IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 3 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Binding Energy Of A Donor In A Spherical Quantum Dot , GaAs
Country : India
Authors : S.R.Chitra., M.Sc., M.Phil., PGDCA.,[Ph.D].,
: 10.9790/4861-0320105      logo

Abstract: The binding energy of a donor in spherical quantum dots (QDs) is calculated, using a variational approach within the effective mass approximation. The binding energy is computed for GaAs QD as a function of the dot size for different impurity positions, and also as a function of the impurity position for different dot sizes. The results of mine show that when the impurity binding energy increases with the reduction in the dot dimension. The binding energy is also found to depend on the location of the impurity, and the same is the maximum for the on-center impurity. Also I found that the value of the polarizability obtained is several orders higher than the hydrogen atom value.

Keywords: Spherical quantum dot, Donor binding energy, Impurity state, Parabolic confinementQuantum dots , quantum wells gallium arsenide, III-V semiconductors, impurity states, effective mass, donor Binding , Semiconductor compounds

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Infinite dimensions and the creation of Universe
Country : India
Authors : Aman Mishra
: 10.9790/4861-0320610    logo

Abstract: Science and technology has unraveled many mysteries of our universe but the biggest question of all times still remains an enigma that how our universe came to an existence and what was there before the existence of our universe. A correct explanation will not only let us to understand our birth but will also provide insight to intriguing questions like will our universe have an end and if not how it is going to be. This might give a new outlook to seeing our universe and provide us with the theory of everything. .This paper talks about what was before the big bang, how extra dimensions can be seen, where cosmic censorship can be violated, the constraint energy of the universe, the negative energy and its role in our universe.

Keywords: negative energy, naked singularity, extra dimensions, particle decay, particle accelerator, large hadron collider (LHC) PACS numbers: 98.80.-k; 05.70.-a; 25.75.Gz; 25.75.Dw; 02.40.Xx; 04.20.-q

[1] Michio Kaku;Jennifer Trainer Thomson., Beyond Einstein: Superstrigs And Quest For Final Theory, Oxford University Press.
[2] Kip S Thorne; W.W Norton, Black Holes And Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy(1994)
[3] Matt Viser, Lorentzian Wormholes: From Einstein To Hawking, American Institute Of Physics Press(1996)
[4] Eric Poisson,A Relativist's Toolkit: The Mathematics Of Black Hole Mechanics
[5] Http://Www.Bibliotecapleyades.Net/Ciencia/Negativeenergy/Negativeenergy.Htm

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Experimental Studies on Corona Discharge Ionization
Country : India
Authors : V. S. Sawant
: 10.9790/4861-0321115      logo

Abstract: This study investigates the possibility of corona discharge ionization technique for reduction of fog. For corona discharge ionization a high voltage power supply is designed and developed indigenously. The high output voltage is developed by using isolation transformer, autotransformer, and high voltage neon transformer and it is converted into DC voltage by using Wheatstone bridge circuit and high voltage capacitor. Formation of negative corona, positive corona and voltage-current characteristics of corona ionization was studied. By selecting -9 kV voltages to discharge electrode, the performance of this circuit was tested for removal of fog, Fog was generated by using ultrasonic water fogger collected in closed glass container. Various runs were carried out. The light intensity was measured for each run as a function of time, in presence and absence of the discharge. After continuous operation of device for 6 minutes, 90% to 95% of the aerosols were removed from container in addition to the natural decay effect.

Keywords: Corona discharge, High voltage, Ionization of Air, Positive Corona, Negative Corona

[1] Mohan, M. and Payra, S. Influence of Aerosol Spectrum and Air Pollutants on Fog Formation in Urban Environment of Megacity
Delhi, India. Environ. Monit. Assess. 151, 2009, 265–277.
[2] Pinnick, R.G., Hoihjelle, D.L., Fernandez, G., Stenmark, E.B., Lindberg, J.D. and Hoidale, G.B. Vertical Structure in Atmospheric
Fog and Haze and its Effects on Visibility. J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1978, 2020– 2032.
[3] Hudson, J.G. Relationship between Fog Condensation Nuclei and Fog Microstructure. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1980, 1854– 1867.
[4] Gerber, H.E. Microstructure of a Radiation Fog. J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1981, 454–458.
[5] Frank, G., Martinsson, B.G., Cederfelt, S., Berg, O.H., Swietlicki, E. and Wendisch, M. Droplet
Formation and Growth in Polluted Fogs. Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 1998, 65– 85.
[6] Daniels, S.L. On the Ionization of Air for Removal of Noxious Effluvia. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 2002, 1471–1481.
[7] Lee, B.U., Yermakov, M. and Grinshpun, S.A. Removal of Fine and Iltrafine Particles from Indoor Air Environments by the
Unipolar Ion Emission. Atmos. Environ. 38, 2004, 4815–4823.
[8] Wu, C.C., Lee, G.W.M., Cheng, P., Yang, S. and Yu, K.P. Effect of Wall Surface Materials on Deposition of Particles with the Aid
of Negative Air Ions. J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 2005, 616–630.
[9] Mayya.Y.S., Sapra, B.K., Khan, A. and Sunny, F. Aerosol removal by unipolar ionization in indoor environments. J. Aerosol Sci.,
35, 2004, 923-941.
[10] Grabarczyk, Z. Effectiveness of indoor air cleaning with corona ionizers. Journal of Electrostatics, 51–52, 2001, 278–283.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Empirical Study on Structural, Optical and Electronic Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles
Country : India
Authors : Shyam Sundar Pareek, Kapil Pareek
: 10.9790/4861-0321624      logo

Abstract: In this work, the synthesis routes for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and optical & electronic properties of ZnO nanoparticles have been demonstrated. ZnO has many potential applications including sunscreens, biosensors, food additives, pigments, rubber manufacture, and electronic materials. Because of the unique quantum confinement effects of ZnO nanoparticles, synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles has been received a great attention in contemporary materials science. The synthesized ZnO materials can be further characterized by many characterization techniques in order to confirm synthesis. In this case, X-ray diffraction (XRD is a very powerful tool to analyse the structure of the material. Surface characterization such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)could be very useful to understand the morphology of the nanoparticles. Also, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is helpful to identify particular chemical bonding in the synthesized materials. Thermal stability and thermal transition can be measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles can be measured by UV-VIS spectroscopy.

Key Words: Nanoparticle, Optical and Electronic Property, Thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Removal of Heavy Metal from Drinking Water Supplies through the Ion Exchange Membrane-A Review
Country : India
Authors : Anjum Praveen, Rajesh Kumar, Pratima, Rajat Kumar
: 10.9790/4861-0322539      logo

Abstract: During the last 50 years, ion exchange membranes have evolved from a laboratory tool to industrial products with significant technical and commercial impact. Today ion exchange membranes are receiving considerable attention and are successfully applied for desalination of sea and brackish water and for treating industrial effluents. They are efficient tools for the concentration or separation of food and pharmaceutical products containing ionic species as well as the manufacture of basic chemical products. The evolvement of an ion exchange membrane not only makes the process cleaner and more energy-efficient but also recovers useful effluents that are now going to wastes, and thus makes the development of society sustainable. Therefore, the intention of this review is to give a brief summary of the different preparation and characteristics of ion exchange membrane as well as their potential applications. The most relevant literatures in the field are surveyed and some elucidating case studies are discussed, also accounting for the results of some research programs carried out in the author's laboratory.

Keywords: Ion exchange membranes; Amphoteric ion exchange membrane; Bipolar membrane; Mosaic ion exchange membranes; Hybrid ion exchange membrane; Electrodialysis.s

[1] Nickel in Drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. WHO/SDE/WSH/05.08/55.

[2] Healthy Drinking Waters for Rhode Islanders. SAFE AND HEALTHY LIVES IN SAFE AND HEALTHY COMMUNITIES.

[3] Tongwen Xu, ReviewIon exchange membranes: State of their development and perspective; Available online 15 August 2005

[4] H. Herman, R.C.T. Slade, J.R. Varcoe, The radiationgrafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto poly (hexafluoropropylene-cotetrafluoroethylene) films with subsequent conversion to alkalineanion exchange membranes: optimisation of the experimental conditions and characterization, J. Membr. Sci. 218 (2003) 147.

[5] W. Lee, K. Saito, S. Furusaki, T. Sugo, K. Makuuchi, Design of urea-permeable anion exchange membrane by radiation-induced graft-polymerization, J. Membr. Sci. 81 (1993) 295.

[6] G. Kickelbick, Concepts for the incorporation of inorganic building blocks into organic polymers on a nanoscale, Prog. Polym. Sci. 28 (2003) 83.

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[8] J.W. Gilman, Flammability and thermal stability studies of polymer layered-silicate (clay) nanocomposites, Appl. Clay Sci. 15 (1999) 31.

[9] M. Zanetti, S. Lomakin, G. Camino, Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites, Macromol. Mater. Eng. 279 (2000) 1.

[10] S.P. Armes, Electrically conducting polymer colloids, Polym. News 20 (1995) 233.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Various Options for Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water
Country : India
Authors : Neelo Razbe, Rajesh Kumar, Pratima, Rajat Kumar
: 10.9790/4861-0324047      logo

Abstract: Excessive fluoride concentrations have been reported in groundwaters of more than 20 developed and developing countries including India where 19 states are facing acute fluorosis problems. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. In this paper, a broad overview of the available technologies for fluoride removal and advantages and limitations of each one have been presented based on literature survey and the experiments conducted in the laboratory with several processes. It has been concluded that the selection of treatment process should be site specific as per local needs and prevailing conditions as each technology has some limitations and no one process can serve the purpose in diverse conditions. Keywords: Fluoride; Fluorosis; Ground water; Soil water; Drinking water; Treatment

[1] Dissanayake, C.B., 1991. The fluoride problem in the groundwater of Sri Lanka – environmental management and health. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 19, 195–203.

[2] WHO, 1985. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, vol. 3. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 1–2.

[3] Smet, J., 1990. Fluoride in drinking water. In: Frencken, LE (Ed.), Endemic Fluorosis in Developing Countries – Causes, Effects and Possible Solution: Report of a Symposium Held in Delft, The Netherlands. Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research. [4] NHMRC, 2004. Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. National Health and Medical ResearchCouncil.

[5] WHO, 1984. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. In: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, second ed., vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva

[6] Czarnowski, W., Wrzesniowska, K., Krechniak, J., 1996. Fluoride in drinking water and human urine in Northern and Central Poland. Sci. of the Total Environ. 191, 177–184.

[7] Azbar, N., Turkman, A., 2000. Defluoridation in drinking waters. Water Sci. and Technol. 42, 403–407.

[8] Wang, W.Y., Li, R.B., Tan, J.A., Luo, K.L., Yang, L.S., Li, H.R., Li, Y.H., 2002. Adsorption and leaching of fluoride in soils of China. Fluoride 35, 122–129

[9] Agarwal, M., Rai, K., Shrivastav, R., Dass, S., 2003. Defluoridation of water using amended clay. J. Cleaner Produc. 11, 439–444. [10] Moges, G., Zewge, F., Socher, M., 1996. Preliminary investigations on the defluoridation of water using fired clay chips. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 21, 479–482

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Levels from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Victor U. J. Nwankwo, Nnamdi N. Jibiri, Silas S. Dada, Abraham A. Onugba, and Patrick Ushie
: 10.9790/4861-0324855      logo

Abstract: The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in W/m2) from selected mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metres). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47μW/m2 while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/m2. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (away from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation from data) was also compared with an 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external sources (indicative) interfered with the reference base station and accounted for the deviation observed in this study. Finally, our results showed that the RF exposure hazard index in the town of Lokoja was below the permitted RF exposure limit to the general public recommended by ICRNIP. Useful recommendations were also made to the Policy and Regulatory Agencies responsible for Telephony in Nigeria. Keywords: Lokoja Nigeria, Power density, Mobile Base Station, RF exposure hazard index, EM radiation

[1] EM Watch: 2011, 'Electromagnetic Radiation Health Effects'. E.M. Watch Network. Retrieved Jan. 2012. [2] Europa press release RAPID 2012. MEMO/12/327

[3] W.H.O. 2006, 'Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health'. Media Centre fact sheet 304. Retrieved Feb. 2012.

[4] Ayinmode, O. B.: 2010, 'Estimation of Radio Frequency Power Density around GSM Base Stations in Western part of Ibadan City, Nigeria'. M.Sc. Thesis 2010. Dept. of Physics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

[5] Elieen, O. C.: 2006, 'Mobile Phone Mast and Health Concerns'. EM Radiation Research Trust. Retrieved May 2010.

[6] ICNIRP Publication: 1998, 'ICNIRP Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and Electromagnetic fields'. Health Physics, 74(4), 494-522
[7] Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Feb 2012. /topic/346598/Lokoja

[8] Maplandia: 2012, 'Lokoja Map - Satellite Images of Lokoja'. Retrieved Feb 2012. [9] Okonigene R. E. and Yesufu A. K.: 2009, 'Radiation from GSM Systems and the Associated Effects on Human Health'. Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology, 14(3):56-63

[10] Aiman Ismail, Norashidah M. Din, Md Z. Jamaludin and Nagaletchumi Balasubramaniam: 2010, 'Mobile Phone Base Station Radiation Study for Addressing Public Concern'. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 3(1):117-120

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Discovery of Sun's Bharat Radiation emission causing Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and UV dominant optical radiation
Country : India
Authors : M.A. Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)
: 10.9790/4861-0325660      logo

Abstract: Existence of Bharat Radiation emission has been first predicted in 1998 to explain the experimental discovery of UV dominant optical emission from radioisotopes and XRF (X-ray fluorescent) sources by a previously unknown atomic phenomenon. Presence of Bharat Radiation wavelengths has been shown for the first time in the wavelength gap in electromagnetic spectrum situated in between X-ray and the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths in the revised Rb XRF spectrum. For evidence of Bharat Radiation, a comparison of the solar spectrum reported by various researchers since 1960 with the revised Rb XRF spectrum met with unexpected success. The three distinct solar spectral ranges remained unrecognized for the last half a century are now identified as of X-rays up to 12.87 nm, Bharat Radiation from 12.87 to 31 nm, and EUV from 31 nm onwards. Evidence of Sun's Bharat Radiation emission implies a fundamental change in our understanding the Sunlight phenomenon from the traditional belief that fusion powers Sun light. This new insight supports the previously reported author's view that γ-, X-, and β emissions from fission products (radioisotopes) of 235U fission taking place on Sun's visible surface cause Bharat Radiation followed by EUV and UV dominant optical emission.

Key words: atomic phenomenon, Bharat Radiation, Coronal radioisotopic ions, Extreme ultraviolet (EUV), EVE suite, Flare emission lines, Radioisotopes, Rb X-ray spectrum, XRF sources, Solar XUV spectrum, Solar X-rays, Uranium fission, UV dominant optical emission, MEGS

[1] M.A.Padmanabha Rao, X-ray source emits not only X-rays but also low energy electromagnetic radiation. Presented in 1998 Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Applications, Ann Arbor, U.S.A., 1998, Abstract 3PW26.

[2] M.A.Padmanabha Rao, Possible biological effects by UV radiation newly detected from internally administered radioisotopes. in Proceedings of the Symposium on Low Level Electromagnetic Phenomena in Biological Systems (BIOSYS-'99), Eds. Jitendra Behari
and Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi-110012, 1999, p 68. http:/

[ 3] M.A.Padmanabha Rao, Discovery of light emission from XRF sources, Presented in 50th Annual Denver Conference, Steamboat Springs, U.S.A. Abstract F-01, p.124.

[4] M.A.Padmanabha Rao, Solar X-rays, gamma rays, and electrons cause EUV by a previously unknown atomic phenomenon, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Ecology and Nature (HEN2008), Moscow-Ples, Russia, 2008, Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association "Radon", p.45.
[5] Carlos Austerlitz1 et al., Enhanced Response of the Fricke Solution Doped with Hematoporphyrin Under X-Rays Irradiation, Braz. arch. biol. technol. 51, n.2, Mar./Apr. 2008, 271-279
[6] M.A.Padmanabha Rao, UV dominant optical emission newly detected from radioisotopes and XRF sources, Braz. J. Phy., 40, no 1, 2010, 38-46

[7] H. E. Hinteregger, K. R. Damon, L. Heroux, and L. A. Hall, Space Research I, (Ed) H. K. Kallman Bijl, (North Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam, 1960) 615.

[8] H. E. Hinteregger, Interplanetary Ionization by Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation, Astrophysical Journal, 132, 1960, 801-811.

[9] H. Friedman, Ultraviolet and X Rays from the Sun, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1, 1963, 59-96.

[10] H. E. Hinteregger, L. A. Hall, and W. Schweizer, Solar Xuv-Spectrum from 310 Å to 55 Å, Astrophysical Journal, 140, 1964, 319-326.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of oxidation temperature on the properties of copper oxide thin films prepared from thermally oxidised evaporated copper thin films
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Kasim Uthman Isah, Muhammad Bakeko M., Umar Ahmadu, Uno Essang Uno, Mohammed Isah Kimpa, Jibrin Alhaji Yabagi
: 10.9790/4861-0326166      logo

Abstract: Copper thin films were deposited on glass substrates using thermal vacuum evaporation at 100 oC substrate temperature and then thermally oxidized in air at varying temperatures of 150 oC, 250 oC, 35 0 oC and 450 oC for 2h each. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the film are determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four point probe and UV-visible spectroscopy. The XRD pattern show the formation of fine grain Cuprous Oxide (Cu2O) at 250 oC and Cupric Oxide CuO at 350 and 450 oC. Resistivities were calculated to be 4.1x10-6 Ω-cm, 1.92x10-6 Ω-cm, 1076.76 Ω-cm, 127.51 Ω-cm and 205.16 Ω-cm for the as-deposited and Cu Films oxidised at 150, 250, 350 and 450 oC respectively. The Optical band gap value varied between 1.78 eV and 2.2 eV.

Keywords- Cupric oxide, Cuprous oxide, Optical band gap, Thermal oxidation, X-ray diffraction,

[1] A. Parretta, M. K. Jayaraj, A. Di Noceras, S. Loreti, L. Quercia and A. Agati, Electrical and Optical Properties of Copper Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering, physica staus solidi. (a) 155, 1996, 399-404.

[2] P. Samarasekara, M. A. M.Arachchi, S. A. Abeyedeera, C. A. N. Fernando, A. S. Disanayake and R. M. G. Rajapakse, Photocurrent enhancement of d.c. sputtered copper oxide thin films, Bulletin of Materials Science, 28(5), 2005, 483–486.

[3] M. Kooti and L. Matouri, Fabrication of Nanosized Cuprous Oxide Using Fehling's Solution, Transaction F: Nanotechnology 17(1), 2010, 73-78.

[4] P. B. Ahirrao, S. R. Gosavi, D. R. Patil, M. S. Shinde, and R. S. Patil, Photoluminescence properties of modified chemical bath deposited Copper Oxide thin film, Scholars Research Library Archives of Applied Science Research, 3(2), 2011, 88-291.

[5] P. Keming, M. Hai, Y. Hang, L. Yang, K. Zhenhui, Z. Hong and L. Shuit-Tong, Different copper oxide nanostructures: Synthesis characterization, and application for C-N cross-coupling catalysis. Crystal Research and Technology, 46(11), 2011, 1167-1174.

[6] A. A. Ogwu, T. H. Darma, and E. Bouquerel, Electrical resistivity of copper oxide thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 24(1), 2007, 172-179.

[7] M. Julian, S. Luis, M. Francisco, R. R. B. Jose, and S. Miguel, Nanostructured CuO thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis: a simple method for enhancing the electrochemical performanceof CuO in lithium cells, Electrochimica Acta, 49, 2004, 4589–4597.

[8] R. P. Wijesundera, Fabrication of the CuO/Cu2O heterojunction using an electrodeposition technique for solar cell applications, Semiconductor Sceince and Technology, 25(4), 2010, 1-5.

[9] M. Partha, Preparation of copper oxide thin film by SILAR and characterization, Journal of physical sciences, 14, 2010, 235-240. [10] M. R. Johan, M. S. M. Suan, N. L. Hawari and H. A. Ching, Annealing Effect on the properties of copper Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Deposition, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 6(1), 2011, 6094-6104.

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