IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP)

Volume 5 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Computing net radiation from temperature variables: Improvising for under-resourced weather stations in developing countries
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Farai Malvern, SIMBA
: 10.9790/4861-0550106      logo

Abstract: Most weather stations at farms, schools and other research institutes in the developing world do not have radiation sensors and this is usually attributed to high costs of these sensors. Net radiation as one component of radiation is important in crop farming as it influences germination, different growth stages, water demand, size and quality of yield among other things. This article seeks to demonstrate how a series of mathematical equations with temperature as a key physical quantity can be used to estimate net radiation using the basic minimum of resources affordable against readings from a standard net radiometer. To achieve this, daily data of maximum and minimum temperatures for 20 days was used from an automated weather station at Great Zimbabwe University in Zimbabwe. A standard CNR 1 net radiometer was installed at the station to give direct net radiation readings for comparison with the computed readings. A correlation between the calculated net radiation and the measured one gave 90.8% correspondents. Diurnal net radiation was following the maximum temperature trends. The average cost of a net radiometer sensor was US$ 3.700 which can be too high for an ordinary farmer or other small research institutes.
Key words: net radiation, developing, cost, crop, temperature, Zimbabwe.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Empirical Study of Seasonal Rainfall Effect in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : UDOIMUK, A. B., OSANG, J. E., ETTAH, E. B., USHIE, P. O., EGOR, A. O., ALOZIE, S. I.
: 10.9790/4861-0550715      logo

Abstract: Calabar has been experiencing yearly severe flooding and landslides within and around the metropolis with substantial costs, in terms of loss of lives and destruction of properties. This paper is focus on the empirical study of seasonal rainfall effect in Calabar, Nigeria. Data was gathered through a well designed and articulated oral and written questionnaires, direct and first-hand observation of the environment, and comprehensive interview sessions were carried out with randomly selected Landlords . A total of thirteen thousand (13,000) questionnaires were randomly distributed evenly to some Landlords in twenty six (26) streets of the study Area from January 2012 to October 2013. Twelve thousand four hundred and eigty two (12,482) valid questionnaire were received back. Twelve thousand (12,000) of the inhabitant Landlords reported that, they were not affected negatively. Table 2 shows the total number of buildings that were negatively affected due to flooding in the Area. While rainfall data from 1993– 2012 were collected from the Nigeria Meteorological Station(NIMET), Calabar. A simple descriptive analysis was used. The results shows that, rainfall is one of the Climatic factor that can indicate Climate change and has created ecological destabilization and altered the pattern of the vegetation belt especially in the flood prone areas highlighted, which includes Atimbo, Edim otop, Ekpo Abasi, Ndidem Usang Iso, Goldie , Target, Ebito, Big Qua, Edibe Edibe, Atamunu, Akim Road, Otop Abasi and Ikot Eyo by Paliamentary Road (Calabar). The rainfall pattern has also enhanced wind erosion/desertification, soil erosion and coastal flooding in Calabar. With these impacts, the paper therefore recommends some adaptive and mitigation measures that could help to revert the current situation, otherwise properties and lives will continue to be lost.
Keywords: rainfall pattern, climate change, flooding, vegetation belts, erosion, shift and land slides

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Phase Theory towards the Unification of the Forces of Nature the Heart Beat of the Universe
Country : Egypt
Authors : M. E. Isma'eel, Sherif M. E. Ismaeel
: 10.9790/4861-0551625      logo

Abstract: A new theory has been presented, for the first time, called the "Phase Theory", which is the natural evolution of the physical thought and is considered the one beyond the super string theory. This theory solves the unsolved problems of the mysterious of matter, antimatter and interactions and makes a wide step towards the unification of the forces of nature. In this theory, the vibrating string of different frequency modes which determines the different types of elementary particles is replaced by a three dimensional infinitesimal pulsating (black)holes with the same frequency. Different types of elementary particles are determined by different phase angles associated with the same frequency. This allows the force of interactions to take place among elementary particles, without the need to invoke the notion of the force carrier particles, as the (stable) force of interactions can never take place between elementary particles at different frequencies. Besides the strong mathematical proofs given in this paper to prove its truthfulness, an experimental prediction has been given to confirm the theory presented in the form of the relation between the electron radius and quarks radii. The paper shows that quarks are direct consequence of this theory, and solves "the flavor problem" in QCD, and gives the clue to answer the questions of "Why are there so many flavors? The paper also derives the equation of the big bang theory which describes the singularity of the moment of creation of the universe.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Hallff--mettalllliic--fferriimagnettiic Sr2CrWO6 and Sr2FeReO6 matteriialls
ffor room ttemperatture spiinttroniics:: Liinear muffffiin--ttiin orbiittall
Country : Saudi Arabia
Authors : M. Musa Saad H.-E., I. B. I. Tomsah, A. Fiasal Elhag
: 10.9790/4861-0552630      logo

Abstract: Complex perovskite-like materials which include magnetic transition elements have relevance due to the technological perspectives in the spintronics industry. In this work, we report the studies of the electronic and magnetic characterizations of Sr2CrWO6 and Sr2FeReO6 as spintronics materials at room temperature by using the linearized muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) method through the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA) within the local spin density approximation (LSDA). The interchange-correlation potential was included through the LSDA+U technique. The band structure results at room-temperature predict half-metallic ferrimagnetic ground state for Sr2CrWO6 and Sr2FeReO6 with total magnetic moment of 1.878 μB and 3.184 μB per formula unit, respectively, agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results.
Keywords: Complex perovskite; LMTO-ASA method; Half-metallic.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The characteristics of Secondary Charged Particles produced in 4.5 A GeV/c 28Si-Nucleus Interactions
Country : India
Authors : Shaikh Sarfaraz Ali, H. Khushnood
: 10.9790/4861-0553135      logo

Abstract: To study the characteristics of secondary charged particles produced in 4.5GeV/c 28Si-nucleus interactions a lot of rigorous attempts have been made. The results reveal that the multiplicity correlations are not linear. The findings do not agree with those reported by several earlier workers. However, these correlations may be reproduced quite well by second order polynomial. It is also observed that the dependence of mean normalized, RA and reduced multiplicity, RS on the multiplicity of different charged secondaries is linear up to a certain value and then acquire almost a constant value. Results also reveal that the Kth root of central moment increases with the increase of <Ns> and the values of normalized moments do not depend on the nature and the energy of the projectiles. Finally, it is observed that the integral multiplicity distribution of heavily ionizing tracks provide a method for selecting the disintegrations caused by the projectile due to different target nuclei of nuclear emulsion.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The electronic band parameters calculated by the Triangular potential model for Cd1-xZnxS quantum dot superlattices
Country : Tunisia
Authors : S. Marzougui, N. Safta
: 10.9790/4861-0553642      logo

Abstract: This work reports on theoretical investigation of superlattices based on Cd1-xZnxS quantum dots embedded in an insulating material. This system, assumed to a series of flattened cylindrical quantum dots with a finite barrier at the boundary, is studied using the triangular potential. The electronic states and the effective mass of  1 Γ miniband have been computed as a function of inter-quantum dot separation for different zinc compositions. Calculations have been made for electrons, heavy holes and light holes. Results are discussed and compared with those of the Kronig-Penney and sinusoidal potentials.
Keywords: Quantum dots; superlattices; Cd1-xZnxS; triangular potential; non volatile memories.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Chitosan capped Silver nanoparticles used as Pressure sensors
Country : India
Authors : K. Praveenkumar, M. K. Rabinal, M. N. Kalasad, T. Sankarappa, Mahesh D. Bedre
: 10.9790/4861-0554351      logo

Abstract: In the present work, we report the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles, capped with chitosan (biopolymer ). The majority of the particles produced in this way had sizes around 18 nm. Composite films of capped silver nanoparticles and chitosan polymer were studied to understand the charge transport under different pressure. Films of different compositions were prepared to measure current voltage curves across the film thickness. The results reveal that these materials exhibit electrical conductivity as predicted by the "classical theory of percolation". Pressure dependent electrical conductivity and these composites can be explored to develop low cost pressure sensors.
Keywords: Chitosan-silver nanoparticles, UV-Vis. Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, Electrical conductivity, pressure sensors.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Structure and transport coefficients of liquid Argon and neon using molecular dynamics simulation
Country : Nigeria
Authors : O. O. Odeyemi
: 10.9790/4861-0555259      logo

Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to deduce the dynamics property distribution function of Argon and Neon liquid. With the use of a Lennnard-Jones pair potential model, an inter-atomic interaction function was observed between pair of particles in a system of many particles, which indicates that the pair distribution function determines the structures of liquid Argon. This distribution effect regarding the liquid structure of Lennard-Jones potential was strongly affected such that its viscosity depends on density distribution of the model. The radial distribution function, g(r) agrees well with the experimental data used. Our results regarding Argon and Neon show that their signatures are quite different at each temperature, such that their corresponding viscosity is not consistent. Two sharps turning points are more prominent in Argon, one at temperature of 83.88 Kelvin (K) with viscosity of -0.548 Pascal second (Pa-s) and the other at temperature of 215.64 K with viscosity of -0.228 Pa-s. In Argon and Neon liquid, temperature and density are inversely and directly proportional to diffusion coefficient, in that order. This characteristic suggests that the observed non linearity could result from the non uniform thermal expansion in liquid Argon and Neon, which are between the temperature range of 21.98 K and 239.52 K.

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