IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 2 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of plasticizer on conductivity and cell parameters of (PMMA+NaClO4) polymer electrolyte system
Country : India
Authors : P. Chandra Sekhar, P. Naveen Kumar, A. K. Sharma
: 10.9790/4861-0240106       logo
Abstract: The effect of a plasticizer dimethyl formamide (DMF) on the properties of a sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) complexed with sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) prepared using solution cast technique was investigated. The features of complexation of the electrolytes were studied by X-ray diffraction. Film morphology was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Various experimental techniques, such as electrical conductivity (temperature dependence) and transference number measurements were used to characterize these polymer electrolyte films. Transference number data show that the charge transference in this polymer electrolyte system is predominantly due to ions. Electrochemical cells of configuration Na/PMMA+NaClO4/(I2+C+electrolyte)andNa/PMMA+NaClO4+plasticizer /(I2+C+electrolyte) were fabricated. The discharge characteristics of the cells were studied under a constant load of 100 kΩ. The open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and discharge time for the plateau region were measured. The PMMA+NaClO4 polymer electrolyte system with added plasticizer showed an increased discharge time with respect to pure PMMA+NaClO4 electrolyte system.. ,
Key words:Polymer electrolyte, XRD, SEM, Electrical conductivity, Transference number and Discharge profile
[1] S. Ramesh, Geok Bee The, Rong-Fuh Louh, Yong Kong Hou, Pung Yen Sin, and Lim Jing Yi, "Preparation and
characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC based polymer electrolytes", Indian Academy of Sciences, 35, 2010,
pp. 87-95.
[2] B. Santhos Kadam, Kunal Datta, Prasanta Ghosh, and D. Mahendra Shisat, "Poly(pyrrole)-Poly(N-Methylpyrrole) Composite
Matrix for Amperometric Biosensor Design" International journal of Polymeric Materials, 60, 2011, pp. 233-243.
[3] P. Santhosh , T. Vasudevan, A. Gopalan, and K. P. Lee, "Preparation and properties of new cross-linked polyurethane acrylate
electrolytes for lithium batteries", J. Power Sources, 160, 2006, pp. 609-620.
[4] S. Rajendran, R. Kannan, and O. Mahendran, "An electrochemical investigation on PMMA/PVdF blend-based polymer
electrolytes", Mater Lett., 49, 2001, pp. 172-179.
[5] M. Sivakumar, R. Subadevi, S. Rajendran, H. –C. Wu, and N. –L. Wu, "Compositional effect of pvdF – PEMA blend gel
polymer electrolytes for Lithium Polymer Batteries", European Polymer Journal, 43, 2007, pp. 4466-4473.
[6] L.Paskal, L. Linets, V. Syromrpntnikov, and V. Pushiko, "Studies of Li-complexes with acrylonitrile copolymers by the
dielectric method" Solid State Ionics, 147, 2002, pp.383-390.
[7] S. Rajendran, M. Sivakumar, and R. Subadevi, "Investigations on the effect of various plasticizers in PVA–PMMA solid polymer
blend Electrolytes" Materials Letters,58, 2004, pp. 641 – 649.
[8] M. Sundar, and S. Selladurai, "Effect of Fillers on Magnesium- Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Solid Polymer Electrolyte", Ionics,12,
2006, pp. 281- 286.
[9] D. K. Pradhan, R. N. P. Choudhary, and B. K. Samantaray, "Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of plasticized polymer
nanocomposite electrolytes", Materials Chemistry and Physics, 115, 2009, pp. 557- 561.
[10] H. W. Chen, T. P. Lin, and F. C. Chang, "Ionic conductivity enhancement of the plasticized PMMA/LiClO4 polymer", Polymer,
43, 2002, pp. 5281-5288.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Magnetic, Electric and Structural Properties of Ni Substituted Co-Zn Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method
Country : India
Authors : R. B. Bhise, S. M. Rathod, A. K. Supekar
: 10.9790/4861-0240712       logo
Abstract:Nickel substituted CoxZn0.8-x Fe2O4 (x=0.2,0.5 and 0.6) ferrite were synthesized by Sol-gel auto combustion method. The powders were sintering at 400oc and 700oc for 2hrs to densify properly. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR and Magnetic properties. The XRD used to analyze phase structure and lattice parameters. The FTIR spectra confirmed that synthesis material is ferrite. Morphology of ferrite powders were investigated by using SEM. Porosity of synthesis ferrite is measured. The saturation magnetization increases with increasing Co-Zn concentration. Resistivity of ferrite material is may be decreases due to vary concentration of Co and Zn.
Keywords: Nanocrystalline, Structural Properties, Sol-gel Auto Combustion method, XRD, FTIR, SEM, Magnetization, Resistivity.
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[8] R.Bhise S.Rathod, A.Supekar (2012 ) Synt. of Ni-Co-Zn ferrite nanoparticles, Int. J. of Basic and Appl. Res., 44(168-172).
[9] R.Bhise, S.Rathod, A.Supekar (2012), Char. of nanocryst. Ni-Co-Zn ferrite Powd., Golden Research Thoughts, Vol. 2 Iss. 4.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Growth, Characterization and Dielectric Property Studies of Zinc Succinate Crystals Grown in Silica Gel Medium
Country : India
Authors : Binitha M.P and P.P Pradyumnan
: 10.9790/4861-0241317       logo
Abstract:Single crystals of zinc succinate (ZS) with monoclinic structure were grown in silica gel medium. The functional groups in the crystal were analyzed by FT-IR Spectroscopy. Thermal degradation studies have been carried out by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric constant and a c conductivity have been estimated as a function of frequency for different temperatures.
Keywords: a c conductivity, Dielectric Property, NLO, zinc succinate
[1] B. Milton Boaz, S. Jerome Das Journal of Crystal Growth 279 (2005) 383–389
[2] A.Chandramohan , R.Bharathikannan, J.Chandrasekaran, P.Maadeswaran, R. Renganathan , V.Kandavelu Journal of Crystal
Growth 310 (2008) 5409–5415
[3] Vincent Crasta, V. Ravindrachary, R.F. Bhajantri, Richard Gonsalves Journal of Crystal Growth 267 (2004) 129–133
[4] G. Eazhilarasi, R. Nagalakshmi, V. Krishnakumar Spectrochimica Acta Part A 71 (2008) 502–507
[5] Shaokang Gao, Weijun Chen, Guimei Wang, Jianzhong Chen Journal of Crystal Growth 297 (2006) 361–365
[6] Xiu-Li Wang Bao Mu, Hong-Yan Lin, Guo-Cheng Liu Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 696, 11–12, (2011) 2313–2321
[7] Y.T. Wang, H.H. Fan, H.Z. Wang, X.M. Chen, Inorg. Chem. 44(2005) 4148.
[8] Y. Kang, Y.G. Yao, Y.Y. Qin, J. Zhang, Y.B. Chen, Z.J. Li,Y.H. Wen, J.K. Cheng, R.F. Hu, Chem. Commun. 9 (2004) 1046
[9] Jianguo Pan, Gongjun Zhang, Yueqing Zheng, Jianli Lin, Wei Xu Journal of Crystal Growth 308 (2007) 89–92
[10] M. Loganayaki, T.Bharthasarathi, P. Murugakoothan International Journal of ChemTech Research 3 (2011) 1070-1074

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : String cosmology in Bianchi type-VI0 space-time
Country : India
Authors : Shantanu Kumar Biswal, Kamal Lochan Mahanta, Santosh Kumar Agarwalla, Munesh Chandra Adhikary
: 10.9790/4861-0241821       logo
Abstract:In this paper we have constructed a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-VI0 string cosmological model in general relativity. This model is expanding, shearing, non-rotating and has no initial singularity. Here it is interesting to note that string tension density (λ) is greater than half of rest energy density (ρ) and particle density (ρp) is less than half of rest energy density. Further some physical and kinematical properties of the model are discussed.
Keywords: Bianchi type-VI0 space time, cosmic strings and general relativity.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Aniline and Esters-An Ultrasonic Study
Country : India
Authors : Sathi Reddy.K, Shanmukhi Jyothi.D, Linga Reddy.D
: 10.9790/4861-0242225       logo
Abstract:Ultrasonic velocity (v), Density (ρ), Refractive index (n) for binary mixtures of Aniline with Methyl Acetate, Ethyl Acetate and Amyl Acetate have been measured at room temperature of about 300.15 K over entire volume component percentage range. The Ultrasonic velocity (v) is measured using Ultrasonic Pulse Echo Overlap (PEO) technique at a frequency of 2MHz. The density measurements have been carried out by using 10ml specific gravity bottle. Refractive index (n) measurements have been carried out by using Abbe Refractometer. Adiabatic Compressibility (βs) and dielectric constant (Є) were computed using measured data of density, ultrasonic velocity and refractive index.
Keywords: Ultrasonic Velocity, density, refractive index, adiabatic compressibility, dielectric constant.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Theoretical analysis of phonon dynamical behaviour of Cesium Chloride at various temperatures
Country : India
Authors : S.K.Shukla, K.K.Mishra, A.N. Pandey, G.K.Upadhyay and K.S.Upadhyaya
: 10.9790/4861-0242634       logo
AbstractWe have developed a new model to investigate the complete lattice dynamics of cesium chloride at 78 K and at room temperature (298 K). The new model, van der Waals three body force shell model (VTSM) incorporates the effect of van der Waals interactions and three-body interactions in the frame work of rigid shell model where short range interactions are effective up to the second neighbour. A good agreement has been obtained between theory and experiment for dependant properties also.
Keywords: Lattice dynamics, Phonon dispersion curves, Debye temperature, two phonon IR and Raman Spectra, Anharmonic elastic constants, combined density of states.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design of Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo System
Country : India
Authors : G.K.Singh, S.J.Sharma and S.Rajagopalan
: 10.9790/4861-0243539      logo
Abstract:The Pulse-Echo Technique has been evolved to be the most popular, reliable and sustainable amongst all the ultrasonic techniques used to ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements for the material characterization. The features of this technique make it an ideal choice for variety of applications as well as hard-core research work. In the present work, A Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo System for ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements in liquids and liquid mixtures at frequencies from 1 to10 MHz using offthe- shelf electronic components in our laboratory, is designed. The sample holder, designed in our laboratory, provides variable path length between ultrasonic transducer and reflector and can be adjusted with an accuracy of ±0.01mm. The designed Multi-Frequency Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo System and the Sample-holder have been tested and found to give reliable result.
Keywords: Pulse-Echo Technique, Ultrasonic velocity measurement, Ultrasonic attenuation measurement

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University, Kottayam-686560 (2002)
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163-166 (1984)
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Conference on Instrumentation (INCON 2004), 74, Pune, India

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Studies on Mass Attenuation Coefficient, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Narcotic Drugs in the Energy Range 1KeV -100GeV
Country : India
Authors : Shivraj G. Gounhalli, Anil Shantappa, S. M. Hanagodimath
: 10.9790/4861-0244048       logo
Abstract:The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of few narcotic drugs (ND) viz., Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method in the wide energy range of 1 KeV-100 GeV using WinXCOM. The values of these parameters have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs (ND). The variations of effective atomic number and electron density with energy are shown graphically for all photon interactions. The variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. The variation of effective atomic number Zeff and electron densities Nel is due to the variations in the dominance of different interaction processes in that particular energy region.
Keywords: Photon mass attenuation coefficients, Effective atomic numbers, Electron densities.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Energy dependence of effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption of vitamins
Country : India
Authors : Anil Shantappa, Shivraj G. Gounhalli, S. M. Hanagodimath
: 10.9790/4861-0244956       logo
Abstract:Mass - Energy absorption coefficient, Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption (ZPEA,eff) and photon interactions (ZPI,eff), of 8 Vitamins viz., vitamin-A (Retinol), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B7 (Biotin), B9 (Folic acid), B12 (Cobalamin), K1 (Phylloquinone) and P (Flavonoids) were computed for the energy range 1 keV to 20 MeV. Variation of these parameters has been studied as a function of incident photon energy. The ZPEA,eff and ZPI,eff values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The variations of mass energy-absorption coefficient, effective atomic number for photon interaction ZPI,eff and ZPEA,eff with energy are shown graphically. The substantial deviation occurs among ZPEA,eff and ZPI,eff in the energy range 5-100 keV for Retinol and Phylloquinone. The deviation is also observed for Riboflavin, Niacin, Folic acid, Flavonoids in the energy range 8 -100 keV, and for Biotin (15-150 keV) and for Cobalamin (6-200 keV). The substantial change occurs between ZPEA,eff and ZPI,eff which represents the absorbed dose, it is preferable to use ZPEA,eff instead of ZPI,eff in medical radiation dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose in radiation therapy
Keywords: Absorption edges; Absorbed dose; Biological molecules; Effective atomic numbers; Mass-Energy absorption coefficient; Vitamins

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