Volume-5 ~ Issue-1
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|Title||:||Inhibition of Sulphuric Acid Corrosion of Mild Steel by Surfactant and Its Adsorption and Kinetic Characteristics|
|Authors||:||Prathibha B. S., P. Kotteeswaran, V. Bheemaraju|
Abstract: The corrosion inhibition effect of surfactant, N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-Phenoxyethyl)dodecan-1- aminiumbromide(DPDAB) on mild steel corrosion in 0.5M Sulphuric acid was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. DPDAB is an excellent inhibitor and its inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration and maximum inhibition efficiency was observed above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The polarization curves reveal that DPDAB acts as mixed type inhibitor with predominantly of anodic type. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of DPDAB increases with increase in concentration and decreases with increase in temperature from 298K to 308K and then increases and shows maxima at 318K and then decreases at 328K.. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 was found to obey Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) confirmed the existence of an adsorbed protective film on the metal surface. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and discussed.
Key Words: CMC, Corrosion Inhibition, EIS, Mild steel, Surfactant
. Bereket G. and A. Yurt, Inhibition of the corrosion of low carbon steel in acidic solution by selected quaternary ammonium compounds, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, 49(3), 2002, 210-220.
. El Maghraby A.A. and T.Y. Soor, Efficient cationic surfactant as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in Hydrochloric acid solutions, Pelagia Research Library, Advances in Applied Science Research, 1(2), 2010, 156-168.
. Vasudevan T., B. Muralidharan, S. Muralidharan and S. Venkatakrishna Iyer, Inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in acidic solutions by Quaternary salts of Pyridinium bases, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, 45(2),1998, 120-126.
. Free M.L., Understanding the effect of surfactant aggregation on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic medium, Corros. Sci., 44, 2002, 2865.
. Kalpana Bhrara, Gurmeet Singh and Hansung Kim, Inhibiting effects of butyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide on corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M sulphuric acid solution and its adsorption characteristics, corros. Sci., 50,2008, 2747-2754.
. Grieves R.B and Somasundaran P, Advances in interfacial phenomena of particulate/solution/gas systems, AICHE symposium series, 71,1975, 124.
. Fuertenau D.W. The adsorption of surfactants at solid/water interfaces in : Hair ML, editor. The chemistry of biosurafces, ( New York. 1971) 143.
. Li X.H., F.Z. Yang, G.N. Mu, H.Fu and S.D. Deng, Inhibition effect of nonionic surfactant on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in HCl, Corros. Sci., 50, 2008, 420-430.
. Prathibha B.S, P. Kotteeswaran, V. Bheema raju, Study on the inhibition of Mild steel corrosion by N, N- dimethyl-N-(2-phenoxyethyl) dodecan-1-aminiumbromide in HCl Medium, IOSR-JAC, 2(5), 2012, 61-70.
. Bentiss F., M. Lebrini and M. Lagrenee, Thermodynamic characterization of metal dissolution and inhibitor adsorption processes in mild steel/2,5-bis(n-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles/hydrochloric acid system, Corros. Sci., 47,2005, 2915-2931.
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|Title||:||Studies on the Dyeing Of Wool and Nylon Fabrics with Some Acid Dyes|
|Authors||:||Haruna Musa, Abdulmumini A., Folashade M. O., Bishir Usman, Hamza Abba|
Abstract: Wool and nylon fabrics were dyed using four different types of acid dyes of various colours i.e Lugani 101 (black), brown 3RG, nylomine (navy blue), methyl orange. Generally both wool and nylon fabrics exhibited higher percentage exhaustion. Relatively, nylon showed higher percentage exhaustion compared to wool. Also the dyed wool and nylon fabrics possess good fastness towards bleaching rubbing, pressing and perspiration but poor fastness to higher and washing.
Keywords – Acid dyes, exhaustion, fastness, nylon, wool,
 P.O. Nkeonye, Fundamental Principles of Textile Dyeing, (Printing and Finishing A. B. U. Press L.t.d. 1987) ,135 – 145.
 R.W. David and H.Geoffrey . The Chemistry and Application of Dyes (Plenum Press Newyork and London, 1990) pp203 – 235.
 L. J. Marjory, Introductory Textile Sciences, 3rd Edition library of Congress Cataloging in Publication of Data U. S. A. 1977, 88 – 115.
 C. L. Bird and W. S. Boston . Theory of Colouration of Textiles. (White Rose Press L.t.d., Mexborough and London, 1975), pp285.
 M. D. Koushic Uddin and H. M. Sonia. A comparative study on silk Dyeing with Acid and Reactive Dye. Int. J. Engr. and Tech. 2010, 10(6):21 – 26.
 H. Ghouila, N. Meksi, W. Haddar, M.F. Mhenni, H.B. Jannet, Identification and dyeing studies of Isosali purposide, natural chalcone dye from acacia cynophyilla followers on wool. Industrial crops products, 35, 31-36. 2012.
 L. J. Majory. Essentials of Textiles, 2nd Edition, Holt, (Rinehart Winston Publishers, U.S.A. 1980), 55 – 102. (8] E. R. Trotman. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Fibres. London and (Highway Coube, Charles Griffin and Company L.t.d. 1975),9.
 A.Guesmi, N. B. Hamadi, N. Ladhari, F.. Sakli, Dyeing Properties and colour fastness of wool dyed with indicaxanthin natural dye. Industrial crops and products 37, 493-499, 2012.
 A.Guesmi, N. B. Hamadi, N. Ladhari, F.. Sakli, Sonicator dyeing of modified acrylic fabric with indin caxanthin natural dye. Industrial crop and Products, 42, 63-69 (2013).
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|Title||:||An efficient incentive of Nitrate and Fluoride on Organic highland cropping systems|
|Authors||:||Mohana Rao Abburi, Mekonen Aregai, Soujanya Kaki, Divya Jyothi
Abstract: Exerting necessitated concentrations of Nitrate and fluoride to the organic highland cropping systems is a vital management technique. All the chemical elements of the earth's crust occur in widely differing omnipresent concentrations, due to their different nuclear chemical formation and geochemical history. The use of biological nitrogen and fluoride inputs complicates its balancing act due to dandier uncertainty in inorganic Nitrogen and Fluoride availability. The growers to strike maintain Nitrogen provisioning to support crop growth and retention of limit pollution followed by fluoride associated soils. Due to various activities of the man in domestic field, agriculture area and industrial establishment the environment around us consisting soil, water and air gets polluted. Fluoride inexhaustible concentrations forbid the growth of crop even though nitrates reposit in the cultivated soils. The purpose of this project was to establish kinetics when nitro fluorides associated in the highland soils to different crop systems towards environmental pollutions. Cordia Africana and alfalfa are the plants which make soil to get enrichment of Nitrates and deescalate of concentrations of fluorides from cultivated soils through its decomposition. This entire study went on its conventionally tilled crops followed by Cordia Africana and alfalfa stems and leaf particles. Surface soil nitrate concentrations were measured weekly, biweekly by volumetric analysis and nitrate leaching was estimated from tension Lysimeters which were buried at the soil bedrock interface. Subsequently by using Orion 720A fluoride ion meter, deescalated concentrations of fluorides have been measured. The demonstrated concentrations of Soil in NO3 variables, coefficients of variations from the mean concentrations across all samplings have been recorded sporadically. The total area of the soil bed was maintained the same PH values until project was completed by weigh Lysimeters. The timing of elevated Nitrate concentrations (10-15PPM) and the concentrations of fluoride in deeper soil water corresponds with fallow periods. These dynamics will assist growers in adapting the timing management operations and reduces nitrate departures.
Keywords: Highland cultivation, Lysimeters, Orion fluoride Ion, biomasses.
. Ihekoronye, A.I.and P.O.Ngoddy, 1985.Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Mcmillan Education Limited, Oxford, London, pp.270-281.
. K.R.Woodard, E.C.French et al, Environmental quality; 2002, 31(6).
. B.C.Rana and S.Palaria, gy and Pollution of Indian Rivers, Ed.R.K.Trivedi, Asian Publishing House, New Delhi, 1988, 345-359.
. Guidelines for Investigating and Remediating Nitrate/Ammonia contamination from Agricultural Chemical releases, Ber Polocy,Ber-RS-050, January 2007
. Agarwal,M.,Rai, k. and Dass,S.(2003)Defluoridation of water using amended Clay.J. Cleaner Prod. 11, 439-444
. Bulusu, K.R. and Nawalakhe, W.G.(1988) Defluoridation of water with activated alumina:batch operations.IndianJ.environ.Health.30, 262-299.
. Gupta,S.K. and Sharma,P.(1995) An approach to tackling fluoride problem in drinking water. Current Science 68,774.
. Mayadevi,S. (1996) Adsorbents for the removal of fluorides from water. Indian Chem.Engr.Section A38, 155-157
. Goyal Meenakshi; R Amutha, Res.J.Chem.Environ, 2008,12, 1, 76-83.
. K.R. Balusu,J.Institution of Engineers, India, Env.Engg, 1984,65, 25-29.
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|Title||:||Surfactant-assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ceria-Zirconia Nanostructured Materials for Catalytic Applications|
|Authors||:||Cimi A Daniel, S. Sugunan|
Abstract: CeO2–ZrO2 oxides were prepared by the surfactant-templated method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template and modified with chromium nitrate. These were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, SEM, BET and TPD-CO2. The XRD data showed that as prepared CeO2-ZrO2 powder particles have single phase cubic fluorite structure. HRTEM shows mesoscopic ordering. Average particle size is 12-13 nm as calculated from particle histogram. The nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm were classified to be type IV isotherm, typical of mesoporous material. The presence of uni-modal mesopores are confirmed by the pore size distribution which shows pore distribution at around 60 A°. Catalytic activity was studied towards liquid-phase oxidation of benzene. Keywords- Mixed rare earth oxide, Ceria–zirconia, BET, TEM, benzene oxidation.
 H.-W Jen, G.W Graham, W Chun, R.W McCabe, J.-P Cuif, S.E Deutsch, O Touret. (1999). Characterization of model automotive
exhaust catalysts: Pd on ceria and ceria–zirconia supports. Catalysis Today, 50: 309-328.
 T. Ozaki, T. Masui, K. Machida, G. Adachi, T. Sakata, H. Mori.( 2000). Redox behavior of surface-modified CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts
by chemical filing process. Chem. Mater., 12: 643-649.
 Matina Thammachart, Vissanu Meeyoo, Thirasak Risksomboon, Somchai Osuwan.( 2001). Catalytic activity of CeO2–ZrO2 mixed
oxide catalysts prepared via sol–gel technique: CO oxidation. Catalysis Today, 68: 53-61.
 Jianbing Huang, Lizhai Yang, Ruifeng Gao, Zongqiang Mao , Cheng Wang. (2006). A high-performance ceramic fuel cell with
samarium doped ceria–carbonate composite electrolyte at low temperatures. Electrochemistry Communications, 8: 785–789.
 Hitoshi Takamura , Masayuki Ogawa, Koichi Suehiro , Hiroo Takahashi, Masuo Okada.(2008). Fabrication and characteristics of
planar-type methane reformer using ceria-based oxygen permeable membrane. Solid State Ionics, 179: 1354–1359.
 Zhong-Yong Yuana, Vasko Idakiev, Aurelien Vantomme, Tatyana Tabakova, Tie-Zhen Ren, Bao-Lian Su. (2008). Mesoporous and
nanostructured CeO2 as supports of nano-sized gold catalysts for low-temperature water-gas shift reaction. Catalysis Today,
 Thammachart M, Meeyo V, Risksomboon T and Osuwann S 2001 Catal. Today 68 53
 Cabana A, Darr J A, Lester E and Poliakoff M 2001 J. Mater. Chem. 11 561
 Rohart E, Larcher O, H´edouin C, Allain M and Macaudiere P 2001 SAE Int. Paper vol 1, p 1274
 Fornasiero P, di Monte R, Rao G, Kaspar J, Meriani S, Trovarelli A and Graziani J 1995 J. Catal. 151 168
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Abstract: The problems faced by producer canned of pineapple are the high of bruised which caused by the mechanical damage such as pressure, vibration during harvest, transport to the fruit processing and pathological damage caused by fruit diseases. The objective of research was to obtain the treatment time of CaCl2 applications and dosage of CaCl2 to improve the fruit quality of pineapple. This research used Split Plot Design and each treatment replicated 3 times. The main plot is time of CaCl2 applications that consists of three levels, thats are : 90 day after forcing (daf) (W90), 120 daf (W120) and twice time of CaCl2 applications on 90 and 120 daf (W90+120). The sub plot is dosage of CaCl2 that consists of three levels, thats are : 50 kg ha-1 (C50), 75 kg ha-1 (C75) and 100 kg ha-1 (C100). The results of research showed that the combined treatment twice time of CaCl2 applications on 90 and 120 day after forcing and dosage of CaCl2 100 kg ha-1 produces the calcium content on fruit is higher than the other combined treatments and produce the fruit texture, percentage of fruit diseases and percentage of bruised are lower than the other combined treatments.
Keywords : Calcium chloride, pineapple
. Abbott, F.G and F.R. Harker. 2003. Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 2: sweet and acid taste of apple fruit. Postharvest biology and technology. 24:241-250.
. Broadley, R.H.; C.W. Rudolph and S.Eric. 1993. Pineapple Pest dan Disorders. Department of Primary Industry. Queensland.
. Garcia, J. M., Ballesteros M. J. dan M. A. Albi. 1995. Effect of Foliar Applications of CaCl2 on Tomato Stored at Different Temperature. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry. 43: 9-12.
. Huang, S.; G. Zhu, L. Qin, X. Zhou, F. Huang, Q. Li, W. Yan, H. Huang, Z. Cen, G. Fu, and C. Hu. 2012. Enhancement of Efficacy in Controlling Postharvest Decays and Extending Shelf Life of Mangoes by Combined Pre- and Post- harvest Chemical Aplications, International Journal of Agriculture and Biology.14 (2) : 176-182
. Iskandar, D.E, dan H.T. Soelaeman. 2007. Raja nanas dunia. Swamajalah 46 p. 21-22. 2012.
. Leal, F. and G.C. d'Eeckenbrugge. 2003. The Pineapple, Fruit Breeding,Tree and Tropical Fruits. CABI publishing. New York.
. Loeillet, D. 1997. Panorama du marché mondial de l'ananas: l'importance de l'Europe (The world pineapple market: the importance of Europe). Acta Horticulturae 425, 37–48.
. Mardini, 2007. Sifat Fisik, Kimia dan Sensoris Buah Nenas dengan Penambahan Kalsium Sitrat Malat (CCM) dan Pektin. Skripsi. Universitas Sriwijaya. Palembang.
. Mishra, M. 2002. Lead Acetate Induced Citotoxicity in Male Germinal Cell of Swiss Mice. Swiss. p.291-294.
. Petty, G.J.; S.R. Graham and D.P. Bartholomew. 2002. Tropical Fruit Pest and Pollinators. CABI Publishing. New York
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|Title||:||Feasibility of Nanofiltration process in dual stage in desalination of the seawater|
|Authors||:||F. El Azhar, N. El Harrak, M. El Azhar, M. Hafsi, A.Elmidaoui|
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to predict the performances of NF membranes for seawater desalination utilizing a two. ROSA software was used in this study to verify the applicability of the NF in dual stage desalination process. Similarly to dual stage NF desalination process, an NF membrane was used in the first stage and BW membrane in the second stage.The first stage includes a nanofiltration membrane, but the second includes a nanofiltration or reverse osmosis (BW) membranes in order to produce potable water (TDS less than 1000mg/l). The effect of membranes type and seawater salinity is examined to achieve our objective. The results of energy requirements of NF–NF and NF–BW were eventually compared to single stage RO desalination in order to estimate the effectiveness of process.
Keywords: Nanofiltration, Reverse osmosis, Desalination, Rosa software, Dual stage.
. Chen. J., Li, G., (2005), Marine reverse osmosis desalination plant—a case study, Desalination 174 299–303.
. Diem. X ., V.,(2006) , Two stage nanofiltration seawater desalination system, United State Patent 7, 144, December 511 B2,
. Karameldin. A., (2005), RO system design rehabilitation part I: sizzling feed intake management, 9th International Water
Technology Conference, pp. 17–20, (Sharm El-Sheikh).
. Moreno. F., Pinilla. A., (2004) Preliminary experimental study of a small reverse osmosis
. wind-powered desalination plant, Desalination 171 257–265.
. Nisan.S., Commercon. B., Dardour. S., (2005), A new method for the treatment of the reverse osmosis process with preheating of
the feedwater, Desalination 182 483–495.
. Noronha. M., Mavrov. V., Chmiel. Horst., (2002), Efficient design and optimisation of two-stage NF processes by simplified
process simulation, Desalination 145 (1–3) 207–215.
. Silva. V., Geraldes. V., Brites Alves. A.M., Palacio. L., Prádanos. P., Hernández. A.. (2011), Multi-ionic nanofiltration of highly
concentrated salt mixtures in the seawater range. Desalination, Volume 277, Issues 1–3, 15, Pages 29-39.
. Wang. X.L., Zhang. C.H., Zhao. J., (2000), Separation mechanism of nanofiltration membranes and its applications in food and
pharmaceutical industries, Membrane Science and Technology 20 (1) 29–30.
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|Title||:||Removal of lead (II) and copper (II) ions from aqueous solution by baobab (Adononsia digitata) fruit shells biomass|
|Authors||:||F. Chigondo, B. C. Nyamunda, S. C. Sithole, L. Gwatidzo|
Abstract: High concentration of heavy metals in the environment can be detrimental to a variety of living species. The purpose of this research was to explore the use of baobab (Adsononsia digitata) fruit shells in the removal of lead(II) and copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of varying adsorption parameters on the removal of aqueous lead and copper ions. The adsorption of Pb(II) was found to be maximum at pH 5.5 using adsorbent dose of 0.7 g. The adsorption of Cu(II) was found to be optimum at pH 6 using adsorbent dosage of 0.9 g. The adsorption data conformed to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. However the Temkin isotherm showed the best fitting model with highest R2 values for both lead and copper (0.9977 and 0.9967) respectively. Baobab fruit shells can be used as a cost effective adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) and copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the treatment of industrial effluent.
Keywords: Adsorption, baobab, biosorbent, copper, isotherm, lead
 N.A. Babarinde, J.O. Babalola, and A.R.A. Sanni, Biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions by maize leaf, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 1(1), 2006, 23-26.
 P.A. Maryan, H.M. Pinheiro, J.A. Teiseira, and M.F. Rosa, Removal efficiency of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by waste brewery biomass, pH and cation association effects, Desalination Journal, 124, 2007,137-144.
 S.D. Kim, K.S. Park, and M.B. Gu, Toxicity of hexavalent chromium to Daphnia magna: influence of reduction reaction by ferrous iron, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 93(2), 2002, 155–164.
 A.B. Paknikar, A. Ballester, F. Gonzalez, M.L. Blazquez, J.A. Murioz, J. Saez, and M. Zapata, Study of cadmium, zinc and lead biosorption by orange wastes using the subsequent addition method, Bioresources Technology Journal, 99(17), 2003, 8101-8106.
 C.L. Ake, K. Mayura, H. Huebner, G.R. Bratton, and T.D. Phillips, Development of porous clay based composites for the sorption of lead from water, Journal of Toxicology Environmental Health Part A 63 (6), 2001, 459–4759.
 J.C. Ingwe, O.F. Mbonu, and A.A. Abia, Sorption Kinetic, Interparticle Diffusion and Equilibrium Partitioning of Azo Dyes on Great Millet (Andropogon Sorghum) Waste Biomass, Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(19), 2007, 2840-2847.
 Z. Asku, Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review, Process Biochemistry, 40, 2009, 997–10268
 M. Lotfi, and N. Adhoum, Modified activated carbon for the removal of copper, zinc, chromium and cyanide from wastewater, Separation and Purification Technology, 26 ( 2–3), 2002, 137–146.
 C.D. Elcey, and B. Manoj, Demineralization of Coal by Stepwise Bioleaching: A study of sub-bituminous Indian coal by FTIR and SEM, Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 45 (4), 2010, 385-390.
 Y.B. Onundi, A.A. Mamun, M.F. Al Khatib, and Y.M. Ahmed, Adsorption of copper, nickel and lead ions from synthetic semiconductor industrial wastewater by palm shell activated carbon, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7(4), 2010, 751-758.
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|Title||:||Quantitative Determination of Deltamethrin in Milk, Blood and Urine of Domestic Animals|
|Authors||:||Zulfiqar Ali, Rubina Gilani, Habib Hussain, Imdad Hussain|
Abstract: Deltamethrin among pyrethroids is used as an insecticide on different vegetables. Grass of sprayed field was provided to the domestic animals as a food. In order to determine deltamethrin quantitatively, animal samples like milk, blood and urine were extracted with n-hexane, partitioned and anhydrous Na2SO4 was added to the acetonitrile layer to remove the water contents. Silica gel column was used to cleanup deltamethrin with n-hexane and diethyl ether as a mobile phase. The column fractions were concentrated to 5 ml using rotary evaporator and analyzed using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).Deltamethrin solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.5-to 2.5-μg/ ml were used as calibration standards. The solution at 1.0μg/ml is used to confirm the claimed limit of detection (LOD).
Keywords: Deltamethrin, Milk, Blood, Urine, Vegetables
. Robert L. Metcalf "Insect Control" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. . Zaveri, Mihir (Thursday, February 4, 2010). The Daily Californian (The Daily Californian). Retrieved 9 June 2012.
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. Mc LEOD HA., RITCEY WR. Manual on Analytical Methods for Pesticide Residues in Foods. Health Protection Branch. Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Canada. eds. 1973.
. Yan Ding, et al J. Chromatogr. B. 2004, 810, 221-227.
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|Title||:||Molecular characterization of pea (Pisum sativum L.) using microsatellite markers|
|Authors||:||Mariem Bouhadida, Faten Srarfi, Imene Saadi, Mohamed Kharrat|
Abstract: Nineteen pea (Pisum sativum L.) accessions have been characterized using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). The mains objectives of this study were to examine SSR polymorphism among cultivars and to assess genetic diversity among them. Eight microsatellites, from the Pisum microsatellite consortium (Agrogene ®, France) have been used. Five of the eight SSRs studied gave good electrophoretic profiles and helped us to amplify a number of alleles per locus varying from 3 (PSMPA5 and PSMPA6) to 13 (PSMPSAD126) with a total of 34 and an average number of 6.8 alleles per locus. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) varied from 0.18 for PSMPSAD134 to 0.85 for PSMPSAD126, with an average value of 0.62. The five microsatellites analyzed allowed us to separate 18 out of the 19 genotypes studied, and only the two most polymorphic markers (PSMPSAA205 and PSMPSAD126), permit to discriminate among the same genotypes (18) separated using the 5 SSRs. Genetic distances computed have been used to draw the corresponding dendrogram and to distribute genotypes according to their genetic relationship. The genotypes classified within the same group share several agro-morphological characters. Finally, the present study attests that SSR microsatellites are good tools for identifying genotypes and for the assessment of genetic diversity in pea.
Keywords: genetic distance, genetic diversity, molecular markers, Pisum sativum, SSR microsatellites.
 J.H. Husle, Nature, composition and utilization of food legumes, in F.J. Muehlbauer and W.J. Kaiser (Ed.), Expending the production and use of cool season food legumes, (Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1994) 77-79.
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 F. Srarfi Ben Ayed, M. Kharrat, La culture du pois en Tunisie, 2010,50.
 V. Lombard, C.P. Baril, P. Dubreuil, F. Blouet, and D. Zhang, Genetic relationships and fingerprinting of rapeseed cultivars by AFLP: consequences for varietal registration. Crop Sci. 40, 2000, 1417–1425.  I. Métais, C. Aubry, B. Hamon, R. Jalouzot, and D. Peltier, Description and analysis of genetic diversity between commercial bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Theor. Appl. Genet. 101, 2000, 1207–1214.
 G.L. Sun, M. William, J. Liu, K.J. Kasha, and K.P. Pauls, Microsatellite and RAPD polymorphisms in Ontario corn hybrids are related to the commercial sources and maturity ratings, Molecular Breeding, 7, 2001, 13–24.
 K. Loridon, K. McPhee, J. Morin, P. Dubreuil, M. L. Pilet-Nayel, G. Aubert, C. Rameau, A. Baranger, C. Coyne, I. Lejeune-Henaut, and J. Burstin, Microsatellite marker polymorphism and mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.), Theor. Appl. Genet, 111, 2005, 1022-1031.
 B. Tar'an, C. Zhang, T. Warkentin, A. Tullu, and A. Vandenberg, Genetic diversity among varieties and wild species accessions of pea (Pisum sativum L.) based on molecular markers, and morphological and physiological characters, Genome, 48, 2005, 257–272.
 X. Zong, R.J. Redden, Q. Liu, S. Wang, J. Guan, J. Liu, Y. Xu, X. Liu, J. Gu, L. Yan P. Ades, and R. Frod, Analysis of a diverse global Pisum sp. Collection and comparison to a Chinese local P. sativum collection with microsatellite markers, Theor Appl Genet 118, 2009, 193-204.
 M.A. Saghai-Maroof, K.M. Soliman, R.A. Jorgensen, R.W. Allard, Ribosomal DNA Spacer-length polymorphisms in barley : Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location and population dymnamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81,1984, 8014-8018.
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|Title||:||Shrinkage of Polyester Fibre in Selected Chlorinated Solvents and Effects on Dimensional Stability of the Fabric.|
|Authors||:||A. V. Popoola, A. O. Adetuyi, G. O. Oyeleke|
Abstract: Polyester fibres were isothermally treated with four commercial chlorinated laundry solvents; perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene and tetrachloromethane (TCM). Measurement of the longitudinal shrinkage of the treated fibres was carried out at room temperature for 30, 60, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750, 900 and 1800 seconds that was found to be sufficient to establish dynamic equilibrium conditions for each of the solvents. From the results, a trend of 1,1-DCE > PCE > TCE > TCM was observed for the shrinkage values. The solvents exhibited behaviour that cannot be explained by their boiling points and molecular weights. Solubility parameter values (δ) of the solvents were however, found to be the overriding factor as it followed the above trend. The treatment has been able to provide a means of improving polyester fibre structure to suit its use in commercial applications and also revealed that the best among the four solvents in term of effecting minimal change on the structure and quality of the fabric during laundry will be TCM.
Keywords: Polyester, laundry, chlorinated, solvent, shrinkage, solubility parameter, overriding.
 Ugbolue, S.C.O. and Popoola, A.V., Studies on Solvent Induced Structural Modification of Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Filament. Acta Polymerica 40. Nr 7 (1989): 475-479.
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 Walters, J.P. and Buchanan, D.R., Glass Transition Temperatures of Polyamide Textile Fibres. Part II: Relationships between Tg and Dyeability. Textile Research Journal, 47 (1977): 451-456.  Popoola, A.V., Ph.D Thesis, Polymer Science and Technology Department, UMIST, (1983) Manchester, England.
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