Volume-8 ~ Issue-2
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Human Systems Biology|
|Authors||:||Bhrugesh P. Joshi, Roshni K. Bhatt, DR. R. Krishnamurthy|
Abstract:Human Systems Biology (HSB) is the pertinence of computational biology to Human health and disease, with scrupulous emphasis on the contrive of cellular, molecular and structural biology. HSB is a relatively new field of network analysis and systems biology. That focuses on the, high quality databases, the analyses of data that are generated in systems biology and network medicine approaches and the generation of testable hypothesis. HSB originally emerged as an ameliorate the drug discovery and development process. However HSB now plays an elaborating paramount role in many areas of proteomics, genomics, metabonomics biophysics and biomedical engineering. HSB can also be applied to new drug invention for pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords: Human disease, New drug application, Whole organ modeling.
 Wolf-Yadlin A, Kumar N, Zhang Y, Hautaniemi S, Zaman M, Kim HD, Grantcharova V, Lauffenburger DA, White FM Effects of HER2 overexpression on cell signaling networks governing proliferation and migration. Molecular Systems Biology, 2, 2006, 54.
 Leha´r J, Zimmermann GR, Krueger AS, Molnar RA, Ledell JT, Heilbut AM, Short GF, Giusti LC, Nolan GP, Magid OA, Lee MS, Borisy AA, Stockwell BR, Keith CT Chemical combination effects predict connectivity in biological systems. Molecular Systems Biology, 3, 2007, 80.
 Loscalzo J, Isaac Kohane I, Barabasi AL Human disease classification in the postgenomic era: a complex systems approach to human pathobiology. Molecular Systems Biology, 3, 2007,124.
 Ergu¨n A, Lawrence CA, Kohanski MA, Brennan TA, Collins JJ A network biology approach to prostate cancer. Molecular Systems Biology, 3, 2007, 82.
 Knickerbocker T, Chen JR, Thadhani R, MacBeath G An integrated approach to prognosis using protein microarrays and nonparametric methods. Molecular Systems Biology, 3, 2007, 123.
 Butcher E Can cell systems biology rescue drug discovery? Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 4(6), 2005, 461-67.
 Hunter P, Robbins P & Noble D The IUPS human physiome project. European Journal of Physiology, 445, 2002, 1-9.
 Huntjens DR, Danhof M & Della Pasqua OE Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlations and biomarkers in the development of COX-2 inhibitors. Rheumatology, 44(7) 2005, 846-59.
 Kitano H Systems biology: a brief overview. Science, 295, 2002, 1662-64.
 Westerhoff HV & Palsson B (2004). The evolution of molecular biology into systems biology. Nature Biotechnology, 22, 2004, 1249-52
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Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of recurrent furunculosis in terms of age, gender and genetic basis from infected volunteers in university college hospital Ibadan Nigeria. A total of 102 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from various anatomical pathological skin lesion were obtained from four hundred biochemically characterized samples. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolates was determine by Kirby Bauer and broth dilution method. β-lactamase potential of the isolates was determined by iodometric cell suspension methods and plasmid profiles by the use of lystostaphin for lyzing the cell wall. The percentage gender distributions were 46.0% females and 54.0% males. The isolates exhibited the lowest resistance of 11.75% to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 55.88% as the highest resistance to tetracycline. Thirty of the isolates possessed β-lactamase in varying degrees out of which 29 were plasmid-borne and 7.0 had multiple plasmid DNA of 2-4 copies, ranging between 2.20 and 23.10 kb. The resistance elicited by the strains evident in the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of the selected antibiotics and the associated R-plasmid encoded β-lactamase recorded accounted for the recurrent furunculosis which was found to vary among gender and age groups.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Plasmid DNA, Recurrent furuncle, Staphylococcus aureus.
. Abdul, H.K.and Dipak, K.P. Antibiotic susceptibility and R-plasmid mediated drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Science .2005; 15:31-34.
. Adeleke, O.E. and Odelola H.I. Plasmid profiles of multidrug resistant local strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Afri.J.Med sci 1997; (18): 119-121
. Asheshov, E.H. The genetics of penicillinase production in Staphylococcus aureus strain PS80. J Gen Microbiol. 1969; 59(3):289–301.
. Atkinson, B.A. and Lorian, V. Antimicrobial agent susceptibility patterns of bacterial in hospital from 1971-1982. Clin. Microbiol. 1984; (20):791-5
. Bauer, A., Kirby, W., Sherns,W. et.al., Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am J Clin Pathol, 1966; 45:493-496.
. Binswanger, I.A. Kral, A.H, Bluthenal, R.N., et. al., High prevalence of abscesses Biol. 2000; 18: 261-269.
. Bimboin, H.C, Doly,J. A rapid alkaline procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acid Res. 1979; 7:1513-1523 . Bobrowski, M.M. Bacterial β-1actamases and their significance in resistance to penicillin and cephalosporins. Postepy Med. Doshiadczalnej. 1974; 28(4): 587.
. Catlin, B.W.Iodometric detection of Hemophilus influenzae ß-lactamase. Rapid presumptive test for ampicillin and cephalosporin resistance. Antimicrob Agen Chemother .1975; 7:265-70.
. Cheesbrough, M. District Laboratory practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2. Cambridge University press 2002; 544-52.
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Abstract: Ten important herbal plants from the South-west of Nigeria were analyzed for their heavy metal (K, Na, Ca, Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and P) and macro-nutrient status using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The most prevalent heavy metals were K (162 – 524 mg/mL) and Ca (102 – 472 mg/mL) followed by Mg (48.10 – 136.00 mg/mL) and Na (3.51 – 10.10 mg/L). The highest level of K (524.00 ± 5.70mg/mL) and Ca (472.00 ± 1.44 mg/mL) were found in Senna alata and Senna podocarpa, respectively. Out of all the plants, Dissotia rotundifolia had the highest concentrations of Mg (136.00 ± 0.28 mg/mL) and Na (10.10 ± 0.03 mg/mL). The results showed that the level of Cu (0.65 – 1.48 mg/mL) and Zn (2.40 – 6.77 mg/mL) found in the herbal plants were much lower than the reported range of the elements in agricultural products.
Keywords: medicinal plants, digestion, macronutrient status, agricultural products
. Adeleke RO, Abiodun OA (2010) Nutritional composition of breadfruit seed (Artocarpus camansi). African Journal of Agricultural Research 5, 1273- 1276
. Ajasa AMO, Bell MO, Ibrahim AO, Ogunwande IA, Olawore NO (2004) Heavy trace metals and micronutrients status in herbal plants of Nigeria. Food Chemistry 85, 67-71
. Ajayi IA, Dawodu FA, Adebowale KO, Oderinde RA (2004) A study of the oil content of Nigeria grown Monodora myristica seeds for its nutritional and industrial applications. Pakistan Journal Industrial Research 47, 60-65
. Ajayi IA, Oderinde RA, Ogunkoya BO, Egunyomi A, Taiwo VO (2007) Chemical analysis and preliminary toxicological evaluation of Garcinia mangostana seeds and seed oil. Food Chemistry 101, 99-1004
. Ajayi IA, Oderinde RA, Taiwo VO, Agbedana EO (2008) Short-term toxicological evaluation of Terminalia catappa, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Calophyllum inophyllum seed oils in rats. Food Chemistry 106, 458-465
. Ajayi IA, Aghanu VN (2011) Chemical characterization of Monodora tenuifolia seeds from Nigeria. Seed Science and Biotechnology 5, 59-62
. Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk EU (2000) Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.). Food Chemistry 70, 235 -240
. Allaway WH (1968) Agronomic controls over environmental cycling of trace elements. Advances in Agronomy 20, 235-274
. Aliyu AB, Musa AM, Oshanimi JA, Ibrahim HA, Oyewale AO (2008) Phytochemical analyses and mineral elements composition of some medicinal plants of Northern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 7, 119-125
. Ansari R, Kazi TG, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Wagan MD, Jaibani N, Afridi HI, Shah AQ (2009) Variation in accumulation of heavy metals in different verities of sunflower seed oil with the aid of multivariate technique. Food Chemistry 115, 318-323
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Bacteriological and Physicochemical Analyses of Borehole and Well Water Sources in Ijebu-Ode, Southwestern Nigeria|
|Authors||:||O. O. Bello, A. Osho, S.A. Bankole, T. K. Bello|
Abstract: An investigative study was carried out to determine the bacteriological and physicochemical qualities of borehole and well water samples in Ijebu-Ode, Southwestern Nigeria. Ten water samples each of borehole and well water sources were collected within the geographical location. Physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The total bacterial count was determined by pour plate technique and total coliform determined using 3-3-3 regimen. Identifications of isolates were done using standard methods. The colour and turbidity of water samples were within the normal range. Eight genera of bacteria which include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Enterococcus sp, Proteus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the water samples. Total bacterial count in borehole and well waters sampled ranged from zero to 2.5 x 102 cfu/ml and zero to 8.1 x 102 cfu/ml, respectively. The total coliform count of the borehole waters analyzed ranged from zero to 16 MPN index of coliform/100 ml while that of well waters ranged from 16 to 1100 MPN index of coliform/100 ml of the water samples. All borehole water samples had zero faecal coliform count while in well water samples, count ranged from zero to 4.1 x 102 cfu/ml. It was concluded that not all borehole waters are safe for consumption and well waters were of poorer bacteriological qualities indicative of health risk to the inhabitants of the geographical location.
Keywords: Borehole, bacteria, coliforms, well, water, quality
. DFID. Addressing the Water Crisis: Healthier and more productive lives for poor people, Strategies for achieving the international development targets. Department for International Development: UK., 2001,2 – 3.
. A.M. MacDonald and J. A Davies. Brief Review of Groundwater for Rural Water Supply in Sub-Saharan Africa. British Geological Survey Technical Report WC/00/33, Nottingham, UK. 2000, 9-10.
. HTN. Focus on Africa, a critical need. Network for Cost-Effective Technologies in Water Supply and Sanitation, St. Gallien, Switzerland, 2003, 15-19.
. Diwi Consult and Bureau d'Ingénierie pour le Développement Rural (BIDR). Etudes d' Réhabilitation des Points d' Eau Existants. 1994, 11-13
. DWD. Overview of the Water Sector, Reform, SWAP and Financial Issues. Directorate of Water Development, Ministry of Water, Lands and Environment, The Republic of Uganda. 1(1), 2002, 12-15.
. D. Hazelton. The development of community water supply systems using deep and shallow well handpumps. WRC Report No, TT132/00, Water Research Centre, South Africa, 2000, 22-24.
. World Bank. Mali Rural Water Supply Project. Performance Audit Report No. 16511, World Bank, Washington DC. 1997, 10-12.
. Harvey, P.A. and Reed, R.A. Rural Water Supply in Africa: Building blocks for handpump sustainability. WEDC, Loughborough University, UK., 2004, 46- 49.
. J.C. Semenza, L. Roberts, A. Henderson, J. Bogan and C.H. Rubin. "Water Distribution System and Diarrheal Disease Transmission: A Case Study in Uzbekistan." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59(6),1998, 941-946.
. M. Wegelin and B. Sommer. "Solar water disinfection (SODIS) - Destined for worldwide use?" Waterlines 16(3), 2002, 30-32..
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Cognitive Effect of the Sub-Chronic Exposure to Mosquito Coil Smoke in Mice|
|Authors||:||Mshelia, P.P, Magaji, R.A, Dikko, A.U.A|
Abstract: The aim of this experiment is to investigate the cognitive effect of the sub-chronic exposure to mosquito coil smoke in mice. A total of 28 adult mice were used. The mice were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control group and got exposed to environment air, while group 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours of mosquito coil smoke respectively for 6 weeks. Learning and memory test were conducted after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks of exposure. The brains were harvested, homogenized and samples analysed for Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Acetylcholinestrase (AChE). The result showed that mosquito coil smoke significantly (P˂0.05) decrease Learning and Memory. Oxidative stress might have played role in the decreased Learning and Memory. This study indicates the toxic effect of mosquito coil smoke.
Keywords: Learning, Lipid peroxidation, Memory, Mosquito coil smoke, Pyrethroids
 McKean, E. "Mosquito Coil". The New Oxford American Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2005 , 1105.
 Sharma, V.P., Health Hazards of Mosquito Repellents and Safe Alternative. Current Sciences.80 (3) ,2001, 341.
 Linda, C.K and John, H.C, Mosquito coil smoke and Respiratory Health Among Hong Kong Chinese. Result of Three Epidemiological Studies, Indoor Environ 3, 1994, 304-310
 USEPA.(1998). Pesticides Evaluation Scheme, Division of Control of Tropical Diseases, Guideline Specifications for Household Insecticides Products. Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
 Azizi, B.H., and Henry, R.L, The Effects of Indoor Environmental Factors on Respiratory Illness in Primary School Children in Kaula Lumpur. Int. J. Epidemiol 20, 1991, 144 – 50.
 Fagbule, D and Ekanem, E.E. Some Environmental Risk Factors for Childhood Ashma: A Case Control Study. Annals of Tropical Pediatrics. 14(1), 1994, 15 – 9.
 Liu, K.W and Wong, M.H. Toxic effects of mosquito coil (a mosquito repellent) smoke on rats: II. Morphological changes of the respiratory system. Toxicology Letters. 39(2-3), 1987, 231-239.
 Panda , N.C. Kidney in : Textbook of Biochemistry and Human biology. 2nd ed. Prentise hall India. 1999, 296
 Cheesbrough, M. Clinical chemistry tests in: District laboratory practice in tropical countries campbridge new edition part I, 1998, 331-363.
 Okine, L.K.N., Nyarko, A.K., Armah, G.E., Awumbila, B., Owusa, K., Setsoafia, S and Ofosuhene, M. Adverse Effects of Mosquito Coil Smoke on Lung, Liver and Certain Drugs Metabolising Enzymes in Male Albino Wistar Rats.Ghana Medical Journal. 38(2),2004, 8-14
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Review on Physiological, Biochemical and Biotechnological Applications of Mushroom|
|Authors||:||Sanjay Mishra, R.B. Singh|
Abstract: Mushrooms are a manifestation of a common saying, 'Medicines and foods have a common origin', in constituting both a nutritionally functional food and a source of physiologically beneficial medicine. The review article covers the data obtained from the broad-range studies focused on physiological and biochemical worth of varieties as well as mode of nutrition of mushroom and may provide an overview for physiologists, biochemists and biotechnologists to propagate their research on still obscure nutraceutical significance of edible mushrooms.
Keywords: L-carnitine, Lipid peroxidation, Lipid profile, Liver function, Mushroom, Mushroom extract, Swiss Albino rat,
 Sharma V, Kalim S, Srivastava MK, Nanda S, Mishra S. Oxidative stress and coxsakievirus infections act as mediators of beta cell damage: a review. Sci Res Essay 2009; 4 (2): 42-58
 Nanda S, Mishra S, Varshney VP, Singh RB. A biotechnological approach to apoptosis of somatic and germ cells in living organisms. The Open Nutraceuticals J 2010; 3: 81-93.
 Freo U, Pizzolato G, Dam M, Ori, C, Battistin L. A short review of cognitive and functional neuroimaging studies of cholinergic drugs: implications for therapeutic potentials. J Neural Transm 2002; 109: 857–70.
 Terry J, Buccafusco J J. The cholinergic hypothesis of age and Azheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits: recent challenges and their implications for novel drug development. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 306: 821–27.
 Harman D. Free radical theory of aging. Mutation Res 1992; 275: 257–66.
 Beckman B, Ames B.N. The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol Rev 1998; 78: 547–81.
 Cadenas E, Davies KJ. Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress and aging. Free Radical Biol Med 2000; 29: 222–30.
 Catherine MC, Michael CS, Michael LC, et al. Carnitine supplementation in premature neonates: Effect on plasma and red blood cell total carnitine concentrations, nutrition parameters and morbidity. Clinical Nutrition 2006; 25, 886–96
 Bremer J. The role of carnitine in cell metabolism. In: De Simone, C., Famularo, G. (Eds.), Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit Carnitine Today (Landes Bioscience Austin, TX, USA, International Copyright). Sringer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany; 1997; pp. 4-37.
 Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: Current perspectives. Int J Med Mushr 1999; 1(1): 31-62.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Biochemical Changes In Plasma and Liver of Clarias Gariepinus Exposed To Paraquat|
|Authors||:||Edori, O. S., Dibofori-Orji, A. N. Edori, E. S|
Abstract: Effect of sublethal concentrations of paraquat (2.00, 4.00, 6.00 and 8.00mg/L) and a control were examined in the African catfish Clarias gariepinus in the laboratory. The enzymes, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and electrolytes, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) were examined in the plasma and the liver of the fish. Results showed that AST and ALP increased significantly (P>0.05), while ALT either decreased or increased significantly (P>0.05) in the plasma. In the liver, AST activity either decreased or increased significantly (P>0.05) while that of ALP showed decreased activity only at 2.00mg/L concentration. ALT only showed a significant (P>0.05) decrease at 6.00mg/L concentration. Plasma Na+ increased significantly (P>0.05) in levels in all the exposure concentrations, while K+ only increased in the middle exposure concentrations (4.00 and 6.000mg/L). Cl- decreased significantly (P.0.05) in all the exposure concentrations. In the liver, there were marked significant (P>0.05) decrease in all the ions (Na+, K+ and Cl-) in all the test concentrations except K+ ion at 2.00mg/L. The result showed that paraquat induced serious biochemical changes in the catfish Clarias gariepinus after sublethal exposure which could be deleterious to the fish.
Key words: Plasma, liver, Clarias gariepinus, environment
. Adams, S. M., Ham,, M. S., Greeley, M. S., LeHew, R. F., Hinton, D. E. and Saylor, C. F. (1996). Downstream gradient in bioindicator responses: point source contaminant effects on fish health. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 53: 2177-2187
. Abdullaev, N. K. H. Kleiner, S. I. and Ruzybakiev, R. M. (1985). The effect of different pesticides on the functional status of the liver in relation to the duration of their action. Med. Zh. Uzb. 7: 45-47.
. Adedeji, B. O. (2010). Acute effect of diazinon on blood plasma biochemistry in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research, 2(1): 1-6.
. Amdur M. O. Doull J. and Klaassen C. D. (1991). Toxicology the basic science of poisons. 4th edition, Pergamon Press, New York.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Analysis of minerals and heavy metals in some spices collected from local market.|
|Authors||:||Farhin Inam , Sujata Deo , Neha Narkhede|
Abstract: Herbs and spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of food as well as affect the digestion metabolism. Along with that they may also contain some substances as pesticides , heavy metals and which have harmful effect on the body. In this work, five of the most popularly used spices and herb were studied to determine Pb , Cd , As ,Hg , Mn , Cu , Co , Se , Ni , Cr content in them .This was analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer(AAS). The results were compared with the safety standards (WHO). The average concentration of heavy metals as Pb detected ranged from 3.3ppm-4.59ppm , Cd ranged from 0.04pm-0.4 ppm . concentration of As was from 0.7ppm -1.5ppm , concentration of Se ranged from Negligible to 2.26 ppm . Mn ranged from 28.73 ppm-562.6 ppm , Ni was found to range between 2.82 ppm – 5.76 ppm , (Cu) was found to be in a range of 2.30 ppm – 19.69 ppm in C.Zeylanicum , Myristica fragrans , Ocimum sanctum , Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum tamala and most of them were well within the permissible limits.
Key words: AAS , ,Heavy Metals, Spices
. Marian Asantewah NIKANSAH, Cosmos OPOKU AMOAKO (2010)Heavy metal content of some common spices available in markets in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana.American Journal of scientific and Industrial Research 2153-649X.
. Al-Eed , M.A.,F.N Assubaie,M.M. El-Garawany , H.EL-Hamshary and Z. M. ElTayeb(1982).Department of Chemistry and Botany , College of Agricultural and Food Sciences King Faisal University , Saudi Arabia.
. Singh V, Garg AN.Availability of essential trace elements in Indian cereals,vegetables and spices using INAA and the contribution of spices to daily dietary intake.Food Chem 2006;94: 81-89.
. Culnary Herbs:2009
. Ajasa A, Bello MO , Ibrahim AO, Ogunwande IA , Olawore NO. Heavy trace metals and micronutrients status in herbal plants of Nigeria.Food Chem 2004;85:67-71.
. Z.Krejpcio , E.Krol , S.Sionkowski.(2006)Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contents in Spices and Herbs Available in the Polish Market.Polish j. of Environ. Stud. Vol.16, No. 1 92007), 97-100.
. Hinneburg I., Damien H.J. , Hiltunen R.Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices.Food Chem.97,122,2006.
. Samotyja U.,Urbanowicz A. Antioxidant properties of commercial extracts of rosemary.Zywnosc 43 Supl.,184,2005[In Polish].
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Abstract: The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of Iyi-nna stream were carried out. A total of 20 water samples were collected and analyzed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Salmonella-Shigella count, Vibrio cholerae count and fungal count using pour plate technique. The media used were nutrient agar, MacConkey agar, eosin methylene blue agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar, thiosulphate citrate bile sucrose agar and potato dextrose agar. The statistical analyses used were analysis of variance and standard deviation. The total aerobic plate count range from 1.5 ± 0.2 x 106cfu/mL to 1.12 ± 0.5 x 107cfu/mL; coliform count ranged from 0 ± 0.0MPN/100mL to 902 ± 20MPN/100mL; Salmonella-Shigella count ranged from 0 ± 0.0cfu/mL to 7 ± 0.4 x 103cfu/mL; Escherichia coli count ranged from 0 ± 0.0cfu/mL to 2.4 ± 0.6 x 103cfu/mL; Vibrio cholerae count ranged from 0 ± 0.0cfu/mL to 6 ± 0.5 x 102cfu/mL and the fungal count ranged from 0 ± 0.0cfu/mL to 2.5 ± 0.07 x 102cfu/mL.The microorganisms isolated and their percentage occurrence were Pseudomonas species, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella species, Bacillus species, Proteus species, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species, Aspergillus species, Penicillum species and Yeast. The mean values ranged as follows, pH, 6.15 ± 0.1 – 6.90 ± 0.2; temperature, 29.0 ± .02oC – 31.0 ± 0.05oC; total dissolved solids, 0.024 ± 0.002mg/L – 0.11 ± 0.01mg/L; total suspended solids, 0.015 ± 0.001mg/L – 0.034 ± 0.003mg/L; alkalinity, 0.07 ± 0.01mg/L – 0.36 ± 0.03mg/L; hardness, 42.75 ± 2.5mg/L – 94.85 ± 10.0mg/L; nitrate, 0 ± 0.0mg/L – 65.47 ± 5.0mg/L; sulphate, 0 ± 0.0mg/L – 332.35 ± 25.0mg/L; phosphate, 8.70 ± 1.0mg/L – 86.82 ± 7.5mg/L; zinc, 0.24 ± 0.02mg/L – 1.88 ± 0.3mg/L; iron, 0.86 ± 0.01mg/L – 3.54 ± 0.05mg/L; copper, 0 ± 0.0mg/L – 0.4 ± 0.01mg/L; silver, 0 ± 0.0mg/L; lead, 0 ± 0.0mg/L – 0.8 ± 0.01mg/L; manganese, 0.1 ± 0.0mg/L – 0.04 ± 0.01mg/L and mercury, 0 ± 0.0mg/L. The result showed that the stream is polluted with bacteria of public health importance and the stream water should be treated before use.
Key words: Microbiological, characteristics, Iyi-nna, stream, physicochemical, Nigeria
 Adamu, M.M., Akinola, A.A., Alade, J.S. and Yamla, A.A. (1991). Water quality control in water and building sanitation, West African Health Examination Board, Laveniamum Press, Ibadan, pp 66 – 68.
 Adeoye, A. (2007). Medical Laboratory Practice, 1st edition FEMCO Publishers Limited, Lagos, Nigeria, p.153
 Agwung-Fobellah, D. and Kemajou, S.T. (2007). Laboratory Microbiology and Activity Manual, Ark of Wisdom Publishers, Aba, Nigeria, pp. 12 – 37.
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 Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. (1994). 9th edition, Holt, J.D. (Ed.), Williams Wilkins CO. Baltimore, p.783.
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Abstract: The microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of soil contaminated with lairage effluent were investigated. A total of twenty samples were analyzed for total heterotrophic bacterial count, fungal count, Vibrio cholerae count, Salmonella-Shigella count, Escherichia coli count and coliform count. The media used were nutrient agar, potato dextrose agar, eosin methylene blue agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar, MacConkey agar, thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose agar. The pour plate technique was used for the inoculation of samples. The mean total heterotrophic bacterial count for the contaminated soil ranged from 5.65 ± 0.17Log10cfu/g to 5.94 ± 0.29Log10cfu/g while the control soil was 6.85 ± 0.03Log10cfu/mL. The mean fungal count ranged from 3.04 ± 0.19Log10cfu/g to 3.64 ± 0.41Log10cfu/g for the contaminated soil and 3.38 ± 0.20Log10cfu/mL for control soil. Salmonella-Shigella mean count ranged from 2.30 ± 0.09Log10cfu/g to 2.48 ± 0.07Log10cfu/g for the contaminated soil and 2.48 ± 0.09Log10cfu/g for the control soil. Vibrio cholerae mean count for contaminated soil ranged from 2.60 ± 0.35Log10cfu/g to 3.30 ± 0.03cfu/g while the control soil was 2.30 ± 0.10Log10cfu/g. Escherichia coli mean count for contaminated soil ranged from 3.00 ± 0.22Log10cfu/g to 3.38 ± 0.15Log10cfu/g and 3.38 ± 0.05Log10cfu/g for the control soil. The coliform mean count for contaminated soil ranged from 4.53 ± 0.11Log10cfu/g to 4.66 ± 0.10Log10cfu/g and 4.40 ± 0.024Log10cfu/mL for the control soil. The mean microbial counts for the lairage effluent ranged as follows total heterotrophic bacterial count, 6.39 ± 0.10Log10cfu/mL; fungal count, 3.28 ± 0.03Log10cfu/mL; Salmonella-Shigella count, 2.60 ± 0.08Log10cfu/mL; Vibrio cholerae count,
Keywords: Microbiological, physicochemical, lairage, effluent, soil, contaminated, assessment.
 Adeoye, A. (2007). Medical Laboratory Practice, 1ST edition FEMCO Publishers Limited, Lagos, Nigeria, p 153
 Adesemoye, A.O., Opere, B.O. and Makinde, S.C.O. (2006). Microbial content of abattoir wastewater and its contaminated soil in Lagos, Nigeria; Afr. J. Biotechnol.; 5(20): 1963-1968
 Adeyemo, O.K. (2003). Consequences of pollution and degradation of Nigerian aquatic environment on fisheries resources. The Environmentalist 23: 297-306.
 Agwng-Fobellah, D. and Kemajou, S.T. (2007). Laboratory Microbiology and Activity manual. Ark of the Wisdom Publisher, Aba, Nigeria p 153
 Alonge, D.O. (1991). Testbook of meat hygiene in the Tropics. Farmcoe Press, Ibadan, p 58.
 American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation. 20th edn. Washington DC, USA, Pp 5-17.
 Amisu, K.O, Coker, A. O, On SLW, Isokpehi RD (2003). Arcobacter butzlieri strains from poultry abattoir effluent in Nigeria. East Afri. Med. J.; 80: 218-221.
 American standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2003). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,Washington DC.
 Atlas R.M. and Bartha, R. (2007). Microbial Ecology Fundamentals and Applications, Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California
 Bala, J.D. (2006). Occurrence of faecal coliforms in water sources in Jimeta-Yola, Nig. J. Environ. Sci.; 10(2): 64-69.
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Abstract: In the impact of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the lipid profile and key liver function enzymes of female rats fed with palm oil diets, twenty-five (25) female rats were divided into five groups (A-E). The rats in group A served as the control, fed with rat chow and water ad libitum, group B (FPO) and C (TPO) were fed with Fresh palm oil and thermoxidized palm oil diet respectively, while group D (FPO + MO) and E (TPO+MO) were fed with fresh palm oil diet and thermoxidized oil with 600mg/kgbody weight of Moringa leaf extract added in each respectively. Each of the palm oil diet contained 15 %( w/w) thermoxidized or fresh palm oil. At the end of 28 days administration, blood samples were collected for the analysis of lipid profile and key liver function enzymes. The result showed that HDL was significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the test samples except TPO, while LDL followed a reverse trend. The Serum alanine amino tranferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all the test samples except TPO which was significantly (P<0.05) increased. Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) showed decrease in all the test samples except TPO which was significantly (P<0.05) increased. The results indicate that Moringa oleifera has anti-hypercholesterolemic effect. The serum enzyme levels also show that the liver tissue integrity was stabilized by the addition of Moringa oleifera leaf extract to thermoxidized palm oil diet hence its hepatoprotective activity. Keywords: anti-hypercholesterolemic, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, Moringa oleifera, thermoxidized palm oil,
 C.O. Adewumi, and J.A.O. Ojewole, Safety of traditional medicines, complementary and alternative medicines in Africa, African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines,1, 2004, 1-3.
 J.W .Anderson, M.H. Daridson, and L. Blonde, Long term cholesterol- lowering effects as an adjunct to diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,71 (6), 2000,1433-8
 J.L. Quiles, M.D. Mesa, C.L. Ramirez-Tortosa, C.M. Aguilera, M. Battino, A. Gil and C.L. Ramirez-Tortosa, Curcuma longa extract supplementation reduces Oxidative stress and attenuates Aortic fatty streak development in rabbits, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 22, 2002, 1225-1231
 S. R.M. Ibrahim, G. A. Mohamed, Z. M. Banjar, and H. K.M. Kamal, Natural antihyperlipidemic agents: current status and future perspectives, Phytopharmacology, 4(3), 2013, 492-531
 E. Rose, I. Nunez, A. Perez-Heras, M. Serra, R. Gilabert, E. Casals, and R.A. Deulafeu, A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial, Circulation, 109(13), 2004, 1609-14.
 J.W. Fahey, Moringa oleifera: a review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties, Part 1, Trees of Life Journal, 1, 2005, 5-15
 F. Anwar, S. Latif, M. Ashra, and A.H. Gilani, Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses, Phytotherapy Research, 21, 2007, 17-25
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 J.N. Kasolo, G.S. Bimenya, L. Ojok, J. Ochieng, and J.W. Ogwal-Okeng, Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaf in Ugandan rural communities, Journal of Medical Plants Research, 4(9) 2010, 753-757.
 S. Ghasi, E. Nwobodo, and J.O. Ofili, Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera lam. in high-fat diet fed wistar rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 69, 2000, 21-25
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The impact of a multi-fruit wine on serum urea, albumin and total tissue protein levels in rats|
|Authors||:||Asuk A.A, Dasofunjo K, Ofem O. E, Akpanyung E.O.|
Abstract: This present research is aimed at evaluating the impact of a multi-fruit wine obtained from a blend of five fruits on serum urea, albumin and total tissue protein in albino Wistar rats. Seventy (70) albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven (7) study groups of ten rats per group (n=10). The animals were placed on either low (corresponding to four standard drinks) or high (six standard drinks) doses of multi-fruit wine with additives (MFWA) or plain wine (MFWP), low doses of red wine or cashew wine. All animals had free access to normal rat feed and drinking water. The feeding regimens lasted for 2 weeks. The result showed no significant difference (p≥0.05) in serum urea, protein homogenate and supernatant tissue protein among groups administered the multi-fruit wine. High dose of multi-fruit wine plain (H-MFWP) and low dose of red wine (STD 1) increased serum albumin concentrations significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control. Results of the investigation showed no adverse alteration in the biochemical parameters of the experimental animals following administration of the multi-fruit wine, suggesting that the multi-fruit wine can be used alongside other therapeutic purposes associated with the maintenance of the kidney and liver function.
Key words: albumin, multi-fruit wine, standard wines, tissue protein, urea.
 J. Robinson, The Oxford companion to wine (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)
 J. Feher, G. Lengyel, and A. Lugasi, Cultural history of wine, the theoretical background of wine therapy, Orvosi Hetilap, 146, 2005, 2635-2639.
 E.B. Rimm, A. Klatsky, D. Grobbee, and M.J. Stampfer, Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: Is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits, British Medical Journal, 312, 1996, 731-736.
 A.S. Hansen, P. Marckmann, L.O. Dragsted, I.L. Finne Nielsen, S.E. Nielsen, and M. Gronbaek, Effect of red wine and red grape olive oil antioxidants: A synergistic effect of components of the Mediterranean diet, Journal of American College of Nutrition, 27, 2005, 448-453.
 M.L. Lindberg and E.A. Amsterdam, Alcohol, wine, and cardiovascular health, Clinical Cardiology 31, 2008, 347-351.
 J.C. Ruf, Overview of epidemiological studies on wine, health and mortality, Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research, 29 (5-6), 2003, 173-179.
 G.M. Halpern, A celebration of wine: wine is medicine, Inflammopharmacology, 16, 2008, 240-244.
 A. Saremi, and R. Arora, The cardiovascular implications of alcohol and red wine, American Journal of Therapeutics, 15(3), 2008, 265-277.
 S.M. Tsunoda, R.Z. Harris, U. Christians, R.L. Velez, R.B. Freeman, L.Z. Benet, and A. Warshaw, Red wine decreases cyclosporine bioavailability, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 70, 2001, 462-467.
 A. Puja, F. Halaweish, and C. Dwivedi, Antioxidant effects and drug interactions of resveratrol present in wine, Journal of Wine Research, 18, 2007, 59-71.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Tight junction protein claudin 3 expression in glioma|
|Authors||:||Hanuma Kumar, BSA Raju, Nagaiah K|
Abstract: Among the brain tumors, Glioma is the most malignant disease that causes death and the prognosis of patients remains poor. Tight junctions (TJs) are important in formation of endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and acts as a restrictive paracellular diffusion barrier. Claudins are imp components of TJs, and expression of these proteins were altered selectively in cerebral microvessels of human GBM and other pathological conditions, resulting in brain edema. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of expression of tight junction associated protein claudin 3 in low grade and high grade glioma cell lines C6, U373, U118, T98 and U87MG using Real Time PCR and western blot methods. Interestingly quantitative Real Time PCR and western blot results have shown down regulation of claudin 3 in high grade glioma to low grade glioma. Our results concluded that decreased expression of claudin 3 was correlated with disease progression.
Key words: Glioma, Tight junction, Claudin 3 and Blood Brain Barrier
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Natural compounds for the drug targets of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) using virtual screening|
|Authors||:||Vijayakumari S. Malipatil, Shivkumar B. Madagi|
Abstract: The Sexually transmitted diseases are the major health problem along with other diseases like cancer and diabetes. The present study involves obtaining of the 44 molecular drug targets of the STD which have been predicted and launched at www.bioresearch asia.com. The targets in this site are mainly predicted by the comparative genomics method, where the genomes of the STD bacteria are compared with the human to obtain only the unique bacterial molecular targets relative to human. The main objective of the present study is to find the natural compound that shows high binding affinity to the drug targets of the Sexually transmitted diseases. The methodology includes creation of the library of the natural compounds collected from various literature sources. The molecular targets of the STD organisms are docked with the natural compound to know the binding affinity of the ligand with their respective drug targets by using autodock vina and the admet-Tox properties of the compounds were also studied along with the antibiotic as a reference drug. The studies indicate certain compounds showing affinity to the targets of the STD: they include compounds such as hypericin, plantanoside, silybin, procyanidin, plumbagin, anonaine and withaferin A.
Keywords: Drug targets, lead compounds, STD, natural drug molecules, docking
. K. Sakharkar, M. Sakharkar and V. Chow, A novel genomics approach for the identification of drug targets in pathogens, with special reference to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, In silico biology, 4(3), 2004, 355-60.
. A. Dutta , S. Singh, P. Ghosh , R. Mukherjee , S. Mitter S and D. Bandyopadhyay. In silico identification of potential therapeutic targets in the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, In silico biology, 6(1-2), 2006, 43-7.
. S. Saremy, M. Boroujeni, B. Bhattacharjee, V. Mittal and J. Chatterjee, Identification of potential apicoplast associated therapeutic targets in human and animal pathogen Toxoplasma gondii ME49, Bioinformation, 7(8), 2011, 379-83.
. P. Katara, A. Grover, H. Kuntal and V. Sharma, In silico prediction of drug targets in Vibrio cholera, Protoplasma, 248(4), 2011, 799-804.
. A. Shanmugam and J. Natarajan, Computational genome analyses of metabolic enzymes in Mycobacterium leprae for drug target identification, Bioinformation, 4(9), 2010, 392-5.
. S. Madagi, V MaliPatil, S. Sadegh, A. Singh, B. Garwal, A. Banerjee, et al. Identification of membrane associated drug targets in Borrelia burgdorferi ZS7- subtractive genomics approach, Bioinformation, 6(9), 2011, 356-9.
. M. Vijayakumari and M. Shivkumar, Putative drug targets in Ureaplasma urealyticum serovar 10 str ATCC 33699 by In silico genomic approach and virtual screening, International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences, 4(4), 2013, 214-21.
. M. Vijayakuari , M. Shivkumar and B. Bhattacharjee , Sexually transmitted diseases putative drug target database: A comprehensive database of putative drug targets of sexually transmitted diseases pathogens identified by comparative genomics, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 45(45), 2013, 434-38.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Identification of Site Specific Diatom at Yamuna River of Allahabad|
|Authors||:||Garima Yadav, M.K. Mishra, A. K. Gupta, Shailesh|
Abstract: In present study water sample from four sites of Yamuna River were collected for identification of diatom. Collected water sample were digested with acid digestion and examined under high power microscope after slide preparation. After examination it was found that total 41 diatom species was found at four sites of river. Out of 41 diatom species 10 diatom species were found as site specific. These site specific diatoms can be used as marker for site identification in cases of suspected drowning as well as for other forensic purposes.
. Hasle,G.R.; Syvertsen E.E. and Tomas, C.R(1997) Marine Diatoms. Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates. Academic press. pp 5-385.
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. Metzeltin,D., Lange-Bertalot, H. & Garcia-Rodriguez, F. (2005) Diatoms of Uruguay Taxonomy- Biography-Diversity. Iconographia Diatomologica.15: p.726.
. Tayalor,J.C.;Harding,W.R.and Archibald,C.G.M. (2007) A methods manual for the collection, preparation and analysis of diatom samples, Republic of south Africa, volume 1, pp.25-35.
. Tiwari, Ashesh and Chauhan S.V.S. (2006). Seasonal Phytoplanktonic diversity of Yamuna. Journal Enviromental Biology.27:35-38.