IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 4 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Evaluation of Radiation Emmission from Refuse Dump Sites in Owerri, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Emelue H. U., Eke B. C., Oghome P., Ejiogu B. C.
: 10.9790/4861-0460105      logo

Abstract: The natural radioactivity concentrations from 40 different locations of waste dump sites in Owerri, Imo state Nigeria, has been measured using a gamma – ray spectrometer. The results indicate that the ranges of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 323Th in the samples were ˂17.2 – 686.17 BqKg-1 , ˂ 4.2 – 103.51 BqKg-1 and ˂ 5.1 – 65.28 BqKg-1 respectively. The highest outdoor effective dose obtained was 65.28 μSv.y-1 which is less than the world average outdoor value of 70 μSv.y-1 given by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation ( UNSCEAR )

Keywords: Activity Concentration, Radiation Emission, Waste Dumpsites, Absorbed Dose rate, Effective Dose Equivalent

[1]. Farai I. P., Oni O. M. 2002. Natural radionuclide concentrations in aquatic species and absorbed dose equivalent to the dwellers in the coaster areas of Nigeria. Nig. Journals of Physics 14. P94-97
[2]. Imitiaz M. A., Aleya B, Molla A. S., Zaman M. A. 2005. Measurement of radioactivity in books and calculations of resultant eye doses to readers. Health phys. 88.P169-174
[3]. Jibiri N. N., Farai I. P., S. K. Alausa, 2007. Activity concentration of Ra- 226, Th- 228 and K-40 in different food crops from high background radiation area in Bisichi Jos Plateau state, Nigeria. Radia. Environ. Biophysics, 46. P53-59
[4]. Jibiri N. N., Alausa S. K.,Owofolaju A. E., Adenira A. A. 2011. Terrestrial gamma dose rate and physical- chemical properties of farm soils from ex- tin mining locations in Jos- Plateau Nigeria. African Journals of Environmental Science and Technology Vol 5(12). P 1039-1049.
[5]. Nworgu O. D. osahon O. D., Obinyan F. E. 2011 . Measurement of Gamma Radiation in Automobile Mechanic Workshops in an Area of Benin city, Nigeria. Advanced Material Research. V367. P801- 805.
[6]. Obed R. I., Farai I. P., Jibiri N. N. 2005. Population dose distribution due to soil radioactivity concentration levels in 18 cities across Nigeria. Journ. of Radiological Protection 25. P 305- 312.
[7]. Ojoawo S., Agbede O., Sangodoyin A. 2011 . On the Physical Composition of Solid Wastes in Selected Dump sites of Ogbomosho land, South – Western Nigeria. Journal of Water Resources and Protection. Vol 3. P661- 666.
[8]. Olubosede O., Akinnagbe O. B., Adekoya O. 2012. Assessment of Radiation Emission from Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State Nigeria. IJCER. Vol 2.( Issue No 3) P. 806- 811.
[9]. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation ( UNSCEAR ) 2000. Report to the General Assembly ( New York: United Nations )

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Single Phase Formation of CuInS2 Nanoparticles: Structural, Morphological, Thermal Studies with Annealing Effect
Country : India
Authors : P. Suchismita Behera, Desapogu Rajesh, S. Karthikeyan, C. S. Sunandana, D. Bharathi Mohan
: 10.9790/4861-0460612      logo

Abstract: Single phase of CuInS2 nanoparticles was prepared by solid state melt growth process. The structural, morphological and elemental analyses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the phase transformation and stability of CuInS2 with its annealing effect at 200ºC. Micro-Raman studies evidencing a strong Raman A1 mode at 285 cm-1 and 302 cm-1, corresponds to totally symmetric vibration of anion  sub lattice of CuInS2 structure.

Keywords: Chalcopyrite type CuInS2 nanoparticles, Crystal Structure, Surface morphology, Elemental Composition, Microstructure and phase Transition

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Reduce Evaporation Losses from Water Reservoirs
Country : Iraq
Authors : Khudair abass dawood, Farhan Lafta Rashid, Ahmed Hashim
: 10.9790/4861-0461316      logo

Abstract: Evaporation suppression is the reduction of evaporation bycontrolling the rate at which water vapor escapes from water surfaces. The need for water saving is greatest in areas of little rainfall and low runoff. Water losses by evaporation from storage reservoirs must be minimized for greatest utility of limitedsupplies. Using trash of polyethylene with different densities (800, 875 and 900 kg/m3) as floating cover to the water filling cylindrical container with 8 cm diameter led to reduce the evaporation rate. A suitable trash density of 800 kg/m3 gave reduction in evaporation rate of 57% from the theoretical results calculated using equation (4) which is a good result if compared with previous researches.

Keywords: evaporation rate, evaporation suppression, water reservoir.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Descriptive New features of high angular momentum rotational states in some rear-earth nuclei
Country : Egypt
Authors : N. A. Mansour, N. M. Eldebawi, E. I. Khalil
: 10.9790/4861-0461724      logo

Abstract: The results from the variable moment of inertia (VMI) and cubic polynomial (CP) models with the available experimental information on transition energies for the yrast band levels in all studied nuclei. These models has been generalized so as to be applicable to transitional and vibrational nuclei by requiring that the extended models reduce at low angular momentum, to the polynomial dependence which gives excellent fits to the experimental spectra in the spherical, transitional and deformed regions. The level structure indicate a transition from collective to few-particle characteristics at high spin, possibly suggesting a change shape from prolate through triaxial to oblate. The loss of collectivity occurs at much lower angular momentum than predicted by calculations. The calculated Qt-value of the yrast band of the nucleus with N = 90.

Key Words: Rotational Parameter/Moment of Inertia/ Quadrupole moment/ Back- bending.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimization of Aberrated Coherent Optical Systems
Country : India
Authors : Mekala Venkanna, Dasari Karuna Sagar
: 10.9790/4861-0462529      logo

Abstract: The images of a straight edge in coherent illumination, produced by an optical system with circular aperture and apodised with amplitude filters have been studied. The image quality assessment parameters such as edge-ringing, edge-gradient and edge-shift of the edge fringes have been studied as a function of apodisation parameter for various degrees of defocus, Coma and primary spherical aberrations. It is found that, at certain combinations of aberrations the quality of the image of straight edge objects can be improved. Keywords: Aberrations, Apodisation, edge-ringing, edge-gradient, edge-shift and Optical system.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Retrospective Study of Malaria Cases Reported in a Decade at Tertiary Level Hospital of Western India
Country : India
Authors : Gaur Kusum, Raj Dilip, Kewalramani Suresh, Sharma Darmesh K., Sharma Meenakshi, Manohar R. K.
: 10.9790/4861-0463034      logo

Abstract: Background: Malaria, a non-fatal disease if detected promptly and treated properly, still causes many deaths in malaria-endemic countries. The present study is intended to find out changing pattern of malarial morbidity and mortality in western India Methods: A retrospective record base study was conducted on malarial cases reported at medical out-patient door (OPD) of SMS Hospital Jaipur (Rajasthan) during last decade i.e. from 1st Jan 2003 to 31st Dec 2012. Available data regarding socio-demographic and mortality profile was collected and analyzed. Case fatality Rates and Proportional Death rates were found out along with cause of death in malaria cases. Chi-squire test was used to find out the significance of difference between proportions. Results: Out of total 3748 malaria cases, maximum cases were reported in Aug to Oct i.e. 2614 (69.74%). Mean age of diseases was 37.4 years with 3.2 M:F Ratio. Maximum Case Fatality Rate was reported in 2003 which decreases with time with sum ups and downs and in 2012 it remains only 1.8%. Most frequent (33%) cause of death was cerebral malaria. Conclusions: Malaria has seasonal variation with maximum cases in post monsoon season affecting mainly middle aged persons. Although there is no certain trend on malarial morbidity but malarial mortality has significantly declined trend.

Keywords: Morbidity, Mortality, Case Fatality Rate, Proportional Death Rate

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[3]. Kumar A, ValechaN, Jain T, Dash AP. Burden of Malaria in India:retrospective and prospective view. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007, 77 (Suppl 6) 69-78
[4]. Dash A.P., Valecha N, Anvikar A. R. and Kumar A 2008. Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities; J. Biosci. 33 583-592
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[6]. Yadav RS, Bhatt RM, Kohli VK, Sharma VP. The burden of malaria in Ahmedabad city, India: a retrospective analysis of reported cases and deaths. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003 Dec; 97(8):793-802
[7]. Mharakurwa S, Mutambu SL, Mberikunashe J etall. Changes in burden of Malaria following scale-up of malaria control interventions in Mutasa district, Zimbabwe. Malar. J. 2013 Jul 1:12:223

[8]. Anirudh R. Acharya et al Trend of malaria incidence in the state of Karnataka, India for 2001 to 2011 Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., 2013, 5 (3):104-111

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Has Hiroshima Bombing Continued?
Country : India
Authors : Yohannes Hawaz, Tesfaye Kebede
: 10.9790/4861-0463537      logo

Abstract: There is increased use of nuclear energy after the Second World War which results in increase in artificial radioactivity on our planet. The objective of this article is to show the estimated amount of artificial radioactivity on earth surface and its effect by comparing it with the radioactive decay which took place in Hiroshima bombing by 'little boy'. There is estimated amount of 100 trillion curie of radioactivity on earth surface for human use. This man made radioactivity on earth surface has capacity to change temperature of the earth by 0.97oC if heat is evenly distributed and unfortunately Hiroshima bombing did not stop but continued at rate of 39 'little boy' bombing of the earth per second. Every second 39 atomic bombs of 'little boy' size are dropped. One can see the large amount of bombing taking place on the earth by artificial radioactivity and the bombing should be stopped and further analysis of artificial radioactivity should also be done.

Key words: nuclear energy, radioactivity

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Explanation for the Increase in the Expansion of the Universe through Gravitational Waves
Country : India
Authors : Tryambak De
: 10.9790/4861-0463841      logo

Abstract: This thesis explains the expansion rate of the universe and establishes the relationship between the expansion rate and the number of black holes in the universe andInspiralling binary neutron stars, white dwarfs and binary systems of black holes , black hole merges and supernovae, hyper novae and all other catastrophic explosions taking place in the universe and which in turn establishes the relation between the expansion rate of the universe and the age of the universe.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Heat Capacity of BN and GaN binary semiconductor under high Pressure-Temperature (PT) from First-principles
Country : India
Authors : B. P. Pandey, V. Kumar
: 10.9790/4861-0464248      logo

Abstract: In this paper, we have calculated the molar heat capacity for cubic zinc blende (cZB) BN and GaN binary semiconductors at high pressure-temperature (PT). For the calculation of heat capacity, we firstly obtained the Debye temperature (ϴD) variation with temperature and at higher temperature it becomes constant with temperature in quasi-harmonic approximation limits. We have also calculated the static Debye temperature (ϴD) from elastic constant for the both BN and GaN binary semiconductors. The elastic constants are calculated from the energy-strain relation using plane wave method in DFT approach. All the calculated results are well consistence with experimental and reported data.

Keywords: Debye temperature, DFT, LDA, PDOS, QHA, USPP etc.

[1] I.Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer and L. R. Ram-Mohan, JAP 89 (2001) 5815-5875.

[2] G. Chris, Van de Walle, Jorg Neugebauer, JAP 95 (2004) 3851-3879.

[3] Tetsuya Tohei, Akihide Kuwabara, Fumiyasu Oba, and Isao Tanaka, Phys. Rev. B 73 (2006) 064304.

[4] Hao Yan-Jun, Cheng Yan,Wang Yan-Ju, and Chen Xiang-Rong, Chin. Phys. Soc. 16(1) (2007).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Magnetic Properties and Interactions of Nanostructured CoCrTa Thin Films
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Usman M. Gana
: 10.9790/4861-0464953      logo

Abstract: Magnetic properties of CoCrTa alloy thin films were studied as function of the deposition pressure. Films deposited at low deposition pressure showed low coercivity and high loop squareness ratio. At relatively higher deposition pressurean increase in the samples' coercivity, and decrease in both the magnetic loop squareness ratio, andthe strength of the exchange interaction amongst the grains of the films were recorded. The observations indicate the films to have properties quite suited for recording media application as well as magnetic memory devices.

Keywords: sputtering pressure, magnetic domains, magnetic interactions, nanostructure, Lorentz microscopy

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study the effect of alpha particle fluences on the morphology and optical properties of poly-aniline in nano-scale
Country : Egypt
Authors : M. Shaban, M. F. Eissa
: 10.9790/4861-0465460      logo

Abstract: Poly-aniline is one of the most important conducting polymers. The poly-aniline has many applications in the electronic fields such as batteries, sensors, controlling systems and organic displays. It is good environmental stability, easy conductivity control and cheap production in large quantities. In this study poly-aniline samples in nan-structure were irradiated with α- particles with different fluences (1.16 x 108- 1.20 x 109 alphas/ cm2) and constant energy (5.32±0.23 MeV). The damage is almost regular along the path length of alpha particles in poly-aniline samples. The modifications in the morphology and optical properties induced by the radiation were measured. It was found a strong correlation between absorbance and the alpha particle fluences at wavelength 600 nm for the samples after irradiations. Also, the results showed increase the number of carbon atoms per cluster in the poly-aniline samples after irradiations.

Keywords: Poly-aniline, Alpha particles, bandgap energy, cluster size

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Environmental health Effect and Air Pollution from cigarette smokers in Cross River State, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Obi, E. O., Osang, J. E., Ewona, I. O., Udoimuk A. B. Kamgba, F. A
: 10.9790/4861-0466168      logo

Abstract: This study is aimed at assessing the cause of air pollution and Environmental health effect on people living in Cross River State using cigarette smokers as a case study. Data was gathered through a well designed and articulated oral and written questionnaires, direct and first-hand observation of the environment, and comprehensive interview sessions were carried out with community Heads (Royal Authorities where possible), patients and youths. A total of one hundred and seventeen thousand (117,000) questionnaires were randomly distributed evenly to men of about 20-75years old in all the Eighteen (18) Local Government Area in Cross River State. Eighty seven thousand, five hundred and thirty three (87,533) valid questionnaire were received back. Nine hundred (900) of the people reported that they do not smoke any cigarette. Table 1 shows the total number of people who smoke cigarette. Table 2a,b show the total number of patients with smoking related diseases. Most of these patients with smoking related diseases such as decrease in lung function, increase of heart attack, Respiratory diseases, cancer, asthma, and other health effects are having those disease conditions as a result of their smoking habits.

Keyword: Cross River State, Cigarette smokers,Air Pollution, and Environmental health effect.

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