IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 3 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Tensor Components and indices of faintness for magneto-electric ferroic species
Country : India
Authors : Prof. S. Uma Devi & *G. Sireesha
: 10.9790/4861-0340107      logo

Abstract: The concept of ferroic species, prototypic and ferroic point groups, and evaluation of faintness indices for all the zero wave number vibrational modes whose oversoftening causes ferroelectricity (or) ferroelasticity are given by Aizu [4]. Aizu has dealt with non-magnetic properties only. This paper determines the species and evaluates the indices of faintness for magneto-electric polarizability by considering grey group as prototypic point group. The basic faintness index of a magneto-electric polarizability is the smallest of the faintness indices with respect to the individual components of the magneto-electric polarizability tensors. The faintness indices range from 1 to 6 [5], whether it is = 1 (or) > 1 defines whether the magneto-electric polarizability is normal (or) faint.

Key Words: Axial vector, grey group, magneto-electric polarizability, polar vector

[1] S. Bhagavantham, (1966). "Crystal Symmetry and physical properties". Academic press, London, p. 167 – 172
[2] Bradley, C.J and Cracknell, (1972). "Mathematical theory of symmetry in solids". Clarendon press, Oxford, p. 570 – 572
[3] W.A. Wooster, (1973). "Tensors and group theory for the physical properties of crystals". Clarendon press, Oxford, p. 113 – 118
[4] Keitsiro Aizu.(1973). "Journal of the physical society of Japan". Vol. 35 p : 181-187 and 1704 – 1707
[5] K. Aizu. (1972). "Journal of the physical society of Japan". vol. 33 p : 1390


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Urban Area Path loss Propagation Prediction and Optimisation Using Hata Model at 800MHz
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Isabona Joseph, Konyeha. C.C
: 10.9790/4861-0340818      logo

Abstract: This paper describes how Okumura Hata's model is chosen and optimized for urban outdoor coverage in the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system operating in 800MHz UHF frequency band, South-south Nigeria. This optimized path loss model is based on the empirical measurements collected in the CDMA network focusing on the city centre of Benin, Edo state. It is developed by comparing the calculated path loss from collected measurements with the well-known path loss models within applicable frequency range of CDMA system, such as Hata, SUI, Lee, and Egli's Model. The Hata model was chosen as a reference for this optimized path loss model development based on the closest path loss exponent and smallest mean error as compared to the measured path loss. This optimized Hata model is implemented in the path loss calculation during the validation process. Thus, this optimized model is successfully improved and would be more reliable to be applied in the Nigeria CDMA system for urban path loss calculation in the 800MHz frequency band.

Key Words: propagation loss prediction, optimisation, Hata model, urban area

[1]. Boggia, G., Camarda, P. and D'Alconzo, A, Modelling of Call Dropping in Well-Established Cellular Networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking. 2007: 1-11
[2]. Manoj, K.R , Coverage Estimation for Mobile Cellular Networks from Signal Strength Measurement Ph.D thesis, Dept. of Eleectrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas,1999.
[3]. Saunders R.S and Belloul, B, Making Wireless Networks deliver. Ingenia of the Royal Academy of Engineering, issue 12, 2002, pp 36-40.
[4]. Rappaport, T.S, Wireless Communications Principles and Practice, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, Free Space Propagation Model, 2002, pp. 107-109.
[5]. Erceg,V. and Hari, K. V. S., Channel Models for fixed Wireless Applications. Tech. Rep., IEEE 802.16Broadband Wireless Access Working Grou, 2001.
[6]. Lee W.C.Y, Estimate of Local Average Power of a Mobile Radio Signal, IEEE Transactions. Vehicular. Technology, 34, 1985, 22-27.
[7]. Egli, J. J, Radio Propagation above 40 Mc over Irregular Terrain. Proc. IRE, pp.1957, 1383-1391
[8]. Mardeni, R. and Kwan, K. F, Optimisation of Hata propagation Prediction Model in Surban Area in Malaysia, Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 13, 2010, 91-106.
[9]. Hata, M, Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services, IEEE Transactions Vehicular. Technology, Vol. VT-29, No. 3, Aug. 1980, pp. 317– 325.
[10]. Lepaianen, J., and Manninmen, M., Radio Interface system planning for GSM /GPRS / UMTS. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Profitability and Production Efficiency of Small-Scale Maize Production in Niger State, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : M.S. Sadiq*, M.T. Yakasai**, M.M. Ahmad*, T.Y. Lapkene* , Mohammed Abubakar
: 10.9790/4861-0341923      logo

Abstract: This study investigates the profitability of small scale maize production in Niger state, using farm budgeting technique. Available reports on profitability studies in the state suggest little improvement among maize farmers inspite of massive investment in the sector by government. Data were collected using the multi-stage sampling technique, and administering structured questionnaires to a total of 200 randomly selected respondents from two LGAs of Niger State. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, net farm income analysis. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents showed that 67% of the farmers were male, 76% were within the economically active age brackets, while 68% had non-formal education. The costs and returns analysis indicated that maize production was profitable with an average net farm income of N48, 109.00/hectare, and a gross ratio of 0.39; a production efficiency index (2.50) per farmer further adjudged the profitability of the enterprise, that is, the returns cover the cost of production almost three times. As maize is one of the most important staple foods of great socio-economic value in the study area, an improvement in the understanding of the level of profitability can greatly aid policy makers in enhancing policies that will promote profitability in production of the crop. In addition, improved access to farmlands, acquisition of formal education, improving rural financial markets and strengthening the existing extension services were recommended to improve profitability in maize production in the area.

Keywords: Maize, Small-scale, Profitability, Socio-economics, Niger state

[1]. Bernard, C. H. (2003). Economic Analysis of Cassava-based Cropping in Crude Oil Producing Area: A Case Study of River State Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, submitted to the Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. Pp 38-41.
[2]. Haruna, V. (2008). Economics of Cassava production in Jama‟a Local Government Area of Kaduna State: A Comparative Analysis of Local and Improved Varieties. An Unpublished M.sc.Thesis,submitted to Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.
[3]. Hill, D. J., Piggott, R.R and Griffith, G. R. (2001). Profitability of Incremental Generic Promotion of Australian Diary Products. Journal of Agricultural Economics. 26: 253- 266.
[4]. Ihenacho, SA.C. (2000). Economics of Millet Production Under Different Cropping Systems in Borno State, Nigeria.Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, submitted to Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Pp 34-37.
[5]. IITA. (2007a). Maize. IITA Research to NourishAfrica.p.1.http://http://www.iita.org/cms/details/contactus.aspx
[6]. IITA. (2007b). Doubling maize production in Nigeria in two years.www.iita.org/cms/details/research summary.aspx.
[7]. IITA (2008). Increasing maize production in West Africa.http://www.iita.org/cms/details/newssummary.aspx
[8]. Jabo, M.S. M., Maikasuwa, M. A. and Mainasara, M. (2010). Costs and Returns Analysis of Cowpea Storage (Vigna Unguiculata) Using Chemical and non-Chemical Methods. In: Nmadu, J.N and Baba, K.M. (eds). Commercial Agriculture, Banking Reform and Economic Downturn: Setting a New Agenda for Agriculture Development in Nigeria. Proceedings of 11th Annual National conference of National Association of Agricultural Economists.Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.Pp 192-195.
[9]. Musa, S.A., Kyafi A.O., and Suleiman, M.S. (2010). Evaluation of Marketing Margin of Soya Beans in Kuje Area Council FCT Abuja, Nigeria. In: Nmadu, J.N and Baba, K.M. (eds). Commercial Agriculture, Banking Reform and Economic Downturn: Setting a New Agenda for Agriculture Development in Nigeria. Proceedings of 11th Annual National conference of National Association of Agricultural Economists.Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.Pp 152-157.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Compositional Trend in the Specks of Tantalite, Tourmaline and Beryl Hosted within Complex Basement Rocks Using Geophysical and Geochemical Methods of Exploration
Country : Nigeria
Authors : B. S. Badmus, O. D. Akinyemi, *A. M. Gbadebo, P. Babatunde, O. T. Olurin and S. A. Ganiyu
: 10.9790/4861-0342433      logo

Abstract: Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was employed in data collection. Data acquisition was carried out along Oyan river bank with a total of twenty-three (23) soundings. This location was divided into two zones: VES 01 -09 and VES 10 -23. Rock samples hosting specks of tantalite, tourmaline and beryl were collected from the artisan pits within the study area and taken for geochemical analysis in the laboratory. The result of geochemical analyses revealed the quality of the solid minerals in terms of mineral compositions (major, trace and rare earth elements) while geophysical field measurement revealed the resistivity values, vertical and lateral distributions and depth of the solid minerals. The range of electrical resistivity values of these solid minerals as revealed by laboratory measurement is 19.4 - 31.1Ωm while that of the host rock is 10.0 – 100.0Ωm as obtained from field measurements. Specks of tantalite, tourmaline and beryl were suspected to be sparsely distributed in other VES locations except at VES02 and 09, where vast deposits were suspected. Two litho-facies changes were observed and this revealed the economic values of these solid minerals. Black tourmalines, beryl and tantalite samples collected as specks within the study area were of low quality while pink tourmaline is of moderate quality on the basis of the chemical constituents contained.

Keywords: Specks, Litho-facies, Electrical Resistivity, Geochemical Analyses, Mineral Composition

[1] Kuzin, M. (1976). Field manual of minerals: pp. 148-175

[2] Jacobson, R., and Webb, J.S. (1946). The pegmatite of Central Nigeria: Goel. Surv. Nig. Bull. 17, 61 p.

[3] Ekwueme, B.N., and Matheis. G. (1995). Geochemistry and economic value of pegmatites in the Precambrian basement of southeast Nigeria: In Magmatism in relation to diverse tectonic settings (Eds. R.K. Srivastava and R. Chandra), New Delhi, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.:375 – 392.

[4] Odunaike, R.K., Ijeoma, G.C., Edigbe, R.O. and Babatope, A.H., (2009). Oil sand exploration in Ijebu-Imushin using magnetic and electrical resistivity methods.11th SAGA Biennial Technical Meeting and Exhibition Swaziland: 16-18 September 2009, pages 247-252. [5] Badmus B.S, Iyanda J.D, Popoola I.O., (2006). Geoelectric evaluation of Mica Schists deposits in Area J4 of Southwest, Nigeria: J. Applied Science Technology (JAST), 11(1&2): 39-43. [

6] Badmus B.S and Ayolabi E.A., (2005). Litho-facies changes in Ewekoro limestone using Schlumberger geoelectric sounding t techniques: Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST), 10(1&2): 42-52. [7] Anamaba, S.E, Onu N.N and Iwuagwu C.J., (1993). Geophysical study of the gravel deposit in Ihiagwa, Owerri, Nigeria: Journal of Mining and Geology 29(2) 95-100.

[8] Ertl, A., Hughes, J.M., Prowatka, S., Ludwig,T., Prasad, P.S.R., Brandstatter, F., Kὂrner, W., Schuster, R., Pertlik, F. and zarschall, H., (2006). Tetrahedrally coordinated boron in tourmalines from the Liddocoatite-elbaite series from Madagascar: Structure, chemistry and infra-red spectroscopic studies: American Mineralogist, Vol.91, 1847-1856.

[9] Abdalla, H.M., and Mohamed, F.H., (1999). Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of emerald and beryl mineralization, Pan-African belt of Egypt: genetic and exploration aspects. Jour. of Afr. Earth Sci. Vol. 28 No.3 pp581-598.

[10] Rahman M.A., (1975). Review of basement geology of Southwestern Nigeria. In Geology of Nigeria (Edited by Kogbe (A) Elizabeth Nigeria.Schuiling, R.D., (1967). Tin belts on the continents around the Atlantic ocean: Econ. Geol. 62, 540-550.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Seismic Strain Energy Release Pattern in Northeast India and its Adjoining Region
Country : India
Authors : Anupama Devi , Dr. S. Kalita
: 10.9790/4861-0343443      logo

Abstract: Northeast India and its adjoining region constitutes an important geotectonic element of Southeast Asia and is connected to India via a narrow corridor squeezed between Nepal and Bangladesh. Geomorphologically, the entire NE India is located in an earthquake prone zone ( Zone – V ) of the Indian subcontinent. The strain energy release has been studied by dividing the region into in the six geo – tectonic block. It has been found that the Arakan – Yoma to be seismically active followed by Naga Hills region. It also showed that the probability of occurring an earthquake is more in the Shillong Plateau than the other five tectonic blocks. For the region as a whole there is the probability that an earthquake of intensity around 6.64 mb may occur as determined from strain energy bearing capacity of the region. Moreover, it has also been found that if strain energy released by a tectonic block is large it might effect the stress building process in the rocks of adjacent tectonic blocks. The iso-strain release map depicted areas of high and low seismic activity.

Key words: Geo – Tectonic block, Seismicity, Strain Energy, Iso – Strain.

[1] H.C. Goswami, and S.K. Sarmah,, Probabilistic Earthquake Expectancy in the North-East Indian region. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 72, 1982, 999 – 1009.

[2] K.N. Khattri, Great Earthquake, Seismicity Gaps and Potential for Earthquake Disaster along Himalayan plate boundary. Tectonophysics. Vol. 138, 1987, 79 – 92.

[3] H.N. Srivastava, Forecasting Earthquakes (National Book Trust, India, 1983).

[4] H. Benioff, Seismic evidence for fault origin of oceanic depth. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 60, 1949, 1837 – 1856.

[5] H. Benioff, Global strain accumulation and release and reserved by great earthquakes, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 56,1951, 331 – 338.

[6] R.K.S. Chauhan, Regional strain energy release characteristics for Indian region. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 56, 1966, 749 – 754.

[7] H.C. Goswami, A Study of seismic risk in the North-East Indian region, doctoral thesis, Gauhati University, Guwahati,1984.

[8] D.R. Nandy, Geodynamics of Northeastern India and the adjoining region ( ABC Publications, Calcutta, 2001) [9] P. Evans, The tectonic framework of Assam. Geological Society, India, Vol.5, 1964, 80-90.

[10] D.R. Nandy, Geological set up of the eastern Himalaya and Patkoi-Naga-Arakan-Yoma (Indo-Burma) hill ranges in relation to the Indian plate movement. Himalayan Geol. Soc. IIA, Misc. Publ., Vol. 41, 1976, 205-213.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A new formula for the rotation velocity – and density distribution of a galaxy
Country : Sweden
Authors : Tony Barrera, Bo Thelin
: 10.9790/4861-0344451      logo

Abstract: In this paper a new formula about the formation of galaxies is presented. It is based on the relativistic Schwarzschild metric, where it has been possible to obtain expressions for the rotation velocity - and mass distribution versus distance to the galactic center. According to the rotation velocity formula, the rotation velocity raises very rapidly from the center and reach a plateau which is constant out to big distance from the center. This is in accordance with observations and is also in accordance with the main structure of rotation velocity versus distance relationships from different galaxy measurements. The density distribution formula shows that the density of the galaxy will decrease versus distance which is in accordance to observations. Computer simulations were also performed to establish and verify the rotation velocity and density distributions in the galaxy, according to this paper.

Keywords: Astrophysics, Spiral galaxies and Theory of Relativity

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Shell Model Description of N = 51 Isotones
Country : India
Authors : K. Maurya, P. C. Srivastava , I. Mehrotra
: 10.9790/4861-0345259      logo

Abstract: Shell model calculations for 83Ge, 85Se, 87Kr, 89Sr and 91Zr nuclei which form the N = 51 isotonic chain have been reported. The calculations have been performed taking 78Ni as a core and the valence space comprises of ν(0g7/2, 1d5/2, 1d3/2, 2s1/2, 0h11/2) orbitals for neutrons and π(0f5/2, 1p3/2, 1p1/2, 0g9/2) orbitals for proton. The effective interaction for the present calculations is based on CD-Bonn N − N potential and adopted to the model space based on the 78Ni core. The results of present calculations show that the chosen interaction does not give a good agreement of the observed spectra with the experimental data for N=51 isotones. However some general trends of the experimental spectra like increase in the E(1/2+) ̴ E(5/2+) energy splitting and raising of 3/2+ level in going from Z=32 to 40 are well reproduced.

Keywords- Isotones; effective interaction

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Potencial Energy Functions & Properties of Some Hydride Molecules
Country : India
Authors : Ratikant Thakur & Jagdhar Mandal
: 10.9790/4861-0346065      logo

Abstract: The values of dipole moment (μ), rotational constant(𝛼𝑒),vibrational constant(𝜔𝑒𝑥𝑒), binding energy (𝐷𝑖) and dissociation energy (𝐷𝑒) have been computed using the four forms of short-range repulsive interaction(SRRI) models with an aim to establish the applicability and validity of potential energy functions. The calculations have been done for chemically active but simple hydride namely, LiH, NaH, KH, RbH,CsH,𝐵𝑒𝐻, BH, MgH, AlH & SiH.The computed values are in fair agreement with the experimental values available in the literature for the mentioned system. The close agreement between the observed an the calculated values simply revealed that Hellmann and Ali-Hasan forms of interaction models appear to be more appropriate short range repulsive interaction models for the prediction of many other properties of the system. This study shows that these models play an important role in molecular physics as well as in the problems of astrophysics.

Keywords: - Anharmonicity constant, Binding energy, Dipole-dipole & Dipole-quadrupole interaction constants, Dissociation energy & Rotational constant.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Estimation of Water Saturation Using a Modeled Equation and Archie's Equation from Wire-Line Logs, Niger Delta Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Agbasi, Okechukwu Ebuka
: 10.9790/4861-0346671      logo

Abstract: Well log data from wells located in the X fields of the Niger Delta Basin were used in the determination of some Petrophysical characteristics of the reservoir sands. Well log data were obtained from sonic, gamma-ray, matrix density and resistivity logs. The Petrophysical characteristics investigated were porosity, water saturation, tortuosity and permeability. The results of the analysis revealed the presence of different sand and shale units. The thickness of each sand unit was highly variable, ranging between 6.1 and 21.5 m. Average porosities vary between 25.0 and 72.0 percent and generally decreasing with depth. A modeled water saturation showed a better value for water saturation (calculation) for non-Archie media.The correlation between the modeled water saturation method (using a different value of cementation factor m and tortuosity a as given by some literature) gives a weaker correlation for the non-Archie media while the Archie media gives a stronger correlation when compared with the Archie equation. The average water saturation of these units varied between 5.0 and 64.0 percent. These values are generally high for the sand units in varying wells. Similarly, the average permeability values varied between 22.0 and 70.0 mD. The results of this study will enhance the proper characterization of the reservoir sands and a better estimation of hydrocarbon saturation.

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