Volume-8 ~ Issue-4
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Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a devastating disease in which survival is measured in months rather than years from the time of diagnosis. The aggressive nature of the tumour and the usual background chronic liver disease make the management difficult warranting multidisciplinary cooperation. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) was introduced ten years ago as palliative therapy for patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the benefits of percutaneous ethanol injection in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients and methods: Consecutive patients who had percutaneous ethanol injection for hepatocellular carcinoma at Adoose specialist hospital from August 2008 to July 2012 were prospectively analysed and formed the basis of this study. Results :A total of 32 patients had (PEI) during the study period out of an initial 82 that presented with HCC. The mean age of the study population was 40.4+/- 14.2yrs with age range of 18 to 60yrs. There were 28(87.5%) males and 4(12.5%) females giving a male: female ratio of 7:1. Right hypochondrial pain and mass were the main symptoms seen in 28(87.5%). Pre intervention pain score ranges from 6-8 while post intervention pain score a week after treatment dropped to 1 or 2. The longest survivor at follow up with this treatment is 14months with mean survival duration of 8months.Conclusion: Percutaneous ethanol injection significantly reduces the pain of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and prolongs survival.
Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Percutaneous Ethanol injection, Palliation, Benefit
. Tanaka K, Nakamura S, Numata K, Okazaki H, Endo O, Inoue S, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma: treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection and transcatheter arterial embolization. Radiology. 1992 Nov;185(2):457-60.
. Ramsey WH, Wu GY. Hepatocellular carcinoma: update on diagnosis and treatment. Dig Dis. 1995 Mar-Apr;13(2):81-91.
. Enwezor CJ. Sixty cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in one year. A preliminary appraisal. Int Surg. 1992 Oct-Dec;77(4):277-9.
. Olubuyide IO, Aliyu B, Olalelye OA, Ola SO, Olawuyi F, Malabu UH, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus and hepatocellular carcinoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Jan-Feb;91(1):38-41.
. Seleye-Fubara D, Jebbin NJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: clinicopathologic study of 75 cases. Ann Afr Med. 2007 Jun;6(2):54-7.
. Paul SB, Manjunatha YC, Acharya SK. Palliative treatment in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: has it made any difference? Trop Gastroenterol. 2009 Jul-Sep;30(3):125-34.
. Dubel GJ, Soares GM. Regional infusion-radioembolization. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2008 Oct;17(4):957-85, xii.
. Di Stasi M, Buscarini L, Livraghi T, Giorgio A, Salmi A, De Sio I, et al. Percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. A multicenter survey of evaluation practices and complication rates. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Nov;32(11):1168-73.
. Rustemovic N, Vucelic B, Opacic M, Ostojic R, Pulanic R, Petrovecki M, et al. Palliative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with percutaneous ethanol injection using tumor's feeding artery occlusion under the ultrasonic color Doppler guidance. Coll Antropol. 2004 Dec;28(2):781-91.
. Livraghi T, Giorgio A, Marin G, Salmi A, de Sio I, Bolondi L, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in 746 patients: long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection. Radiology. 1995 Oct;197(1):101-8.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Synthesis of 5-Aryl-3-(5-Bromo-3-Benzofuran-2-yl)-1-Pyrazole as Antimicrobial Agent.|
|Authors||:||Vrushali Patil, Ashish Asrondkar, Shantanu Pande, A.S.Bobade, A.S.Chowdhary|
Abstract: In this work, we evaluate the biological activities of some new derivatives of benzofuran which can be used as effective anti-microbial agents. The recent reviews of literature have highlighted the attention of medicinal chemists because of their diverse biological activities and profound efficacy. Clinically potent benzofurans generated interest to construct a system which possesses anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity. Furan and benzofuran are associated with wide spectrum of biological activity. In the view of these, an effort was made to check some synthesized compounds for their anti-microbial activity. In present study, pyrazoline derivatives were synthesized; 5-bromo-3-methyl acetophenone undergoes ring formation in presence of chloroacetone to form benzofuran which further forms chalcone on treatment with substituted benzaldehyde. This intermediate on treatment with hydrazine hydrate results into pyrazoline. Further it reacts with various benzoyl chlorides to form the titled product. Synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of spectral studies and analytical data. All the compounds were screened for their in-vitro anti-bacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC3750 and Gram negative Salmonella typhi NCTC786, anti-fungal strains of Candida albicans ATCC10233 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 using tube dilution method showing moderate activity.
Keywords : Anti-microbial activity, Benzofuran, Pyrazole.
 S. Nizami, M. Gurumurthy, S. Chattarjee, and D Panda; Evaluation of Antimicrobial Potency of Some Synthesized Thiazolidin-4-one substituted 1, 2, 4-triazoles, Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Research, 1, 2010, 26-35.
 M. Kamal , A. K. Shakya ,T.Jawaid ;Benzofuran: A New profile of biological activities, International Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1(03),2011,1-15
 H. Patel, V. Ugale, A. Ingale, and S. Bari; Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of pyrazo-thiazoles, Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 9, 2012, 840–847
 C.Y. Zhang, X.H. Liu, B.L. Wang, S.H. Wang, and Z.M. Li; Synthesis and antifungal activities of new pyrazole derivatives via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction, Chemical Biology and Drug Design, 75(5), 2010, 489–493.
 T. D. Sherman, M. V. Duke, R. D. Clark, E. F. Sanders, H. Matsumoto, and S. O. Duke,;Pyrazole phenyl ether herbicides inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 40(3), 1991, 236–245.
 H. Song, Y. Liu, L. Xiong, Y. Li, N. Yang, and Q. Wang,;Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity of novel pyrazole derivatives containing α-hydroxymethyl-N-benzyl carboxamide, α-chloromethyl-N-benzyl carboxamide, and 4,5-dihydrooxazole moieties, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(6),2012,1470–1479.
 B. F. Abdel Wahab, A. Sediek, H. A. Mohamed, and G. E. A. Awad,; Novel 2-pyrazolin-1-ylthiazoles as potential antimicrobial agents, Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 10(2), 2013, 111–118.
 A.G Yadav, V.N Patil, A.S Bobade, S.V Athlekar, L.S Patil, A.S Chowdhary; Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Benzimidazolyl Pyrazolone Derivatives, Asian Journal of Reasearch in Chemistry, 2(4), 2009, 516.
 V.H Babu, A Gupta, K.K. Srinivasan, K.S.R.Pai; Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Benzofuran incorporated Benzodiazepines, Indian Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 14, 2005, 267-268
 N.V Purohit, T. Sanghavi; Synthesis of Mesogenic Compounds with Dibenzofuran moiety as Antibacterial Agents, Indian Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 14, 2005, 235-238.
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Abstract: Leprosy is a medico-social problem with a declining in its medical form due to the prescence of effective treatment (MDT) but its social aspect in term of stigmatization,disability,deformities,loss of self-respect and loss of self-esteem and ostracizing of affected ones and misconception of the disease by the community have been well identified as a major threat , therefore , making patients more vulnerable to destitution and social isolation . The study was carried out to determine the prevalence,management of leprosy disease and perceived psychological impact of the disease among residents of leprosy training centre,Saye, Zaria, Kaduna State between January, 2005 and December, 2010 .The study revealed that social isolation (94%), Anxiety 90%, shame 84.4%, depression 81.8%, emotional disturbances 71.4%,loss of self-respect, loss of self-esteem and emotional disturbances associated with disfigurement were some of psychosocial disorders . It was concluded that health education and information should be paramount when caring for the patient with leprosy because of the psychological disorders.
Key words : Prevalence ,Perceived Psychological impact , Saye, leprosy
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Comparative Analysis of Airborne Microbial Concentrations in the Indoor Environment of Two Selected Clinical Laboratories|
|Authors||:||Shiaka, G. Peter, Yakubu, S. E.|
Abstract: The airborne microbial concentrations of two clinical Laboratories located in the main campus of Ahmadu Bello University (LBU) and Sarkin-pawa Street (LBS) in Samaru-Zaria town were investigated within a period in the dry season (January-march) and a period in wet season (July-September) 2007. Bacterial counts in the dry season ranged from 1.8 × 103cfu/ml to 0.03 × 103cfu/ml with the highest count in LBS in the third week of sampling while those of wet season ranged from 8.0 to 0.01 × 103 cfu/ml with the highest in LBS. The fungal count ranged from 3.6 to 0.08 × 103 cfu/ml in the dry season and 0.54 to 0.04 × 103 cfu/ml in the wet season. The highest fungal count occurred in LBS and LBU in dry and wet seasons respectively. There was no statistical difference between the bacterial concentrations of the laboratories using paired sample t-test. In fungal counts, there was also no significant difference between the laboratories. The correlation between the sum total of bacterial and fungal concentrations at 0.05 level of significance (2-tailed) using Kendall's tau_b, and Spearman's rho was significant. The predominant bacteria and fungi isolated from investigated air samples included Staphylococcus spp, Proteus spp, Streptococcus spp, Micrococcus spp, Aspergillus spp, Rhizopus spp, E. coli, Bacillus spp. This comparative information could be useful for the medical and public health practitioners on common airborne bacteria and fungi, and their roles in the indoor air quality of clinical laboratories.
Keywords: Airborne, bacteria, fungi, laboratory, season
. Agnieszka Kalwasińska , Aleksandra Burkowska , Iwona Wilk (2012). Microbial air contamination in indoor environment of a university library. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine , 19:1,25 -29.
. Allsopp D, Seal K.J, Gaylarde Ch.C. (2004). Introduction to Biodeterioration (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
. Stenfers, L. P., Fagerlund, A., Granum, P.E. (2008).From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. FEMS Microbiol. Review. 32; 579-606.
. Barnett, H.H and Hunter, B.B. (1972): Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi (3rdedn) Burgress Pub. Co. Minneapolis Pp.241.
. Beggs, C.B. (2003). The Airborne Transmission of Infection in Hospital Buildings: Fact or Fiction? Indoor Built Environ.12:9-18.
. Beneke, E.S and Roger, A.L. (1980). Medical mycology manual 4th edn Burgess pub. Company, Minneapolis, Minnesola USA pp 1-30.
. Bergey,s manual of systematic bacteriology (1983). Stanley, J.T., Bryant, M.P., Prenning.N. and Holt.J. 4th edn. Vol.3. 1-100.
. Bhatia, L. (2011). Impact of bioaerosol on indoor air quality- A growing concern. Advances in bioresearch. 2(2): 120-123. www.soeagra.com/abr.htm
. Brachman, PS (1970). Nosocomial infection – airborne or not? Proceedings of theInternational Conference on Nosocomial Infections. American Hospital Association. 189-192.
. Björnsson E, Norback D, Janson C, Widstrom J, Palmgren U, Strom G, Boman G.(1995). Asthmatic symptoms and indoor levels of microorganisms and house dust mites. Clin Exp Allergy. 25: 423-431.
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Abstract: In the current study an attempt was made for separation of bacteria having nitrogen fixing potential from the rhizosphere of wild leguminous plant Crotolaria pallida. Single spot each from the four valley districts of Manipur viz. Imphal east, Imphal west, Bishnupur and Thoubal was selected for the collection of soil sample. A total of six (6) bacterial isolates were isolated using Burk's nitrogen free medium from the rhizosphere of the plant. Preliminary physiological tests and biochemical tests were being carried out for the isolates for assessment of their nature. Also, "Nitrogenase activities" of the isolates were also determined by performing the "Acetylene Reduction Assay". Five bacterial isolates out of the six showed some nitrogenase activity even though the amounts shown were little.
Keywords: Acetylene Reduction Assay, Crotolaria pallida, Nitrogen, Nitrogenase, rhizosphere.
 Reinhardt, E.L., Ramos, P.L., Manfio, G.P., Barbosa, H.R., Pavan, C. and Moreira-Filho, C.A. (2008). Molecular characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from Brazilian Agricultural plants at Sao Paulo state. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology.,39:414-422.
 Dobereiner, J. (1997). Biological nitrogen fixation in the tropics: social and economic contributions. Soil Biol. Biochem., 29, 771-774.
 Zehr, J., Mellon, M., Braun, S., Litaker, W., Steppe, T. and Paerl, H. (1995). Diversity of heterotrophic nitrogen fixation genes in a marine cyanobacterial mat. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61: 2527-2532.
 Ueda, T., Suga, Y., Yahiro, N. and Matsuguchi, T. (1995). Remarkable N2-fixing bacterial diversity detected in rice roots by molecular evolutionary analysis of nifH gene sequences. J. Bacteriol., 177 (5): 1414-1417.
 Widmer, F., Shaffers, B.T., Porteous, L.A. and Seidler, R.J. (1999). Analysis of a nifH gene pool complexity in soil and litter at a Douglas Fir forest site in the Oregon cascade mountain range. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65 (2): 374-380.
 Wilson, P.W. and Knight, S.C. (1952). Experiments in bacterial physiology, Burguess, Minneapolis, USA: pp 49.
 Dubey, R.C. and Maheshwari, D.K. (2002). A Textbook of Practical Microbiology.S.Chand & Co.Ltd, Ram Nagar, New Delhi.
 Hardy, R.W.F., Burns, R.C., Holsten, R.D. (1973). Application of the acetylene-ethylene reduction assay for measurement of nitrogen fixation. Soil Biol Biochem 5:47–81.
 Hardy, R.W.F., Holsten, R.D. and Jackson, E.K. (1968). The acetylene-ethylene assay for N2-fixation-laboratory and field evaluation. Plant Physiol., 43: 118–127.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Prognostic and Predictive Markers in Early Detection of Different Types of Cancers for Selected Organ Sites|
|Authors||:||Dr. Swaroopa Marella|
Keywords: Monitoring; Recurrence; Screening; Prognosis; Diagnosis; Response to therapy.
. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:43–66.
. Prout GR, Jr, Barton BA, Griffin PP, Friedell GH. Treated history of noninvasive grade 1 transitional cell carcinoma. The National Bladder Cancer Group. J Urol. 1992;148:1413–1419.
. Pagano F, Bassi P, Galetti TP, et al. Results of contemporary radical cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a clinicopathological study with an emphasis on the inadequacy of the tumor, nodes and metastases classification. J Urol. 1991;145:45–50.
. Stein JP, Grossfeld GD, Ginsberg DA, et al. Prognostic markers in bladder cancer: a contemporary review of the literature. J Urol. 1998;160:645–659.
. Takashi M, Schenck U, Kissel K, et al. Use of diagnostic categories in urinary cytology in comparison with the bladder tumour antigen (BTA) test in bladder cancer patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 1999;31:189–196.
. Oge O, Kozaci D, Gemalmaz H. The BTA stat test is nonspecific for hematuria: an experimental hematuria model. J Urol. 2002;167:1318–1319. discussion 1319–1320.
. Ramakumar S, Bhuiyan J, Besse JA, et al. Comparison of screening methods in the detection of bladder cancer. J Urol. 1999;161:388–394
. Brünagel G, Schoen RE, Getzenberg RH. Colon cancer specific nuclear matrix protein alterations in human colonic adenomatous polyps. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Feb 1;91(2):365-74.
. Hatzichristodoulou G, Kübler H, Schwaibold H, Wagenpfeil S, Eibauer C, Hofer C, Gschwend J, Treiber U. Nuclear matrix protein 22 for bladder cancer detection: comparative analysis of the BladderChek® and ELISA. Anticancer Res. 2012 Nov;32(11):5093-7.
. Avbersek-Luznik I, Gmeiner Stopar T, Marc J. Activity or mass concentration of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase as a marker of bone formation. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(8):1014-8.
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Abstract: The proximate, phytochemical, mineral and heavy metal contents of the straws of Andropogon gayanus, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpurea and Oryza sativa were investigated. The straws contained different levels of crude alkaloids, (0.25 ± 0.03-0.05 ±0.014), flavonoids, (0.25±0.024-0.09±0.024), Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (4.18 ±0.03%-2.59±0.09%) phenols, (0.16±0.001%-0.013±0.007%), saponins, (0.37±0.014% - 0.13± 0.014% and tannins, (0.27±0.002%-0.137±0.001%). The nutrient content of the straws also varied and ranged as Carbohydrate (CHO), 30.13±13 in Andropogon straw ( ANS), to 27..49±1.26 in Panicum straw (PAS), Protein, 17.74 ± 0.47 in ANS to 13.07 ± 0.22 in PAS, Fats, 1.86 ± 0.02 in ANS to 0.53 ± 0.02 in Oryza straw (ORS), ASH, 5.49 ± 0.097 .in Pennisetum straw (PES) to 3.83 ± 0.12 in PAS, Fibre, 49.74 ± 1.97 in PAS to 41.33 ± 0.15 in PES, Moisture, 9.33 ± 0.02 in PES to 5.15 ± 0.03 in PAS to 5.0 ± 0.09 in ORS. The mineral composition of the straws (mg/100g) ranged as follows, Calcium: 305.94 ± 2.35 in ANS to 203.072±2.32 in ORS' Magnesium: 27.2± 2.8 in ORS to 8.8 ±1.39 in PAS, Potassium: 352.3 ± 2.32 in ORS to176.1 ± 0.54 in PAS, Sodium: 12.67 ±0.58 in ORS to 9.2 ± 02 in ANS, Phosphorus: 233.47 ± 1.63 in PES to 158.09 ± 05 in ANS. For heavy metals Andropogon traw contained the highest ppmCadmium (7.18), Zinc, (25.08), Lead, (8.44), and copper, (9.96), than the other straws. Oryza straw contained next highest of zinc, but lead was not present. The result of the investigations were discussed in relation of the usefulness of the straws in the cultivation of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var florida.
Keywords: Grain crop straw, Nutrient composition, bioactive composition, cultivation of mushrooms. Abbreviations: ANS= Andropogon gayanus, PAS: = Panicum maximum, PES= Pennisetum purpurea, ORS= Oryza sativa, CHO= Carbohdrate.
 Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC. (1980). Official method of Analysis (13th Ed) Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington D.C.
 Boham, A.B. and A. Ckoeipai, (1994) Flavonoids and conversed tannins from leaves of Hawallan Vacciniumvaticulatum and V. calycinium pacific Sci. 48: 458-463.
 Konuk, M., Afyom, A., Yagiz, D. (2006). Chemical composition of naturally growing edible mushrooms. Palldsrani Journal ofBotany38 (3): 799-804.
 Okwulehie, I. C. and Okwujiako, I. A. (2008). The use of Local Nigerian Substrate for the Production of Pleurotus ostreatus var florida Eger.Sporophores Dynamic Biochemistry, Process Biotechnology and Molecular Biology 2(1): 38-40 (Print ISSN 1749-0626)
 Chiejina, N. V. And Olufokunbi, J. O. (2010). Effects of different substrates on the yield and protein content of Pleurotus tuber-regium. African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (11): 1573-1577.
 Badu, M., Twumasi, S. K. and Boadi, N. O. (2011). Effect of Lignocellulosic in wood used as Substrate on Quality and Yield of Mushrooms, Food and Nutrition Sciences 2: 780-784
 Okwulehie, I. C. and Ogoke, J. A. (2013). Bioactive and Heavy Metal constituents of some edible mushrooms found in Abia State of Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research, 1-15.
 Fasidi, I. O. (1996). Studies on Volvariella esculenta (Muss) Singer. Cultivation on Agricultural waste, Proximate Composition of stored mushroom. Food Chemistry, 55 (2). 161-163
 Fasidi, I. O. And Ekuere, U. U. (1993). Studies on Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer Cultivation, Proximate Composition Food Chemistry, 48 (2): 255-258.
 Okwujiako, I. A. (1992). Studies on cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer. Tropical Journal of Applied Sciences 2: 56-60
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Bukuru Metropolis of Plateau State|
|Authors||:||Patricia Oluchukwu Okonkwo, Z. S. C. Okoye, Christopher Isichei|
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated risk factors in Bukuru Metropolis in jos south L.G.A of Plateau state. Personal and demographic data were obtained through the use of questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from participants after an overnight fast. Weight, height, and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken. Results were analysed statistically by t-test, Chy square test, and analysis of variance. A total of 998 individuals aged 25-70 years comprising of 487(48.8%) men and 511(51.2%) women were recruited for the study. Subjects were classified into diabetic and control groups based on the laboratory findings. DM was defined according to 1999 WHO criteria. Individuals who were previously known to have diabetes based on history and laboratory data were classified as having diabetes without oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Thirty-six subjects were found to be diabetic for a prevalence of 3.6%, made up of 2.2% previously known cases and 1.4% newly diagnosed, majority being asymptomatic. The prevalence rates were 1.9% and 1.7% for males and females respectively. There was no significance difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence between the sexes. Body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/ m2, BP >140/90 mm Hg, family history of diabetes, physical inactivity and older age were associated with significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The asymptomatic nature of diabetes recorded in this study points to the need to improve health services and awareness in the general population.
Key Words: Body mass index, diabetes mellitus, diabetes risk factors, fasting glucose
 M.U. Khushk, S.A. Baloach, M.A. Bhutto, The evaluation of soybean extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits, World Applied Sciences Journal, 8, 2010, 22 - 25.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Post-operative antibiotic usage at Benghazi Medical Center, Libya between 2009 and 2012|
|Authors||:||Nouh M H. Aljarari, Jagannadha Rao Peela|
Abstract: Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients,1 and are frequent and serious complications of surgical procedures.2 According to the United States Canters for Disease Control (CDC) National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system, 14-16% of hospital-acquired infections were contributed by surgical site infections and were the third most common hospital-acquired infections.
. Perencevich EN, Sands KE, Cosgrove SE, Guadagnoli E, Meara E, et al. Health and economic impact of surgical site infections diagnosed after hospital discharge. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:196–203.
. Crolla RM, van der Laan L, Veen EJ, et al. Reduction of surgical site infections after implementation of a bundle of care. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44599.
. Ng RS, Chong CP. Surgeons' adherence to guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis - a review. Australas Med J. 2012;5(10):534-40.
. Munckhof W. Antibiotics for surgical prophylaxis. Aust Prescr. 2005;28:38-40.
. Kotwani A, Wattal C, Katewa S, et al. Factors influencing primary care physicians to prescribe antibiotics in Delhi India. Fam Pract. 2010;27(6):684-90.
. Barlow G, Nathwani D. Is antibiotic resistance a problem? A practical guide for hospital clinicians. Postgrad Med J 2005;81:680–692.
. Pulcini C, Gyssens IC. How to educate prescribers in antimicrobial stewardship practices. Virulence. 2013;4(2):192–202.
. Ochoa C, Eiros JM, Inglada L, Vallano A, Guerra L. Assessment of antibiotic prescription in acute respiratory infections in adults. The Spanish Study Group on Antibiotic Treatments. J Infect. 2000;41:73-83.
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. Salvo F, Polimeni G, Moretti U, Conforti A, Leone R, Leoni O, et al. Adverse drug reactions related to amoxicillin alone and in association with clavulanic acid: data from spontaneous reporting in Italy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:121-26.
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Abstract: The microbiological quality of 15 different vitamin B syrup samples of 7 pharmaceutical companies was assessed. The total aerobic microbial count (TAMC) varied between 1.0×101 CFU/ml and 6.0×103 CFU/ml. The total yeast and mold count (TYMC) ranged from 1.0×101 CFU/ml to 5.3×102 CFU/ml. In general, all the samples tested were contaminated with microorganisms. Our findings revealed that 10 (66.67%) out of the 15 samples exceeded the microbiological acceptance limit of USP. Moreover, presence of Escherichia coli was detected in 2 samples. The E. coli isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test against 7 antibiotics. All the E. coli isolates showed resistance against ampicillin and 2 (33.33%) of the isolates showed resistance against cefaclor. None of the isolates demonstrated resistance against ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, meropenem, streptomycin and tetracycline. Presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in pharmaceutical products is very alarming for the consumer. The presence of high level of microbial contamination highlighted the need to reevaluate the production process of the pharmaceutical companies involved in production of non-sterile products and take necessary steps to prevent microbial contamination.
Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Microbial contamination, Non-sterile pharmaceutical product, Vitamin.
 Gad, G.F.M., R.A.I. Aly and M.S.E. Ashour, 2011. Microbial evaluation of some non-sterile pharmaceutical preparations commonly used in the Egyptian market. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 10 (4): 437-445.
 Bender, D. A., Micronutrients: Vitamins and minerals, in Murry, R.K., D.A. Bender, K.M. Botham, P.J. Kennelly, V. W. Rodwell and P.A. Well, Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, 28 (New York: McGraw Hill, 2009), 467-468.
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 Hossain, M., S. Ara, and M.Z. Rahman, 2004. Quantitative examination of aerobic bacteria and fungi in locally available antacid suspension and possible contamination by specified bacteria. Pak. J. Bio. Sci., 7(11): 2014-2017.
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Abstract: Prescription is an instruction written by a medical practitioner to pharmacist which contains drug name, dose, frequency, directions for compounding, advices for drug consumption etc. Drug induced morbidity is an important problem in ambulatory care patients and its one of the major factor is prescription error. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess the current prescription writing trend for identifying frequent errors and proposing the ways by which these can be overcome. A cross sectional study was conducted by collecting 2120 prescriptions written in outpatient department (OPD) of tertiary care hospital. The prescribing errors were identified on the basis of WHO guidelines for prescription writing and current guidance published in British National Formulary. Most of the prescriptions evaluated did not follow the proper guidelines. Patient's weight, prescriber's contact, duration of therapy and drug generic name were missed in more than 90% of prescriptions. A significant number of prescriptions were also found to be illegibly written. Overall, prescription wring trend was worse and there is a need of training for proper prescription writing. Implementation of computerized order entry system and participation of pharmacists at all points of medication process may also substantially improve prescription writing trend.
Key words: Prescription; error; WHO Standards; BNF; General practice
. Amin Adnan, Shah S.M.A, Hussain Abid (2010). Prescribing and Dispensing Practices in a Public sector Pedriatric Ward in D.I.Khan, Pakistan. Pak Journal of medical research; Vol. 49, No. 3.
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. Anuja A Pandey, Subhash B Thakre, and Prakash R Bhatkule (2010). Prescription Analysis of Pediatric Outpatient Practice in Nagpur City. Indian J Community Med; 35(1): 70–73.
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. British National Formulary (2010). BNF, 60th edition, British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
. De Vries TP, Henning RH, Hogerzeil HV, Fresle DA (1995). Guide to good prescribing: A practical manual, Geneva world health organization; 66-78 (WHO/DAP/94.11).
. Dean B, Barber &, Schachter M (2000). What is a prescribing error? Quality in Health Care; 9:232-237.
. Francois P, Chirpaz E, Bontemps H, Labarere J, Bosson JL, Calop J (1997). Evaluation of prescription-writing quality in a French university hospital. Clinical Performance and Quality Health Care; 5 (3): 111–115
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Antibiotic Activity of Streptomyces Isolates Collected From Soil of Kogi Central, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Bello E.Kizito., Nwankwo E.O.|
Abstract: A total of 62 Streptomyces were isolated from the farm land and waste land of Kogi central and screened for their antimicrobial activities. They were evaluated for their antagonistic activities on seven test organisms. Eighteen Streptomyces isolates which exhibit antimicrobial activity against at least 5 of the test organisms were characterized by conventional methods. The cultural characteristic was then studied. The result indicates that 9 (nine) isolates were highly active against Gram-positive bacteria. 6(six) isolates were highly active against a fungus with a zone of inhibition greater than >14mm in diameter. Most of the isolates inhibited growth of the Gram negative bacteria tested. All the antibiotic producing Streptomyces were isolated at different location from agricultural and non-agricultural waste land. Eighteen isolates shows antimicrobial effect against six bacteria and a fungus. With these findings, it is suggestive that Kogi central soil and it environ is a good source to explore potent antibiotics against clinically resistant pathogens.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Microorganism, Streptomyces, Drug resistance.
. AJIJUR, R.–MOHAMMAD, Z.I.–ANWAR, U.L. 2011. Antibacterial activities of Streptomyces isolates collected from soils of Rajshahi, Bangladesh biotechnology research international Vol 2011, article ID 857925, 6 pagesDoi:10.4061/2011/857925.
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Abstract: The prevalence of bacterial organisms on toilet door handles in secondary schools in Bokkos Local Government; Jos Plateau State, Nigeria was evaluated. This work was carried out in March 2011. A total of 120 samples were collected and cultured for bacterial isolates, 40 from each of the schools (Government Secondary School Bokkos, All Nation Academy and Government secondary School Mushere). The following organisms were isolated Staphylococcus specie 26(43.3%), Candida specie 6(10%), Escherichia coli 10(16.7%), Citrobacter specie 1(1.7%), Klebsiella specie 12(20%), Proteus specie 4(6.7%) and Salmonella specie 1(1.7%). Out of the 120 samples that were collected 60(50%) yielded growth and 60 showed no growth at all. The result showed that G. S. S. Bokkos has the highest contamination with a total number of 29(48.3%) organisms isolated followed by All Nations Academy with 18(30%) organisms isolated and then G. S. S. Mushere with 13(21%). The result of this study indicates high prevalence rate of bacteria on toilet door handles in Secondary Schools in Bokkos L. G. A.
Key word: Staphylococcus, Candida, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella
. Ann M O'Hara, Fergus Shanahan The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO reports 7, 688 - 693 (01 Jul 2006)
. Baker, J. And Bloomfield S. F. (2000). Survival of Salmonella in bathroom and Toilets in homes. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 89: 137-144
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. Ducel. G., Fabry J., Nicolle L., Girard R., Perruad M., Priiss A., Sawey T. E., Thuriaux M., and Valnhems P. (2002). Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infection: A practical guide, 2nd Edition. WHO Department of Communicable Disease, Surveillance and Response: 1-9
. Eckburg P. B., Bik E. M., Benrstein C N (2005) "Diversity of the human Intestine microbial flora" Science 308(5728):1635-8
. Elizabeth A. Grice et al. (2006). "Topographical and Temporal Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome". Science 324 (5931): 1190–2. doi:10.1126/science.1171700.
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Abstract: The onset of the industrial revolution has led to massive exploitation of a vast amount of our natural resources within a period of a few hundred years at unimaginable rates.Large amounts of wastes generated seriously damaging its natural processes.Fishes are aquatic and poikilothermic animals and perform best under a narrow range of optimum environmental conditions.A slight diversion from these,results in stress leading therby to diseases. The acute and sublethal toxicity of the insecticide "Encounter‟ on the fingerlings of Labeo rohita was evaluated to determine its effect on the haematological values.The fish was exposed to varying levels of the toxicant concentrations using static bioassay to determine the median lethal concentration. The LC50 value is 0.11 ppm.The fish was exposed to different hours (24,48,72 and 96) in sublethal concentration 0.11ppm and parameters like RBC,WBC,Hb,MCV,MCH,MCHC,PCV has been analysed.All haematological parameters except WBC were found to be decreased from control and the WBC was increased in all exposure periods.The values were statistically analyzed and most values were found to be significant at 5% level.
Keywords: haematological,insecticide,lethal toxicity,sublethal,WBC.
 Azhi Bin Indris,Abdullah Almanamum Mohammad Amin,Mohamod soon and Wan Noor wan Azmin,Review of water quality standards and practices in Malaysia,Poll.Res,22(2),2003,145-155.
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 S.L.Shah, and A.Altindag,Haematological parameters of tench (Tinca tinca L.) after acute and chronic exposure to lethal and sublethal mercury treatments.Bull.Environ.Contam.Toxicol,73,2004,911-918.
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 S.Binukumari, and M.C.Subisha, Haematological responses in a Freshwater fish Oreochromis mosambicus exposed to Chlorpyrifos.The Ekologia,10 (1-2),2010,1-8.
 K.Shanthi,N.Saradhamani,S.Binukumari andM.Manimegalai, Effect of Detergent Surf Excel on oxygen consumption and Haematological Parameters in Freshwater Fish,Tilapia mossambica.The Ekologia,9 (1-2),2009, 11-17.
 A.R.Shakoori,A.L.Mughal,M.J.Iqbal, Effect of sublethal doses of fenvalarate (A synthetic pyrethroid) administered continuously for 4 weeks on the blood,liver,muscles of freshwater fish Ctenopharyngodon idella.Bull.Environ.Contam.Toxicol,57,1996,487-494.
 Abdul RAUF and Naeemuddin ARAIN, Acute toxicity of diazinon and its effect on haematological parameters in the Indian carp, Cirrhinus mrigala(Hamilton).Turk J Vet Anim Sci,37,2013,535-540.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In vitro Antioxidant activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Eugenia operculata Roxb.|
|Authors||:||Yumnam Romila Devi, Pranab Behari Mazumder|
Abstract: Eugenia operculata Roxb. also known as Cleistocalyx operculatus Roxb., or Syzygium nervosum belongs to the myrtaceae family is a well known perennial tree, commonly known as tom heinou in Manipur, India. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of E.operculata. The ethanol and aqueous extracts were used in the present study. The extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemical constituents. Antioxidant properties were determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reducing power method.IC50 values of ethanol and aqueous extracts were found to be 52.96±0.94 and 41.73±0.4 for DPPH assay. Reducing assay reveals dose dependent reducing power. The extract showed potent antioxidant activity when compared with standard ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Total phenolic content for ethanol and aqueous extracts were found to be 58.6 and 88.1mg/gm GAE.The ethanol and aqueous extracts of E.operculta posses significant antioxidant activity.
Keywords: Antioxidant, DPPH, Eugenia operculata; Manipur; Phytochemicals
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Drug Resistance due to Mutation in UL 97 and Certain Other Specific Genes in Cytomegalovirus Strains: An Overview|
|Authors||:||Sunil Kumar and Sanjay Mishra|
Abstract: The study of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antiviral drug resistance has enhanced knowledge of the virological targets and the mechanisms of antiviral activity. The currently approved drugs, ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (FOS), and cidofovir (CDV), target the viral DNA polymerase. The widespread use of ganciclovir (GCV) to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immuno-suppressed patients has led to the development of drug resistance.GCV anabolism also requires phosphorylation by the virus-encoded UL97 kinase. GCV resistance mutations have been identified in both genes, while FOS and CDV mutations occur only in the DNA polymerase gene. Confirmation of resistance mutations requires genotypic assays based on sequencing provide more rapid results but are dependent on prior validation by phenotypic methods. Recombinant phenotyping methods performed in a few research laboratories have resolved some of the conflicting results. Treatment options for drug-resistant HCMV infections are complex and have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, although consensus guidelines have been proposed.
Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, antiviral activity, drug-resistance, ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, viral DNA polymerase.
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. Baldanti, F., Revello, M. G., Percivalle, E., and Gerna, G. (1998): Use of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigenemia assay for diagnosis and monitoring of HCMV infections and detection of antiviral drug resistance in the immunocompromised. J ClinVirol 11, 51-60.
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. Bhorade, S. M., Sandesara, C., Garrity, E. R., Vigneswaran, W. T., Norwick, L., Alkan, S., Husain, A. N., McCabe, M. A., and Yeldandi, V. (2001): Quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load by the hybrid capture assay allows for early detection of CMV disease in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 20, 928-34.
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Abstract: The prime object of this project was to elucidate the possible importance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) as a contributing factor towards drug safety.The main focus of the project was to identify whether there is any interaction between Ketotifen Fumarate (antihistamine) and Desloratadine (antidopaminergic drug) present or not at different pH. From Job's continuous-variation analysis we found the view of drug-drug interaction at different concentration ratio atl pH (0.4, 1.2, 2.0,6.0) except 2.8, 22.214.171.124 . If both Ketotifen and Desloratadine will be administered concurrently, complex will be formed after reaction, which will reduce the pharmacological activities of both drugs in short grade.
Key words: Drug interaction, Desloratadine, job's plot, Ketotifen, pH, Spectral pattern.
 " National Prescribing Service, 2009. Available athttp://nps.org.au/news_and_media/media_releases/repository/Forget_the_colour_shape_or_brand__its
 a bMaría Soledad Fernández Alfonso, Mariano Ruiz Gayo.Fundamentos de Farmacología Básica y Clínica. Published by Editorial Ramón Areces, 2005; page 232. ISBN 84-8004-689-9
 Malgor — Valsecia, Farmacología general: Farmacocinética.Cap. 2. en
 Revised 25 September 2008  Alicia Gutierrez Valanvia y Luis F. López-Cortés Interacciones farmacológicas entre fármacos antirretrovirales y fármacos usados para ciertos transtornos gastrointestinales. on Consulted 24 September 2008
 Zaditor prescribing informationNovartis
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