IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 3 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : LC Active Low Pass Ladder Filter by Lossless Floating Inductor Gyrator
Country : India
Authors : Manjula V. Katageri, M.M.Mutsaddi
: 10.9790/4861-0330103      logo

Abstract: A traditional approach of simulating floating inductance in active gyrator of OTA of equal transconductance is successively used in obtaining LC ladder consisting of four stages .The calculations done on floating inductance evaluate the respective cut off frequencies as expected from the calculation of resonant frequency. The equal transconductance of gyrators is more advantageous in the low pass filter design. A unified approach of gyrator LC filter with floating inductor is successively used for studying the response. This has the property of reducing noises at high frequency signal processing applications.

Keywords: OTA-Operational transconductance amplifier, Floating inductor, gyrator

[1] Alexander J. Lasson and Esther Rodriguez –Villegas, A review modern approach to LC Ladder synthesis, Journal of Low Power electron Appl.2-2011,1,20-44: 10 ,3390/J1pea 1010020

[2] Ivan S. Uzunov, Theoretical model of ungrounded Inductance realized with two Gyrators, IEEE Transactions on circuits and circuits and systems-II: Vol.55,NO.10, oct-2008..

[3] Priyanka soni, Prof.B.P. Singh, Monika Bhardwaj, Design of OTA based Floating Inductor, IEEE 978-1-4244-9190-2/2011.

[4] Neha Gupta, Meenakshi Suthar, Sapna Singh , Priyanka soni, Active filter design using two OTA based floating inductance simulator. International journal of VLSI & signal processing Applications, Vol.2, issue 1,Feb 2012 (47-50),ISSN 2231-3133.

[5] Wandee petch maneelumka, Simple floating inductance simulators using OTA's, International instrumentation and Measurement , 978-1-4244-3353-7/2009

[6] Kittisak Longsom boon, Wandee petchmaneelumka, Thepjit Cheypoca &Vanchai Riewruja, OTA based electronically variable floating inductance simulator, 1111 International conference on control, automation and systems, oct -26-29, 2011.

[7] Chitpol koomgaew,wandee petchmaneelumka & Vanhairiewruja ,OTA based floating inductance simulator ,ICROS –SICE International joint conference ,Aug-18-21,2009.].

[8] Datasheet- National Semiconductor corporation 2004,LM13600/LM13700 dual operational Transconductance amplifier with idealizing diodes and buffers.

[9] Shahram Minaei, Erkan Yuee, Oguzhan CieeKoglu , Lossless Active Floating Inductance simulator, IEEE Computer society, International workshop on electronic design,2005.

[10] Firat KACAR,Hakan KUNTMAN,CFOA – based Lossless and Lossy Inductance simulators, Radio engineering ,Vol.20, No.3,September 2011..

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : UHF Emission due to Bremsstrahlung from Lightning Return Stroke
Country : India
Authors : Mahendra Singh
: 10.9790/4861-0330407      logo

Abstract: Assuming lightning discharge as plasma it is argued that the high electric field of return stroke produces energetic electrons (≥ 100 keV) and colliding energetic particles give rise to Bremsstrahlung which is a possible source of UHF emissions. The computed power of UHF wave for time and frequency responses is reported. In this theoretical study it is shown that a measurable amount of Bremsstrahlung power in UHF or microwave regions is generated by return stroke.

Keywords: Bremsstrahlung X-ray, Collision frequency, Lightning return stroke, Stepped leader, Plasma, Thunderstorm

[1]. J. Rai, M. Rao, and B. A. P. Tantry, Bremsstrahlung as a possible source of UHF emission from lightning, Nature, 238, 1972, 59-60.
[2]. J. Rai, On the origin UHF of atmospherics, J Atmos Terr Phys, 40, 1976, 475-478.
[3]. M. Takagi, Takeuti, Atmospheric radiation from lightning discharge. Proc Res Inst Atmos, 10, 1963, 1-11.
[4]. M. Brook and N. Kitagawa, Radiation from lightning discharges in the frequency range 400 to 1000 M c/s, J Geophys Res, 69, 1964, 2431-2434.
[5]. E. L. Kosarev, V. G. Zatsepin and A. V. Mitrafanov, Ultrahigh frequency radiation from lightning, J Geophys Res ,75, 1970, 7524-7530.
[6]. Devendraa Siingh, R. P. Singh, Ashok K. Singh, Sanjay Kumar, M. N. Kulkarni and Abhay K. Singh, Discharge in the Stratosphere / Mesosphere, Spac Sci Rev, 169,2012, 73-121.
[7]. Devendra Siingh, A. K, Singh, R. P. Patel, R. Singh, R. P. Singh, B. Vennadhari, and M. Mukherjee, Thunderstorm, lightning, sprites and magnetospheric whistler – mode waves,Survey in Geophys, 29, 2008, 499 – 551.
[8]. C. T. R. Wilson, The acceleration of β – particles in strong electric fields such as those of thunder clouds, Proc Cambridge Phil Soc, 22, 1924, 534-538.
[9]. B. F. J. Schonland, and J. P. T. Viljoen, On a penetrating radiation from thunder clouds, Proc Roy Soc London, A140, 1933, 314-333.
[10]. D. P Whitemire, Search for high energy radiation near lightning strokes, Lett. Nuovo Cimento, 26, 1979, 497-501.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Evaluation of an Adjustable and Collapsible Natural Convection Solar Food Dryer
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Yusuf Abdullahi, Musa Momoh, Mahmoud Mhammad Garba , Muazu Musa
: 10.9790/4861-0330818      logo

Abstract: The performance evaluation of an adjustable and collapsible natural convection solar food dryer, capable of taking 14,688 pieces equivalent to 16.52kg of fresh groundnut with maximum moisture content of 35%, at maximum capacity of 3.39m2, and 3,672 pieces equivalent to 4.06kg of groundnut at minimum capacity of 0.8475m2, was carried out. The solar food dryer with air vents gap diameter of 10cm was tested at Sokoto Energy Research Centre from 29th September 2012 to 1st October 2012. It was used to dry 6kg of groundnut per day for three consecutive days. After drying for about 8 hours each day, it was found that the mass of the groundnut reduced to 4.5kg in the first day, 4.0kg in the second day and 3.5kg in the third day. At the end of the study, the collector's efficiency was 28.3% , dryer's efficiency was 23.0% and the system efficiency was 81.3%, while the drying rate of groundnut was 0.25kg/hr

[1]. Aklilu, T. (2004): "Experimental Analysis for Performance Evaluation of Solar Food dryer". Research Thesis. Department of Mechanical Engineering. School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University.

[2]. Bukola, O. B ; Ayoola, P. O. (2008): Performance Evaluation of a Mixed- Mode Solar Dryer. A.U.J.T. 11(4): 225- 231

[3]. Bolaji, B. O (2005): Development and Performance Evaluation of a Box Type Absorber Solar Air Collector for Crop Drying. Journal of food technology 3 (4): 595 – 600.

[4]. Bassy, M.W (1989) :Development and Use of Solar Drying Technologies. Nigerian Journal of Solar Energy. 89:133- 64

[5]. Ceankoplis, C. J (1993) : Transport Process and Unit Operations. 3rd Edition Prentice Hall, Englewood: 508-512

[6]. Diamante, L.M ; Munro, P.A, (2004), Mathematical Modelling of Thin Layer Solar Drying of Sweet Potatos, Solar Energy,(51) 176 - 271

[7]. Ezekoye, B.A ; Enebe, O.M (2006): "Development and Performance Evaluation of Modified Integrated Passive Solar Grain Dryer". Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 7(2) : 185- 190.

[8]. Geda- Gujurat Energy Development Agency, 2003,

[9]. Hallak, H; Hilal. J ; Rahhal, .R (1996): The Staircase Solar Dryer and Characteristics. Renewable Energy. 7 (2) : 177- 183.

[10]. Harringshaw, D. (1997): All About Food Drying, The Ohio State University Extension Facts Sheet – hyg – 5347- 97,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Correlation between ground state properties and plasmon energy of ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors.
Country : India
Authors : S.K.Gorai , Parmanand Mahto
: 10.9790/4861-0331923      logo

Abstract: A simple relation between microhardness , plasmon energy, bulk modulus, electronic polarisability are given for ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors. Microhardness has been estimated from plasmon energy by proposing a linear relation between them.From microhardness ,bulk modulus has been estimated and refractive index is estimated from bulk modulus and subsequently polarisability has been estimated. The results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and earlier researchers. Keywords –Plasmon energy,Bulkmodulus,Microhardness,Chalcopyrites,Polarisability .r

[1] H Metzner,U Reislöhner ,J Cieslak,W Witthuhn , T Hahs T and Kraüßlichn, J Thin solid film, 13 (2002) 403.
[2] R W Birkmire and E Eser , Ann Rev mater Sci, 27 (1997) 625.
[3] J L Shay and J H Wernick, Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors Growth, electronic properties and applications (Pergamon Press,
New York) 1975.
[4] A Chahed ,O Benhelas ,H Rozale,S Laksoni and N Abboeni , Phys Status solidi (b), 244 (2007) 629.
[5] L Garbato and A Rucci , Chem Phys Lett, 61 (1979) 542.
[6] L K Samanta, D K Ghosh and G C Bhar , J Chem Phys, 79 (1983) 361.
[7] A S Verma and S R Bhardwaj , J Phys condens Matter, 18 (2006).
[8] A S Verma and S R Bhardwaj , Phys. Status solidi (b), 243 (2006) 4025.
[9] A S Verma and S R Bhardwaj ,, Phys script, 76 (2007) 22.
[10] A S Verma and D Sharma , Phys status solidi (b), 245 (2008) 678.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Maximum Limit of Rotational energy transfers in C2 - He system and Power gap law
Country : India
Authors : N. K. Dabkara, D. S. Firozia, G.Ahirwar
: 10.9790/4861-0332429      logo

Abstract: Theoretical importance of the classical limit of the maximum rotational energy transfer, (ΔE)max, it has been reviewed for a two dimensional hard ellipsoid potential model over a wide range of energies, reduced mass of the system. It has been found that (ΔE)max, is comparable with a well-known parameter lΔEl* given by the two parameter Power- gap law. The numerical equivalence of (ΔE)max and lΔEl* has been verified for different collision energy of the atom - diatom system. Such equivalence suggests that the value of (ΔE)max can be used as one parameter lΔEl* of the power -gap law. The salient feature of the research helps to develop several techniques in field of rotationally energy transfer inelastic collision in atom- diatom systems.

Keywords:- Rotational energy transfer, Diatomic collision and scattering cross section.

[1]. Alec M. Wodtke, Danniel Matsiev, and Daniel J. Auerbac, Progress in surface science, 83, 167 (2008).
[2]. P. M. Agrawal, N. C. Agrawal and Vinod Garg, 83, 4444 (1995).
[3]. 3. R. Krems, W. Stwalley and B. Friedricheds. ,Cold molecules, Theory, Experiment Applications (Taylor and Francis,2009)
[4]. P. M. Agrawal, D. L. Thompson and L. M. Raff, J. Chem. Phys., 92, 1069 (1990).
[5]. Y. Wang , Acta Physica Polonica A, 119, 3 (2010).
[6]. M. Kriste, L. Scharfenberg, J. Klos, F. lique, M. H. Alexander, G. Maijer, and S. Y. T. Vande Meerakker, phy. Rev. A 82, 42717 (2010).
[7]. P. J. Dagdigan, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 95 (1997).
[8]. I.A. Osborne, A. J. Mc Caffery, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 5604 (1994).
[9]. S. Clare, A. J. Marks, A. J. Mc Caffery J. Phys. Chem. 104, 7181(2000).
[10]. A.J. McCaffery, M.J. Proctor, B.J. Whitaker, Ann. Rev.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Gravity Modulation on the Onset of Ferroconvection in a Densely Packed Porous Layer
Country : India
Authors : Nisha Mary Thomas, S. Maruthamanikandan
: 10.9790/4861-0333040      logo

Abstract: The stability of a horizontal porous layer of a ferromagnetic fluid heated from below is studied when the fluid layer is subject to a time-periodic body force. Modified Darcy law is used to describe the fluid motion. The effect of gravity modulation is treated by a perturbation expansion in powers of the amplitude of modulation. The stability of the system, characterized by a correction Rayleigh number, is determined as a function of the frequency of modulation, magnetic parameters, and Vadasz number. It is found that subcritical instability is possible for low frequency g-jitter and that the magnetic and g-jitter mechanisms work against each other for small and moderate values of frequency of modulation. The effect of Vadasz number is shown to be reinforcing the influence of gravity modulation for small and moderate values of frequency. The magnetic, porous and modulation effects disappear altogether for sufficiently large values of the frequency of modulation.

Keywords- Ferromagnetic fluid, Gravity modulation, Perturbation method, Porous layer, Stability.

[1] V.G. Bashtovoy, B. M. Berkovsky and A. N. Vislovich, Introduction to thermomechanics of magnetic fluids (Washington D.C.:
Hemisphere, 1987).
[2] B.A. Finlayson, Convective instability of ferromagnetic fluids, J. Fluid Mech., 40(4), 1970, 753-767.
[3] M.D. Gupta and A.S. Gupta, Convective instability of layer of a ferromagnetic fluid rotating about a vertical axis, Int. J. Eng. Sci.,
17(3), 1979, 271-277.
[4] K. Gotoh and M. Yamada, Thermal convection in a horizontal layer of magnetic fluids, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 51(9), 1982, 3042-
[5] E. Blums, Free convection in an isothermic magnetic fluid caused by magnetophoretic transport of particles in the presence of a
non-uniform magnetic field, JMMM, 65(2-3),1987, 343-346.
[6] P.J. Stiles and M. Kagan, Thermoconvective instability of a horizontal layer of ferrofluid in a strong vertical magnetic field, JMMM,
85(1-3), 1990, 196-198.
[7] S. Odenbach, Convection driven by forced diffusion in magnetic fluids under the influence of strong magnetic field gradients,
JMMM, 149(1-2), 1995, 116-118.
[8] S. Aniss, M. Belhaq and M. Souhar, Effects of magnetic modulation on the stability of a magnetic liquid layer heated from above,
J. Heat Transfer, 123(3), 2001, 428-433.
[9] A. Abraham, Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a micropolar ferromagnetic fluid, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 40(4), 2002, 449-460.
[10] S. Maruthamanikandan, Effect of radiation on Rayleigh-Bénard convection in ferromagnetic fluids, Int. Jl. Appl. Mech. Eng., 8(3),
2003, 449-459.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study of structural, Morphological and Electrical Properties of CdxZn1-xS Thin Films
Country : India
Authors : Ravangave L. S. , Biradar U. V.
: 10.9790/4861-0334147      logo

Abstract: The CdxZn1-xS (x=00, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) were prepared by using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique. The prepared CdxZn1-xS thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The structural and morphological properties have been investigated. XRD pattern exhibits the hexagonal crystal structure of CdxZn1-xS. The dark electrical resistivity measurement was carried out in the temperature range 298 to 383 K by using two point probe method. The dark resistivity measurement shows that the prepared CdxZn1-xS thin films have high resistivity. The dark resistivity at room temperature was found to be of the order of ≥105 Ω cm for pure CdS and ≥106 Ω cm for CdxZn1-xS thin films. The dark resistivity was observed increased with Zn content.

Keywords – Chemical Bath Deposition, CdxZn1-xS thin films, Electrical resistivity, Structural properties, and morphological properties.

[1] O. S. Heavens, Thin Film Physics, (Methuen and Co,Ltd. London,.1970),
[2] S. Ilican, Y. Caglar and M. Caglar, Effect of the Sustrate Temperatures on the Optical Properties of the Cd0.22Zn0.78S Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method, Physica Macedonica 56, 2006 43-48
[3] J. Zhou, X. Wu, G. Teeter, B.To, R. G. Dhere and T. A. Gessert, CBD Deposited CdxZn1-xS Thin Films and Their Application in CdTe Solar Cell, Phy. Stat. Sol., 24 (13), 2004, 775-778.
[4] Ragesh. chandran, G. Suresh, A comparative studyof physical and optical properties of CdZns and CdNiS nanocrystalline films deposited by Chemical Bath Method, Chalconised Letters, 8(11), 2011,689-694,.
[5] Y.J. Chang, C. L Munsee, G. S.Herman, J. F. Wager. P.Mugdur, D. H. Lee, C. H. Chang, Growth, Characterization and application of CdS thin films deposited by chemical Bath Deposition', Chem Eur J, 8, 2002, 29.
[6] Lee Jae-Hyeong, Song Woo-Chang, Yi Jun-Sin , Yoo Yeong-Sik, Characteristics of the CdZnS thin Film Doped by Thermal Diffusion of Vacuum Evaporated Indium Films., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells ,759, 2003, 227-234.
[7] L.C. Burton, T. L. Hetch, ZnxCd1-x S Films for use in Hetrojunction Solar Cells, .Appl.phys,Lett . 29, 1976, 612.
[8] M. P. Valkonen, T. Kanniainen, S. Lindroos, M. Leskela and E. Rauhala, Growth of Zns, CdS and multilayer ZnS/CdS Thin Films by Silar Technique, Applied Surface Science, 115, 1997 386-392.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Adsorption Isotherm Of Separation Of Nicotine In Tobacco Products By Low Cost Adsorbents
Country : India
Authors : Zamzam Basher* , A.K.Gupta and Amit Chattre
: 10.9790/4861-0334853      logo

Abstract: The ability of coconut fibre , saw dust and tea waste to adsorb nicotine, from aqueous solutions has been investigated through batch experiments. The amount of nicotine adsorption was found to be dependent on adsorbent dosage and contact time. All experiments were carried out at a constant temperature of 30°C . The experimental isotherm were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich,s equations. The experiments showed that higher removal rate was shown by coconut fibre than saw dust and tea waste. Keywords: Nicotine , Adsorbent, Adsorption isotherms, Removal.

[I] The Merck Index, 11th ed., 1989, p. 1030.

[2] I.E. Burrows, P.J. Corp and G.C. Jackson, REI. Page, Analyst 96 (1971) 81.

[3] A.H. Beckett and E.J. Triggs, Nature 211 (1966) 1415.

[4] P.E Isaac and M.J. Nature 236 (1972) 307.

[5] C. Feyerabend, T. Levitt and M.A.H. Russell, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 27 (1975) 434.

[6] I. Dow and K. Hall, J. Chromatogr. 153 (1978) 521.

[7] J.A. Thompson, M.S. Ho and D.R. Petersen, J. Chromatogr. 232 (1982) 53.

[8] P. Grubner, M.W. First and G.L. Huber, Anal. Chern. 52 (1980)1755.

[9] I.D. Watson, J. Chromatogr. 143 (1977) 203. [10] R.A. Davis, J. Chromatogr. Sci. 24 (1986) 134.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Preparation, Characterization and comparative Temperature dependent Electrical Properties of Polythiophene & its Nanocomposites using Carbon Nanotubes
Country : India
Authors : Vikas Sen & D.C. Tiwari
: 10.9790/4861-0335458      logo

Abstract: The fabrication, characterization and electric measurement of Polythiophene and Carbon Nanotube (CNT) composite is described. The Polythiophene (PTh) and Polythiophene/ Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (PTh/MWCNT) composite are prepared chemically by oxidative Polymerization of Thiophene (Th). The formation of PTh and incorporation of CNTs into PTh are confirmed by Fourier Transform – Infra Red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX) analysis. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis revealed the formation of Polymer/CNT composite. SEM image of PTh shows a leaf like structure and image of PTh/MWCNT shows the incorporation of MWCNT into the PTh flakes. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis shows the morphology of PTh and PTh/MWCNT. The structural features of Nanotube-Polymer association are observed by AFM studies. The electrical behavior of prepared samples is studied by measuring I-V characteristics at varying temperature. Conductivity shows a linear dependence on temperature and is also higher for PTh/MWCNT.

Keywords - Carbon nanotubes, Polythiophene & conductivity.

[1]. I F Perepichka, D F Perepichka , H Meng, F Wudl , Adv.Mater. 17 (2005) 2281.
[2]. J Roncali, Chem. Rev. 92 (1992) 711.
[3]. A Allaoui, S Bai, H M Cheng, and J B Bai, Compos. Sci. Technol. 62 (2002) 1993
[4]. H Geng, R Rasen., B Zheng, H Shimoda, L Fleming, J Liu and O Zhou, Adv. Mater. 14 (2002) 1387.
[5]. Z Ounaies, C Park, K E Wiseb, E J Siochic and J.S. Harrisonc, Compos. Sci. Technol. 63 (2002) 1637.
[6]. S Cui, R Canet, A Derre, M Couzi and P Delhaes, Carbon. 41 (2003) 797.
[7]. M Cadek, J N Coleman, V Barron, K Hedicke and W J Blau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 5123.
[8]. M A Lo´pez Manchado, L Valentini, J Biagiotti, and J M Kenny, Carbon. 43 (2005) 1499.
[9]. M S Dresselhaus, G Dresslhous, P Avouris, 'Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Application' (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2001).
[10]. J Roncoli, Chem Rev. 92 (1992), 711.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study of Electrical Properties of Polyaniline Films Prepared By Rf Plasma Polymerization
Country : India
Authors : P.Padwal, S.V.Madhuskar, S.Kulkarni
: 10.9790/4861-0335961      logo

Abstract: Various methods like Chemical & Electrochemical Polymerization are used for obtaining polyaniline thin films on metallic electrodes. But thin films prepared by Plasma Polymerization are chemically inert, of uniform thickness and thermally stable.It is because of these reasons the present work was done using Plasma Polymerization technique to prepare thin films of polyaniline on Aluminium substrate and its elctrical properties were investigated.The electrical conductivity of the film formed was measured and found to be in the order of 10 -12 ohm-1cm-1. The electrical conductivity was considerably increased after doping the film by Iodine Vapours. The conductivity recorded after doping was of the order of 10 -5ohm-1cm-1. Thus by appropriate doping the conductivity of the Polyaniline film formed can be controlled and set to desired level.

Key words : Plasma Polymerization,Polyaniline films,Aluminium substrate,Electrical conductivity.

[1] N.P. Chermisinoff, Handbook of Polymer Science and Technology, vol. 4, Marcel Dekker, New York, ( 1989. )

[2] D.R. Lamb, Electrical Conduction Mechanisms in Thin Insulating Films, Methuen, London, ( 1967 ).

[3] Maciej Gazicki and H. Yasuda, Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol 3, No.3, ( 1983 ).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhancement of Optical, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Kap Crystals by Magnesium Doping
Country : India
Authors : V. Thendral, A. Thayumanavan, G. Pasupathi1, G. Marudhu
: 10.9790/4861-0336268      logo

Abstract: The effect of dopant Mg2+ on the growth process, crystalline properties of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) are investigated. Optically transparent single crystals were grown by a slow evaporation solution growth technique at a room temperature has been investigated. Single crystal XRD analysis reveals slight changes in the lattice parameters as a result of doping. The modes of vibration in the crystal lattice has been determined by FTIR analysis. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra revealed the transmission properties, thermal absorption properties of the pure and doped KAP crystals were investigated using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analyses (DTA), Mechanical properties were studied using vickers microhardness tester. The doping result in morphological changes and significantly improves the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the host crystal.

[1] Jones JL, Paschen KW, Nicholson JB, J Appl Opt. 2(1963) 955

[2] Yoda O, Miyashita A, Murakami K, Aoki S, Yamaguchi N. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 1503(1991) 463.

[3] L. Beck, P. Stemmler, and F. Legrand, Rev. Sci. Instr. 66 (1995)1601.

[4] Jason B. Benedict, Paul M. Wallace, Philip J. Reid, Sei-Hum Jang, and B. Kahr, Adv. Mater. 15 (2003) 1068.

[5] N. Kejalakshmy and k. Srinivasan, J. Phys. D; Appl. Phys. 36 (2003) 1778.

[6] A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 2 (1993) 157.

[7] F. Kajzar, A. Lorin J. Le Moigne, J. Szpunar, J. Acta Phys. Pol. A 87 (1995) 713.

[8] M.V. Shankar, K.B.R. Varma, Ferro electrics Lett. 21 (1996) 55.

[9] G.R. Ester, P.J. Halfpenny, J. Cryst. Growth 187 (1998) 111.

[10] N. Kejalakshmy, K. Srinivasan, Opt. Mater 27 (2004) 389.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Estimation of Net Long wave Radiation in IRAQ
Country : Iraq
Authors : Dr. Waleed I . AL-Rijabo, Firas Hazim .AL-Harby
: 10.9790/4861-0336975      logo

Abstract: FAO-56 Model which is widely used in the world was used to estimate net long wave radiation (Rnl) in 19 weather stations spread in IRAQ for the time period(1980-2008) . Simple linear regression equations were found between the mean monthly values of (Rnl) and the mean monthly values of : mean air temperature (Tmean) , relative humidity (RH) and solar radiation ratio (Rs/Rso) for all stations which gave a highly correlation coefficients . For Iraq as a whole the correlation coefficients for these linear regression equations were (0.816 , -0.850 , 0.938) respectively. multiple regression equation was found between the mean monthly values of (Rnl) and the mean monthly values of all the following elements [Tmean , RH , Rs/Rso ] for Iraq which gave a highly correlation coefficient reach (0.975).

[1]. Dharmaratine,A.,Chen,A .(1999) "Estimating Daytime Net Radiation Using Routine Meteorological Data in Jamaica " Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 35, No. 1-2, 132-141.
[2]. lectures. html .
[3]. Roger ,G. and Richard , (2003) , Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, 8 th ed., J.chorley Route ledge ,Tayler and Francis group, pp 421.
[4]. Richard , A. (1997), Meteorology, 7 th ed. By prentice Hall, Inc 'pp 486.
[5]. Muhammad , I , (1983) " An Introduction To Solar Radiation " Academic press Canada .
[6]. Samani ,Z ., Bawazir , A .;Bleiweiss ,M .; Skaggs ,R .;Tran ,V(2007). "Estimating Daily Net Radiation over Vegetation Canopy through Remote Sensing and Climatic Data" Journal of Irrigation and Drainage engineering .pp291- 297.
[7]. Ogolo, E . and Falodun, S (2007),"Diurnal and Seasonal varations of Global Solar Radiation at Akure",South-Western Nigeria, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 2(1):pp.125-128 .
[8]. Prata, A.J., (1996). "A new long-wave formula for estimating downward clear-sky radiation at the surface". Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 122 , 1127–1151.
[9]. Perez-Garcia, M., (2004)." Simplified modeling of the nocturnal clear sky atmospheric radiation for environmental applications". Ecol Model. 180, 395–406.
[10]. Crawford,T.M.,Duchon,C.E.,(1999). "An improved parameterization for estimating effective atmospheric emissivity for use in calculat- ing daytime down welling long-wave radiation". J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 474–480.

IOSR Journal Publish Online and Print Version Both