IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 1 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Spinors and Their Applications to Track near Earth Objects
Country : India
Authors : A. Lakshmi || S. N. Hasan
: 10.9790/4861-0130109       logo
Abstract: In this paper Spinors of Euclidean spaces of Geometric Algebras over a real field are defined and their algebraic and rotational properties are discussed. The advantage of using Spinors in solving problems of Celestial Mechanics is illustrated by studying the tracking problem of near Earth objects. It is shown that this technique of using spinors can replace the conventional methods and also provide a richer formalism.
Key words: Euler angles, Geometric Algebra, Euclidean spaces, Rotations, Spinors.
[1] Hestenes D. New Foundations for Classical Mechanics. D. Reidel Publishing, 1986.
[2] Hestenes D. Space-Time Algebra: Gordon and Breach (1966).
[3] Lounesto P. Clifford Algebras and Spinors, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press (2001).
[4] Kuipers J.B. Quaternions and Rotation sequences. Princeton university press, Princeton.
[5] New Jersey (1999).
[6] Hasan S. N. Use of Clifford Algebra in Physics: A mathematical model, M.Phil Thesis, University of Hyderabad, India (1987).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Shelf-Life Extension of Nigerian Pepper (Capsicum Frutescens Linn and Capsicum Annuum Linn) Following Gamma Irradiation
Country : Nigeria
Authors : OWOADE L.R., ADEMOLA J.A.
: 10.9790/4861-0131014       logo
Abstract: The shelf-life extension of two types of Nigerian pepper (Capsicum frutescens linn and Capsicum annuum linn) was determined after gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator, Model Gamma Cell 220. Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo, Hausa type" and "Atarodo, Ibadan local" were studied while Capsicum annuum linn "Sombo" was also studied within a period of fifty four days. The samples were irradiated with different gamma doses ranging from 0.5 – 4.0 kGy. The result obtained showed that, the shelf-life extension of Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo Hausa type" is forty-two days, while that of Capsicum frutescens linn "Atarodo Ibadan local" is forty eight days while the shelf-life extension of Capsicum annuum linn "Sombo" is fifty–four days. The optimum dose for the shelf-life extension of the pepper studied was 1.0 kGy. The irradiation of these food composites has clearly revealed the merits of food preservation by irradiation through considerable shelf-life extension without degrading the quality of the food irradiated.
Key words: Capsicum annuum linn, Capsicum frutescens linn, optimum dose, shelf-life extension
[1] Olorunda, A.O. and Aboaba, F.O., (1977). Food preservation by Ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Vol.1 IAEA- pp221- 227.
[2] Gee-Harold, Mc (2004). Books for a better knowledge of Ingridients. On food and cooking MIR publishers, London.
[3] Geneva, (1999). Food borne disease: 'a focus health education'. Vol. 2 pp299-313.
[4] Dietz, V., Mead, P.S., Slutsker, L. (2008). Food Related illness and death in the United States, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 'Vol. 5'. Population reference Bureau, http://www/prb.org.
[5] Glubrecht, H. (1978). 'Basic effects of radiation on food matter'. Proceedings of a symposium Wageningen on food preservation by irradiation Vol. 29. Pp 238.
[ 6] Hulme, A.C. (1971). The biochemistry of fruits and their products. Vols. I and II, Academic Press, London.
[7] Grosch, D.S. and Hopwood, L.E. (1979). Biological effects of radiation, second edition, Academic press. pp 97.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Plasmapause and Increase in Whistler Mode Wave's Growth
Country : India
Authors : Ashwani Kumar, Anil Kumar, D.P. Singh
: 10.9790/4861-0131519       logo
Abstract: Singh et al have studied in detail the Whistler mode VLF waves intensity enhancement, by assuming change in VII , volume of flux tube, EII change due to a change of position of plasmapause. Enhancing this work, we in place of energy increase, consider the wave growth increase of whistler mode waves. The results are in agreement with reported observations and suggest that plasmapause plays an important role in wave propagation. It is shown that this guidance is possible at both the inner and outer edges of the Plasmapause and that more efficient guide occurs as the Plasmapause gradients become stronger. In the case of strong gradients, waves coming from a wide latitudes range (~80) are focused tightly about the plasmapause field lines, resulting in a wave intensity increase of about 3dB near the magnetic equator plane12.Since plasmapause has inner & outer edges, we can say that it has a widthpp) which depends upon Kpmax values, MLT as well as L the McIlwain parameters.pp variation is discussed in next section.
Keywords: Wave Propagation, Plasmapause, Plasma instability, Whistler mode waves. PACS Nos. 94.20Bb, 94.20Pp.94.30Gm
[1] Singh DP, Whistler wave intensity enhancement at Plasmapause, Singh UP& Prakash R Indian J Radio & Space Physics.
[2] Helliwal RA, Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena, Stanford Univ.Press,California,1965.
[3] Singh DP, Jain SK & Singh B, Propagation characteristics of VLF hiss observed at low latitude ground stations,34(1978)37.
[4] Singh DP & Singh B, Propagation characteristics of ground based VLF waves after emerging from the ducts in the ionosphere, Ann. Geophys 34(1978) 113.
[5] Cerisier JC, theoretical and experimental study of non-ducted VLF waves after propagation through the magnetosphere, J. Atoms. Terres Phys. 35(1973).
[6] Cerisier JC, Ductly and Partially ducted propagation of VLF waves propagation through the magnetosphere, J. Atoms. Terres Phys. 36(1974)1443.
[7] Carpenter DL, Whistler study of Plasmapause in the magnetosphere.
[8] Carpenter DL, Relation between the dawn minimum in the equatorial radii of the Plasmapause and Dst, kp and local K at Byrd station, J Geophys 72 (1967)2969.
[9] Carpenter DL and ParkCG On what ionosphere workers should know about the plasmapause –Plasmasphere, Rev. Geophys Res(USA),11(1973)133.
[10] Carpenter DL & Anderson RR,An ISEE/whistler mode of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere, Res (USA),97(1992)1097.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Measurement of Ultrasonic Velocity in Liquids Using Wireless Technology: Sms
Country : India
Authors : G. K. Singh, S. J. Sharma and S. Rajagopalan
: 10.9790/4861-0132022       logo
Abstract: In the present work, a virtual instrumentation setup utilizing GSM service for remote access via short message service (SMS) for measurements of ultrasonic velocity in liquid and liquid mixture is designed. Communication to the designed instrumentation system is achieved between a mobile phone (server) attached to it and another mobile phone (client). The instrumentation system can be controlled and monitored from anywhere covered by the GSM service by exchanging SMS between server and client under the software control designed in VB6.0. Ultrasonic velocities at various temperatures are measured through SMS between the server and the client mobile phones.
KeyWords: virtualinstrument, pulse-echosystem, wirelesscontrol, SMS, ultrasonicvelocityMeasurement, server and client
[1]. Sumathi S. and Surekha P., LabVIEW Based Advanced Instrumentation Systems, Springer, 2007
[2]. Rihan M. and Agarwal A., Virtual Instrumentation For Bio-Medical Applications, Proc. of the 4th National Conference, Bharati Vidyapeeth's Institute of Computer Applications and Management, New Delhi,INDIACom (2010)
[3]. Goldberg H., What is Virtual Instrumentation?, IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, 10-13 (2000)
[4]. Obrenovic Ž., Starcevic D., Jovanov E., Virtual Instrumentation, www.scribd.com /doc/38490061/Virtual-Instrumentation
[5]. Santori M., An instrument that isn't really, IEEE Spectrum, 27(8), 36 -39 (1990)
[6]. Singh G. K., Pendse V. M., Sharma S. J. and Rajagopalan S., Development of Multi-Frequency Pulse-Echo System, (communicated)
[7]. Singh G. K., Pendse V. M., Sharma S. J. and Rajagopalan S., Design of Mobile Phone Based Precise Temperature Controller, National Symposium on Instrumentation (NSI- 32) at K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengole, Tamil Nadu, 416-417 (2007) [8] Nokia PC Connectivity SDK 3.0 Component Library Reference, For Nokia Phones, www.forum.nokia.com/tools
[9]. Nokia PC Connectivity SDK 3.0 for Nokia Phones, www.forum.nokia.com /tools
[10]. Del Grosso V.A. and Mader C.W., Speed of Sound in Pure Water, J. Acoust. Soc.Am., 52(5b), 1442-1446 (1972)
[11]. SOS (Speed of sound ) Data for Methanol, Ethanol, Acetone, Acetonitrile, The DDBST (DORTMUND DATA BANK SOFTWARE & SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY), www.ddbondline.ddbst.de

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Deposition Temperature Effects On Cualse2 Compound Thin Films Prepared By Chemical Bath Deposition Technique
Country : Nigeria
Authors : S.C EZIKE, D.N OKOLI
: 10.9790/4861-0132326       logo
Abstract: A low cost chemical bath deposition technique has been used for the preparation of Copper aluminum diselenide (CuAlSe2) compound thin films onto commercial microscope glass substrates at variation of deposition temperature. The effects of deposition temperature (above room temperature (27°C)) towards the optical properties of the films were investigated. The optical properties were investigated by Jenway software 6405 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The optical band gap energy of the films above room temperature ranges from 2.00 – 2.14 eV depending on the deposition temperature.
Keywords: chemical bath deposition, CuAlSe2, deposition temperature, optical properties
[1] Rafea M. A and Roushdy N, Preparation and Characterisation of CuInSe2 – CuAlSe2, CuInS2 and ZnS Nanopowder by Mechanical Alloying Technique, Journal of chalcogenide Letters, Vol. 5, No 10, 2008, 219 -227
[2] Harada Y, Nakanishi H, and Chichibu S. F, Band gap energy bowing and residual strain in CuAl (SxSe1-x) chalcopyrite semiconductor epilayers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, Journal of applied physics vol. 91, No. 9, 2002, 5909 – 5914.
[3] Shirakata S, Chichibu S, Miyake H. and Sugiyama K, Optical properties of CuGaSe2 and CuAlSe2 layers epitaxially grown on Cu (In0.04 Ga0.96) Se2 substrates. Journal of applied physics Vol.87, No. 10, 2000, 7294 – 7302.
[4] Kassim A, Wee T.T, Abdullah A. H, Nagalingam S, Ho Soon Min, eposition and characterization of Cu4SnS4 thin films by chemical bath deposition method, Macedonian journal of chemistry and chemical engineering, vol. 29, No. 1, 2010, 97 – 103.
[5] Chichibu S, Shirakat S, Isomura S, Harada Y, Uchida M, Matsumoto S and Higuchi H, Photoluminescence studies in CuAlSe2 epilayers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical – vapor deposition, Journal of applied physics Vol. 77, No. 3, 1995, 1225 – 1231.
[6] Prabahar S, Balasubranian V, Suryanarayanan N, and Muthukumarasamy N, Structural characterization of vacuum evaporation of copper indium diselenide thin films. Journal of ovonic Research Vol. 6, No. 1, 2010, 45 – 50
[7] Megali O, Bouraiou A, and Attaf N;, characterization of CulnSe2 thin films elaborated by electrochemical deposition, Revue des Energies Renouvelable Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008, 19 – 24
[8] Kassim A, Kuang Z., Sharif A, Haron M.J, Tee W.T and Ho Soon Min. , Effects of deposition potential on Cu4SnS4 thin films prepared by electrodeposition technique. The Arabian journal for science and Engineering vol. 35, No.1A, 2009, 83 – 91.
[9] Antony A, Asha A. S., Yoosuf R; Manoj R., and Jayaraj M.K., Growth of CulnS2 thin films by sulphurization of Cu-ln alloys, Journal of Solar energy material and solar cells vol. 81,2004, 407 – 417.
[10] Lincot D; Mokili B, Badiali J.P, Mandin P., Close space chemical bath deposition (CSCBD); An avenue for improving both fundamental understanding and manufacturability. Case example of cadmium sulfide, symposium, 2010
[11] Alonso M.I, Pascual J., Garriga M, Kikuno Y., Yamamoto N., and Wakita K,Optical properties of CuAlSe2, Journal of applied physics vol. 88, No. 4, 2000,1923 – 1927

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies of 7-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid based on density functional theory
Country : India
Authors : Sudesh Kumar Sharma, Yogesh Kumar Sharma, Ritu Saran, Manoj Kumar Singh, B S Yadav
: 10.9790/4861-0132737       logo
Abstract: The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra (FT-IR and FT-Raman) of 7-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid (7C4H3QCA) are investigated. The experimental FT-IR (400–4400 cm−1) and FT-Raman spectra (100–3500 cm−1) spectra of the molecule are recorded. In the whole study the CS point group symmetry has been used. Theoretical Vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were calculated using ab initio Hartree Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP method with 6-31+G (d, p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The scaled B3LYP/6-31+G (d, p) results show the best agreement with the experimental values over the other methods.
Keywords: Vibrational spectroscopic investigation; ab initio and DFT; 7-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
[1]. Sakai S, Minoda K, Saito G, Akain S, Ueno A, Fukuka F,Gann,Vol.46, 605 (1955).
[2]. Katzung B G, "Basic and Clinical Pharmacology", Appleton and Lange, Prentice-Hall,
[3]. Lebanon, (1989).
[4]. World Health Organization, "The World Health Report: 2002: Reducing Risks", Promoting Healthy Life.
[5]. Ginsburg H, Famin O, Zhang J, Krugliak M, Biochem. Pharmacol, Vol.56, (1998) 1305.
[6]. Loria P, Miller S, Foley M, Tilley L, Biochem. J., Vol.339, 363 (1999).
[7]. Egan T J et al., Biochem. J., Vol.365, 343 (2002).
[8]. Egan T J, Drug Design Rev., 1, 93 (2004).
[9]. Buller R, Peterson M L, Almarsson M, Leiserowitz L, Cryst. Growth Des., 2, 553 (2002).
[10]. De D, Krogstad F M, Cogswell F B, Krogstad D J, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. ,55, 579 (1996).
[11]. Casabianca L B, De Dios A C, J. Phys. Chem.,Vol.A110, 7787 (2006).
[12]. Casabianca L B, Faller C M, De Dios A C, J. Phys. Chem., Vol.A110, 234 (2006).
[13]. Rafiee M A, Hadipour N L, Naderi-manesh H, J. Comput. Aid. Mol. Des., 18, 215 (2004).
[14]. Paragi G, Van Alsenoy C, Penke B, Timar Z, J. Mol. Struct.,Theochem.,Vol.666/667, 123(2003).
[15]. Krishnakumar V, Ramasamy R, Spectrochim. Acta, Vol.61A, 673 (2005).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Permittivity Analysis of Ccto-Silicone Resin Composites
Country : India
Authors : Sanjesh Babu and Pankaj Kumar
: 10.9790/4861-0133841       logo
Abtract: In this work, an attempt has been made to study permittivity of CCTO-silicone resin composites. The results show that the real permittivity was influenced by filler volume fraction. Ceramic particles produced a rise in permittivity and had more influence on samples with high volume fraction. Silicone resin had influence on the imaginary part of permittivity and generated relaxation processes on all composites. Three theoretical models were employed to predict the real permittivity of these composites, the real permittivity obtained via Maxwell-Garnett model were in close agreement with the experimental data. The real permittivity of CCTO-silicone resin composites showed weak frequency dependence at the measuring frequency range.
Key Words: CCTO, silicone resin polymer, composites, real and imaginary permittivity.
[1]. C. Kumar, "Dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 prepared by sol–gel self combustion technique", J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 22:579–582, 2011.
[2]. L. A. Ramajo, M.A. Ramírez, P.R. Bueno, M. M. Reboredo, M. S. Castro, "Dielectric Behaviour of CaCu3Ti4O12-Epoxy Composites", Materials Research, Vol. 11, No. 1, 85-88, 2008.
[3]. Dias CJ, Das-Gupta DK, "Inorganic ceramic/polymer ferroelectric composite electrets", IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 5(3): 706-734, 1996.
[4]. Bai Y, Cheng Z-Y, Bharti V, Xu HS, Zhang QM, "High-dielectric constant ceramic-powder polymer composites", Applied Physics Letter., 25 (76): 3804-3806, 2000.
[5]. Kuo D-H, Chang C-C, Su T-Y, Wang W-K, Lin B-Y, "Dielectric behaviour of multi-doped BaTiO3-epoxy composites", Journal of the European of Ceramic Society., 21(9): 1171-1177, 2001.
[6]. Bueno PR, Ramírez MA, Varela JA, Longo E, "Dielectric spectroscopy analysis of CaCu3Ti4O12 polycrystalline systems", Applied Physics Letter., 89(19):191117-3, 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Study of Influence of Ascorbic Acid and Other Organic Acid on Corrosion of Mild Steel Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy
Country : India
Authors : Kashyap Dhoot
: 10.9790/4861-0134244       logo
Abstract : In present investigation a systematic study of role of Ascorbic Acid and other organic acids like Salicylic Acid, Acetyl Salicylic Acid and Maleic Acid, of different strength, on corrosion of Mild Steel in corrosive media brackish water is carried out. It is observed that the Ascorbic Acid of concentration 0.05M and higher in corrosive media brackish water effectively influences the formation of usual corrosion species and also retards the rate of rust formation while for other organic acid it is observed that these acids are not able to suppress the formation of usual corrosion product
Keywords: Ascorbic Acid, Corrosion of Mild Steel, Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Organic Acids
[1] M. Iovchev, Br. Corsos. Journal vol. 18 no. 3 148(1983).
[2] M. Iovchev, Desalination, 52,285(1985).
[3] Natalya V. Likhanova, Octavio Olivares-Xomet, Diego Guzmán-Lucero Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 6 (2011) 4514 – 4536.
[4] Adriana Patru, Samide Ion, Mircea Predaa Materials Letters Volume 62, Issue 2, 31 January 2008, Pages 320-322.
[5] A.N. Nigam, R.P. Tripathi, M.L. Jangid and M.P. Chacharkar J. RADIOANAL. Nucl. Chem. letters, 117, 4, 243(1987).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Observations on Time 2012
Country : India
Authors : Sai Prahlad K
: 10.9790/4861-0134548       logo
Abstract:The main purpose of this paper is to present the author's observations on time to you, the world. Time has been a major subject of religion, philosophy, and science but defining it in a non-controversial manner applicable to all fields of study has consistently eluded the greatest scholars. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to define time in a new way that has never been presented before. The potential bombshell in the paper is the unification of thermodynamics with general relativity
Journal Paper:
[1] A. Einstein, "Über das Relativitätsprinzip und die ausdemselbengezogenenFolgerungen", Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität und Elektronik 4, 411–462 (1907); English translation, in "On the relativity principle and the conclusions drawn from it", in "The Collected Papers", v.2, 433–484 (1989); also in H M Schwartz, "Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I", American Journal of Physics vol.45,no.6 (1977) pp.512–517; Part II in American Journal of Physics vol.45 no.9 (1977), pp.811–817; Part III in American Journal of Physics vol.45 no.10 (1977), pp.899–902, see parts I, II and III.
Books:
[2] Planck, M. (1914). the theory of heat radiation. Masius, M. (transl.) (2nd ed.). P. Blakiston's Son & Co. OL7154661M.
[3] Anne Rooney, 1001 Shocking Science Facts (Published 2008) ISBN: 978-1-84858-008-4
[4] Stephen Hawking, a brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes(Published 1988) ISBN: 978-0-553-10953-5
[5] "Eye, human"Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010.
[6] Carnot, Sadi,reflections on the motive power of fire (New York: Dover, 1960)
[7] Gardner, Martin, time travel and other mathematical bewilderments (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1988)
[8] Gott, J. Richard,time travel in Einstein's universe: the physical possibilities of travel through Time (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001)
[9] Kaku, Michio,physics of the Impossible: a scientific exploration into the world of phases, force fields, teleportation, and time travel (New York: Doubleday, 2008)
[10] Leff, Harvey S. and Andrew F. Rex, eds. Maxwell's demon 2: entropy, classical and quantum Information, computing (Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics, 2003)
[11] Polkinghorne, J. the quantum world (New York: Longman, 1984)
[12] Taylor, Edwin F. and John A. Wheeler.spacetime physics (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1992)
[13] Thorne, Kip S. black holes and time warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy (New York: W. W. Norton, 1994)
[14] Van Ness, H. C. understanding thermodynamics (New York: Dover,1969)
[15] Wheeler, John A. a journey into gravity and spacetime (New York: Scientific American Library, 1990)
[16] Carroll, Sean,from eternity to here (Published 2010) ISBN: 0-525-95133-4
[17] Feynman, Richard Phillips,the character of physical law (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1965)
Science Magazine:
[18] Catchpole, Heather (200-09-04). Cosmos Online – Verging on absolute zero
Referral persons: 1. Benjamin Schumacher, 2.Lorenzo Maccone, 3. Neil deGrasse Tyson, 4. Sean Carroll, 5.Michio Kaku.

IOSR Journal Publish Online and Print Version Both