guerra, O. Valdés, T. Gabilondo and J. Rodríguez,Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicities of Justiciapectoralisextract in WistarRats,The Open NaturalProducts Journal, 2, 2009,53-58.
 S.A. Mansour1, A.H. MossaandT.M. Heikal,Haematoxicity of a New Natural Insecticide "Spinosad" on Male Albino Rats. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 2, 2007, 342–346.
 A.O.T. Ashafa, T.O. Sunmonu and A.J. Afolayan,Effects of leaf and berry extracts of PhytolaccadioicaL. on haematological and weight parameters of Wistarrats,African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 5(2), 2011, 150-154.
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Abstract: Introduction: Breast cancer is a public health problem that is increasing throughout the world especially in developing countries. The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast self examination (BSE) among women in Ala (rural) community, in Akure North Local Government. Ondo state, Nigeria
Keywords: Breast cancer, Breast Self-Exam, Knowledge, Practices, Rural
 World Health Organization (WHO). Breast cancer: prevention and control. http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/ en/print.html (last access: 28/09/12).
 World Health Organization (WHO). Screening and early detection of cancer. http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/en/ (last access: 27/09/12).  Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, et al. Global cancer statistics,2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005;55:74-108.
 Adebamowo CA, Ajayi OO. Breast cancer in Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2000;19:179-91.
 Ferlay J, Shin H-R, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM: Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010,127:2893–2917.
 Banjo AAF. Overview of breast cancer and cervical cancers in Nigeria: are there regional variations? Paper presented at the international workshop on new trends in management of breast and cervical cancers, Lagos, Nigeria 2004
 Bray F, Ren J-S, Masuyer E, Ferlay J: Global estimates of cancer prevalence for 27 sites in the adult population in 2008. Int J Cancer 2012, doi:doi:10.1002/ijc.27711. [Epub ahead of print] Pub Med PMID: 22752881.
 Okobia, M.N., Bunker, C.H., Okonofua, F.E. and Osime, U. (2006) Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer; a cross sectional study. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 21, 1-9
 Aderounmu AOA, Egbewale BE, Ojofeitimi EO, Fadiora SO, Oguntola AS, Asekun-Olarinmoye EO, Adeoti ML, Akanbi O: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the educated and non-educated women to cancer of the breast in semi-urban and rural areas of Southwest, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J 2006, 13:182–188.
 Kayode, F.O., Akande, T.M. and Osagbemi G.K. (2005) Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self examina- tion among female secondary school teachers in Ilorin, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 10, 42.
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Abstract: Recent interest in infectious disease threats to clinical microbiology and public health is the emergence of pathogens with high multidrug resistance especially to available newer broad spectrum antibiotics that is cost prohibitive and are not even within the reach of the poor, making infectious diseases a global burden and therefore prompting the need for the search of potential plants in the treatment of diseases. However antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera defatted seed (MODS) and seed coat (MOSC) was conducted. Paper disc diffusion method was used to assess the effect of the extracts on Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Salmonella Typhi, Proteus mirabilis, all the examined extract showed varying degrees of antibacterial activities against the selected pathogens. Highest inhibitory effect was observed in Proteus mirabilis (19mm) following Salmonella Typhi (16mm) with the Moringa oleifera seed extract, these strains S. Typhi and Proteus mirabilis were resistant to ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera seed coat along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from extract on the test isolates ranges from a 0.1mg/ml- 100mg/ml concentration. This study has shown that the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera seed possess some degree of antimicrobial activity than ethanol extract of the seed coat and could be a valuable Drug in the treatment of infections caused by the test organisms especially at high dose, therefore these findings support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of different infections in the area.
Key words: Moringa oleifera, Test Organisms, Antibacterial Activity, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
. Abdulmoneim, MS, Abu-Zaid IE (2011). An in vitro antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera L. seed extracts against different groups of microorganisms Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 129-134.
. Ahmad, I, Aqil, F (2007). In vitro efficacy of bioactive extracts of 15 medicinal plants against ESâL-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria. Microbiol Res; 162: 264-75.
. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Al-Nuri MA, Yaghmour RM, Faidi YR (1997). Antimicrobial activity of Micromeria nervosa from the Palestinian area. J Ethnopharmacol, 1997, 58(3): 143-147. . Azoro, C (2000). Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Azadirachita indica on Salmonella typhi. World Journal of Biotechnology, 3:347-351
. Berkowitz, FE (1995). Antibiotic resistance in bacteria, South. Med. J . 88,797-804.
. Cheesbrough, M (2000). District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge University press, United Kingdom. 2:157-199.
. Gayatri, DK. Koley, M. Vadlamudi, VP, Akhilesh, M, Anjana, P and Hirpurkar, DS (2010). (drumstick) root bark. Antibacterial activity of Moringa Oleifera. J. Chem. Pharm. Res, 2(6):424-428
. Jamil, A, Shahid, M, Khan, MM, Ashraf, M (2007). Screening of some medicinal plants for isolation of antifungal proteins and peptides. Pak. J. Bot., 39(1): 211-221.
. Julia, C (2008). A study of nutritional and medicinal values of Moringa oleifera leaves from subsaharan Africa: Ghana, Rwanda Senegal and Zambia. M.S theisis Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Pp 1
. Junaid, SA, Olabode AO, Onwuliri FC, Okworiu AEJ, Agina SE (2006). The antimicrobial properties of Ocimum gratissimum extracts on some selected bacterial gastrointestinal isolates. Afri. J. Biotechnol. 5 (22): 2315-2321.
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Abstract: The effects of freeze-drying and extraction solvents on total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant properties of five rabbiteye blueberry genotypes, namely 'Centurion', 'Maru', 'Rahi', 'Ono', and 'Tifblue', were investigated. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities were found between extracts from different genotypes and between freeze-dried and unfreeze-dried samples. Crude water extracts from the berries of 'Tifblue' had the highest TPC and TFC followed by 'Ono', 'Centurion', 'Rahi', and 'Maru'. Acidification by 5% (v/v) formic acid resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in TPC and TFC in water extracts and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) when compared with unacidified water. The results showed that freeze dried whole berries extracted in 5% aqueous formic acid demonstrated significantly higher (P < 0.0001) antioxidant activity, as measured by FRAP and ORAC, than those extracted in water alone and this was the case for all the tested genotypes. Overall, a strong positive correlation was observed between TPC and TFC and antioxidant activity measured by FRAP or ORAC, indicating that these compounds are significant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the tested blueberry genotypes.
Keywords: antioxidant activity, blueberry genotypes, FRAP, freeze drying, ORAC, phenolic compounds
 Lila, M. A. (2004). Anthocyanins and human health: an in vitro investigation approach. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 5, 306-313.  Stevenson D. E. and Hurst R. D. (2007). Polyphenolic phytochemicals - just antioxidants or much more? Cell and Molecular Life Science 64, 2900-16.  Seeram, N. P. (2008). Berry fruits for cancer prevention: Current status and future prospects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 630-635.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||"Enteric Manifestations Management, Introspection."|
|Authors||:||Dr.Anil K. Sahni|
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Commonly Prevalent Clinical Problem, Enteric Infections Are Caused By Variety Of Organisms Of Variable Strains, Virulence, Pathogenecity, Epidemiolgy & Geographical Distribution."Salmonellosis‟ Caused By Different Salmonella Sp.Changing Species/SubSpecies Strains Variety & Their Sensitivity To Anti-Biotics, Debilitating Diseases, Malignancy, HIV, Immuno-Compromised Status Render Difficult Disease Control, Necessitates Discrete Surgical Observation, Intervention, In Disease Process Variable Clinico-Pathological Manifestations.
Keywords: 1.Enteric (Typhoid) Infections;Epidemiology, Distribution 2. Severity Of Infections;? Changing Strains, Systemic Complications 3. Medical Therapy Appropriation 4. Surgical Intervention;Treatment Modalities Discretion.
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