IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 1 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Onset and Trend of Anisotropy in Greater Ughelli of Niger Delta
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Emudianughe.E.J, Ebeniro.J.O, Ehirim. C. N.,
: 10.9790/4861-0150106       logo
Abstract: A rock material is anisotropic if it's measurable physical properties such as velocity exhibit different values when measured in different directions. The safest assumption is that the subsurface is anisotropic. If anisotropy is ignored when imaging the subsurface, it could have adverse effects. These adverse effects include sub-optimal time-to-depth conversion, well-to-seismic mismatch, as well as a poorly focused seismic image. This paper presents the result of a seismic anisotropy study carried out on pre-stack depth migrated gathers in Greater Ughelli of the Niger Delta which is generally characterized by repeated sequence of finely layered sand/shale intercalations. These sand/shale sequences are generally bound to be transversely anisotropic. The signature of anisotropy on the depth migrated gathers is the so-called "hockey sticks''. The first hockey sticks on pre-stack depth migrated gathers were observed and used for the mapping. The onset of anisotropy was correlated across an entire field (Assa North) in Greater Ughelli depobelt using seismic depth structure maps and fault polygons. The onset of anisotropy ranges from 1400ms – 1600ms. Anisotropy trend in study area is shallow in the NE, of average depth at the middle of the field and very deep SW.
Keywords: Anisotropy, Depobelt, Hockey sticks, Sand/Shale Sequence, Sub-optimal
[1] Doust, H., and Omatsola, E., 1990, Niger Delta, in, Edwards, J. D., and Santogrossi, P.A., eds., Divergent/passive Margin Basins, AAPG Memoir 48: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 239-248.
[2] Ekweozor, C. M., and Daukoru, E.M, 1994, Northern delta depobelt portion of the Akata-Agbada petroleum system, Niger Delta, Nigeria, in, Magoon, L.B., and Dow, W.G., eds., The Petroleum System--From Source to Trap, AAPG Memoir 60: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 599-614.
[3] Hospers, J., 1965, Gravity field and structure of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, West Africa: Geological Society of American Bulletin, v. 76, p. 407-422.
[4] Kaplan, A., Lusser, C.U., Norton, I.O., 1994, Tectonic map of the world, panel 10: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, scale 1:10,000,000.
[5] Klett, T.R., Ahlbrandt, T.S., Schmoker, J.W., and Dolton, J.L., 1997, Ranking of the world's oil and gas provinces by known petroleum volumes: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report-97-463, CD-ROM.
[6] Kulke, H., 1995, Regional Petroleum Geology of the World. Part II: Africa, America, Australia and Antarctica: Berlin, Gebruder Borntraeger, p. 143-172.
[7] Petroconsultants, 1996a, Petroleum exploration and production database: Houston, Texas, Petroconsultants, Inc., [database available from Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX 77274-0619].
[8] Thomsen 1986, Weak elastic anisotropy, Geophysics. Vol.51. No. Io (October 1986); P. 1954-1966,
[9] Vestrum Rob, 2002, 2D and 3D Anisotropic Depth Migration Case Histories, SEG, Salt Lake City,Utah 2002-1256 October 6 – 11 www.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Nanoparticle Quantum Dots in Liquid phase (e.g. CdSe) – Synthesis, Thermodynamical study and Applications
Country : India
Authors : Vikas Sharma
: 10.9790/4861-0150711       logo
Abstract: Quantum Dots now days have revolutionized the world. These are the nanoparticles having a size less than or around 10 nm. In this paper, an effort has been made to understand the general synthesis of the quantum dots and the thermo dynamical study of the quantum dot particles. The whole process of nucleation and growth is also explained in detail. Various applications of these quantum dots in the different fields of science and technology also been described.
Keywords: Bottom-Up Approach, Crystallization, Growth, Nucleation, Supersaturation, Top-Down Approach, Quantum Dot
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Size Conducting Polyaniline
Country : India
Authors : CH. Srinivas, D. Srinivasu, B. Kavitha, N. Narsimlu, K. Siva Kumar
: 10.9790/4861-0151215       logo
Abstract: Conducting polymers have attracted considerable attention in the recent years due to their unique thermal, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. These polymers have been conducive for fabrication of micro-electronic devices. Among these polymers, Polyaniline (PANI) possesses an exceptional properties including structural, thermal and electrical. We have synthesized PANI in Emeraldine salt form by chemical oxidation method with controlled pH3 by using Ammonium perdisulphate as oxidizing agent. The morphology of PANI has been determined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Micrograms (SEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The studies revealed that Polyaniline possess rod like shape with radius around 75 nm and length around 617.6 nm. The DSC thermogram shows two exothermal peaks at around 97.07 oC and 152 oC, these peaks are attributed to the glass transition temperature (Tg) and PANI degradation temperature respectively. The final valley point (endothermic) around 175 oC is attributed to the melting point (Tm) of PANI. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of Polyaniline have studied at temperature 300 K. Due to semi crystalline solid nature of PANI, the transport of charge carriers may takes place in between and along PANI chains.
Key Words: Polyaniline, XRD, DLS, DSC, V-I characteristics, Exponent 'm'
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[2] Heeger A.J , Nobel lecture December 8 (2000)
[3] Gupta K, Jana P.C, and Melkap, A.K, Journal of Physical Sciences. 12, 233-238. (2008)
[4] Narsimlu N, Kuo Y.D, Chun Guey Wu Journal of applied polymer science 88, 3183-3187, (2003)
[5] Ghosh M, Mekap A.K, Chattopadhyay, Chatterjee. Journal of Physics and chemistry of Solids 62, 475-484 (2001)
[6] Cheng-Ho Chen. Journal of Applied Polymer science.89, 2142-2148 (2003)
[7] Gupta K.K, Jasnal M, Agarwal K, Indian Journal of fiber and Textile research33, 443-450 (2008)
[8] Jiaxing Huang and Richar B.Kaner, Hand Book of conducting Polymers.Processing and
Applications. 7-3, Third Edition (2006)
[9] Wang, Lee W.T, Reed M.A Phys. Rev. B.68-035416. 2003

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Influence of Low Temperature Plasma Treatment on the surface, Optical and DC Electrical Properties of jute
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Masroor Anwer, A. H. Bhuiyan
: 10.9790/4861-0151622       logo
Abstract: Low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment, a kind of environmentally friendly surface modification technique, was applied to ligno-cellulosic jute fibre with the use of nonpolymerizing gas, namely argon, at various discharge power levels and exposure times with a definite flow rate. The surface morphology, optical and direct current (DC) electrical properties of both raw and plasma treated jute were studied. By means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the influence of treatment time and discharge power on the surface morphology of the surface of jute fibres were studied and were compared with that of raw jute. SEM microphotographs reveal that the roughness of the fibre surfaces increases with the increase of discharge power and exposure time. This is caused due to the bombardment of high energetic ions on the fibre surface and the fibres become sputtered. Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis.) spectroscopic analysis reveals that the band gap of jute increases with the increase of discharge power as well as exposure time. The change in the DC electrical resistivity of the LTP-treated jute fibre was in good agreement with the above findings. Key words: Band gap, Jute fibre, Moisture, Morphology, Plasma treatment.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Observations on Time 2012 REMADE
Country : India
Authors : SaiPrahlad K
: 10.9790/4861-0152327       logo
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present author‟s observation. The main topics in the paper are force, motion and time. All three (force, motion and time) are interconnected to space and energy. The commonly used term "Spacetime‟ is an observation given to us by Einstein‟s general relativity; Kindly note: it does not mean "time‟ is a separate dimension. What spacetime really means is that time is related to gravity. We alreadyknow that[1] gravity is caused by mass(which is energy E= MC2) and[2] gravity is the curvature of space. Therefore, time is not only related to space but also related to energy. This paper connects General relativity with thermodynamics, and it provides a solution to what causes force, motion and time.
Journal Paper:
[1] SaiPrahlad K."Observations on time 2012", IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSRJAP) ISSN: 2278-4861 Volume 1, Issue 3 (July-Aug. 2012), PP 45-48
[2] A. Einstein, "Über das Relativitätsprinzip und die ausdemselbengezogenenFolgerungen", Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität und Elektronik 4, 411–462 (1907); English translation, in "On the relativity principle and the conclusions drawn from it", in "The Collected Papers", v.2, 433–484 (1989); also in H M Schwartz, "Einstein's comprehensive 1907 essay on relativity, part I", American Journal of Physics vol.45,no.6 (1977) pp.512–517; Part II in American Journal of Physics vol.45 no.9 (1977), pp.811–817; Part III in American Journal of Physics vol.45 no.10 (1977), pp.899–902, see parts I, II and III.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation Of Ground State Of Spins In Ising Model For A Specific Value Of Interaction Strength J(I,J)=J And Establishment
Country : India
Authors : Md Hasanuzzaman
: 10.9790/4861-0152832       logo
Abstract: Interaction between spins in Ising model depends on the nature of the interaction strength (J(I,j)) acting between spins. Different nature of interaction strength produces a variety of ground states, such as for ferromagnetic type interaction ground state is with all spins either up or down, on the other hand for anti ferromagnetic spins ground state consists of anti parallel spins. Here I have treated interaction strength to depend on the relative spacing (r(i,j)) of interacting spins and have found ground state with a specific r(i,j) dependence of J(I,j). Keywords- Interaction strength, Ising model, Ising Hamiltonian, Magnetic moment, Spins & temperature
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Response of 3- (Dimethylamino)-7-Aminophenothiazin-5-Ium Chloride Dye
Country : Iraq
Authors : Hussain A. Badran
: 10.9790/4861-0153337       logo
Abstract : The nonlinear optical properties of 3-(Dimethylamino)-7-aminophenothiazin-5-ium chloride dye in the solvent chloroform was studied by Diffraction ring technique using cw diode laser at 532 nm. The obtained results for the nonlinear refractive index, 2 n , and the thermo-optic coefficients , dn dT , are found to be of the order of 10 cm /W 7 2 and 5 1 10   k respectively. To solidate the present experimental results the diffraction ring patterns are reproduced theoretically based on a well known simple model. The rings number of each pattern variation with power agree well with the experimental findings. These results indicate that the azo dye is a promising candidate for applications in nonlinear optical devices.
Keywords: Nonlinear refractive index, Thermo-optic coefficients, Diffraction ring
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study of Molecular Interactions in Liquidmixture Using Ultrasonic Technique
Country : India
Authors : Bhandakkar V. D.
: 10.9790/4861-0153843       logo
Abstract: The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity of the mixtures namely, methylmethacrylate with methanol, p-dioxane and cyclohexane at 303K have been measured. From the measured data, some of the acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (βa) , free length (Lf), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (πi), relaxation time (τ) , acoustic impedance(Za) and Gibb's free energy(ΔG)values have been calculated for all the mixtures. The behavior of these parameters with composition of the mixture at the temperature 303K has been discussed in terms of molecular interaction between the components of liquids. Keywords: Adiabatic compressibility, free length, frees volume, internal pressure, molecular interactions and binary systems.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Phase Transition in Mixed Transition Metal Oxides under High Pressure
Country : India
Authors : Surendra Kumar Singh, Dr. Raja Chauhan
: 10.9790/4861-0154446       logo
Abstract: Mixed crystals can be categorized as the crystal in which two or more different types of atoms are present and configured. These atoms interact each other in the influence of Coulomb force of attraction and the presence of short range repulsion force. Due to this interaction they tends to be arranged in equilibrium state and forms new material. A pure crystal can be doped by impurities with proper concentration of impurity to get the desired material. This concept of interaction between the atoms are called the Three Body Interaction(TBI) model. This model is based on the concept of interaction between atoms. The presence of short range repulsion force between the atoms is very crucial, in the absence of which coulomb force of attraction will be dominant and it will lead to volume collapse. Applying of high pressure on the crystal results in the transfer of charge between the atoms. This transfer of charge causes them to rearrange in some different cofigurational state different from original configuration. This rearrangement of atoms affects the different properties of material like hardness, melting point, optical properties and mechanical properties.
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