IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS)

Volume 1 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Cyclop-Eeze on Growth and Survival of SHG (Swollen Hindgut Syndrome) Infected Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) Postlarvae under Two Different Stocking Densities
Country : India
Authors : Shailender .M, Suresh Babu. Ch, Srikanth, B, Krishna P.V, Jayagopal. P
: 10.9790/2380-0120107       logo
ABSTRACT:In recent years, the diseases of shrimp slowed down the development of shrimp culture. Swollen hind gut syndrome (SHG) of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon postlarvae is common problem in shrimp hatcheries. Post larvae infected with SHG are generally rejected by the hatcheries and farmers, as stocking of SHG seeds or postlarvae are supposed to cause several problems such as size variation, white fecal disease. Loose shell syndrome etc., resulting is severe loss in form production and earning. In the present study an attempt carried to culture the giant tiger shrimp, P.monodon by using post larvae having swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG). In the present study an attempt has been made to culture the SHG infected post larvae of giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon in six ponds each with 0.5 ha near Karlapalem village of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh, India. In 3 ponds the seeds were stocked in high stocking density (18/ m2) and remaining 3 ponds in low stoking density (9 / m2). In both the cases, the Cyclop-eeze feed was mixed with Godrej (Godrej Agro Vet - Vijayawada) feed and provided to the seeds and survival was calculated and compared. The salinity of the ten ponds was ranging between 12 to 28 ppt and pH was 7.8 to 8.4. Minimum 3.6 ppm dissolved oxygen and maximum 5.5 ppm was recorded during the culture period. The temperature was ranging between 26 to 31ºC and the transparency was 35 to 55 cm. Harvesting was done in low density ponds (A1, A2 and A3) at DOC 140 and high density ponds (B1, B2 and B3)) it was harvested at DOC (Days of culture) 170. Average body weights of the low density ponds were 40.5 g and high density ponds were 32.6 g. Highest survival (82%) was recorded in low density ponds and the lowest survival was (64 %) recorded in high density ponds. Maximum production was reported in low density ponds (1,494 Kg / 40.5 g / 140 Doc) and minimum production was observed in high density ponds (1,878 kg / 32.6 g / 170 Doc). The maximum amount of feed was consumed by> the shrimps in high density ponds (3474 kg) and minimum was in low density ponds (1973 kg). So the FCR (Food conversion ratio) for low density ponds were 1.32 and high density ponds were 1.85. The net profit obtained from the shrimps in high density ponds is Rs.57, 691 and net profit obtained from low density ponds is Rs. 2, 15,300. The results of the present study showed that there is significant difference (P<0.05) in growth and survival and FCR between two stocking densities of the SHG infected postlarvae. Present study revealed that high profit in the shrimp farming was obtained by the optimum or low (8-10 Pl's/M-2) stocking density. Above> results revealed that the effect of the SHG infected P.monodon postlarvae can be cultured in low stocking densities and harvested as similar to the normal seed provided the best farm management practices are followed by the shrimp farmer. To get better profit, proper nursery stocking, feeding with Cyclop-Eeze, proper water quality management and feed management is crucial.
Key words: Penaeus monodon, Cyclop eeze feed, FCR, stocking densities, survival and profit
[1] Afrabuddin, S and N. Akter, 2011. Swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG) of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae. AACL, Bioflux,
[2] Boyd, C.E., 2001. Water quality standards: pH. The advocate, pp: 42. Chanratchkool, P., J.F. Turunbull and C.C. Limsunean,
1994. Health management in shrimp ponds. Aquatic Health Research Institute, Department of Fisheries, Kasetasart Uniersity,
Bankok, pp: 91.
[3] Chanratchkool, P., J.F. Turunbull and C. Limsunean, 1994. Health management in Shrimp ponds. Aquatic Health Research
Institute, Department of Fisheries, Kasetasart University, Bankok, pp: 91.
[4] Cheekait, N.G., 1995. Micro-encapsulation applications in aquaculture. Aqua International., pp: 28-29.
[5] Chen, H.C., 1980. Water quality criteria for farming the grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon in : Proceedings of the fist International
conference on culture of Penaid prawns/ shrimps, edited by Y, Take, J.H. Primavera and J.A. Liobrea, pp: 165.
[6] Collins, A. and B. Russel, 2003. Inland Prawn farming trail in Australia. Pond study tests Penaeus monodon performance in low
salinity ground water. Global aquaculture advocate, pp: 74-75.
[7] Gilles L.M., 2001. Environmental factors affect immune response and resistance in Crustaceans. The advocate, pp: 18.
[8] Jaganmohan, P and Prasad, S. V. 2010. Effect of probiotics on the growth and survival of Penaeus monodon, infected with
Swollen Hind Gut (SHG) at post larval stage. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 2(4): 311-316.
[9] Jaideep Kumar, P. Chearan, E and Thampi Sam Raj. 2011. Growth and survival of Swollen Hind Gut (SHG) infected Penaeus
monodon (Fabricus, 1798) post larvae, in farm Grow-out system. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 3(3): 190-193.
[10] Karthikeyan, J., 1994. Aquaculture (Shrimp farming) its influence on environment. Technical paper submitted to the seminar Our
Environment–Its challenges to development projects. Septem ber, American Society of Civil Engineers, Culcutta, India, pp: 9-10.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Developing a Cell Culture System from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus, L.) Ovarian Tissue in Egypt
Country : India
Authors : Omaima Khamiss, Medhat. H. Hashem .
: 10.9790/2380-0120812       logo
ABSTRACT: Cell culture from ovarian tissue of healthy female fingerlings Oreochromis niloticus was established with average weight of 20 to 30 gm/female. Three culture media were screened and tested: Leibowitz L-15), Minimum essential medium (MEM) and RPMI 1640 medium. Cells were maintained at 16, 27 or 30oC for screening the favorable optimally incubation temperature. Culture medium was refreshed every 5 days. Among the three tested media, L-15 supplemented with 20% (FBS) supported higher cells attachment leading to cell proliferation than MEM and RPMI that didn't enhance the cell development and no cell proliferation was obtained with them. At different incubation temperature no proliferation were obtained when cells were incubated at 16oC compared with 27oC and 30oC. This work is one of the rare reports of a cell culture system establishment in Egypt and unique from the ovarian tissue of O. niloticus. By using this technique, it should now be possible to develop different method of curing treatments and pathogens diagnosis because the fish can be bred in captivity and fingerlings reared under laboratory conditions.
[1] Alexandra, A. and T. D. Kim 2006. Biotechnology offers revolution to fish health management. Trends in Biotechnology. 24 (5), 201-205 among cultured freshwater fish (Oreochromis miolicus) in relation to the incidence of bacterial pathogens at Ismailia Governorate. J. Egypt. Med. Ass., 51(4): 837-847.
[2] Behrens, A., K. Schirmer, N.C. Bols, and H. Segner 2001. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as inducers of cytochrome P4501A enzyme activity in the rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, and in primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:632-643.
[3] Castaño, A., J.V. Tarazona, A. Santamaría, and F. Sanz, 1989. Utilización de células de peces en los ensayos alternativos de ecotoxicologiá acu´tica. Revista de Toxicología 6:150.
[4] Chen, S.N., Chi, S.C. and G.H. Kou 1983. A cell line derived from Tilapia ovary. Fish Pathol. 18 1:. 13-18.
[5] Chris, M. w. and P. part 1997. Cultured branchial epithelia from freshwater fish gills. J. Exp. Bio., 200: 1047-1059.
[6] ECVAM (European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods) 2001. The Use of Fish Cells in Ecotoxicology.The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop Italy, on 22-24 October 2001.
[7] FAO. 1995. Aquaculture Production Statistics 1984-1993. FAO Fish. Circ. 815 Rev. 7. 186n p
[8] Fernandez, R.D., M. Yoshimizu, Y. Ezura, T. Kimura, 1993. Comparative growth response of fish cell lines in different media, temperatures, and sodium chloride concentrations. Fish Pathol. 28: 27-34.
[9] Fryer, J.L. and C.N. Lannon 1994. Three decades of fish cell culture: a current listing of cell lines derived from fish. J. Tiss. Cult. Methods 16: 87-94.
[10] Ham, R.G. 1981. Survival and growth requirements of nontransformed cells. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 57: 13-88.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Caecal Development in Kuttanad Duck (Anas Platyrhynchos Domesticus)
Country : India
Authors : A. D. Firdous, K. M. Lucy
: 10.9790/2380-0121316       logo
ABSTRACT: Caecum, the largest part of duck's intestine has an important role in liquid absorption, cellulose digestion and defensive mechanism. Age related changes in the histomorphology of the caeca in Kuttanad ducks were studied in 72 birds from day-old to adult at fortnight intervals. After recording the biometry and gross features, the material was fixed in neutral buffered formalin and standard procedures were adopted for histological and histochemical studies. The paired caeca extended cranially from the ileo-colic junction. Each caecum showed three regions, viz., the base, middle part and an apex. The apical portion was caudally directed and free. In day-old birds, the caecum had a uniform diameter .The adult length was attained by eight weeks of age. Histologically, ileo-caecal-colic junction showed a papilla-like protrusion made up of circular smooth muscle layer. Large nerve bundles were found in the inner circular layer of tunica muscularis in this region. Mucosa of the caecum carried tooth shaped villi, which were more prominent and longer in the basal part. Their height reduced towards the middle portion and again increased in the apex in the non-distended caecum. In dayold birds, histological picture was same as in the adult except in that there was no lymphatic tissue in the lamina propria. Lamina epithelialis was formed of simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells, the number of which decreased towards apex. Lymphatic tissue decreased towards the apex. Lamina propria was separated from the submucosa by a thin muscularis mucos. At the basal region, tunica muscularis was extremely thick forming the caecal sphincter.
Key words: caeca, Kuttanad, postnatal
[1] DAS , L.N. and BISWAL, G. (1967) Microanatomy of intestine, pancreas and liver of the domestic duck (Anas boscas). Indian Veterinary Journal 44: 763-766.HODGES, R. D. (1974) The Histology of the Fowl. Academic Press, New York. 648p.
[2] LOOPER, J. B. and LOOPER, M.H. (1929)A histological study of the colic caeca in the bantam fowl. Journal of Morphology 48: 587-589.
[3] LUNA, L. G. (1968) Manual of Histological Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Third edition, Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York. 258p.
[4] MAHDI, A. H. and MC LELLAND, J. (1988) The arrangement of the muscle at the ileo- caeco- rectal junction of the domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and the presence of anatomical sphincters. Journal of Anatomy 161: 133-142.
[5] MC LELLAND, J. (1975) Digestive system. In: Sisson and Grossman's The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. Ed. Getty, R. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. pp. 1857-1882.
[6] NICKEL, R., SCHUMMER, A and SEIFERLE, E. (1977) Anatomy of the Domestic Birds. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin, 212p.
[7] SNEDECOR, G. W. AND COCHRAN, W. G. (1985) Statistical Methods. Seventh edition, The Iowa State University Press, USA. 313p.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Used As Probiotic: Strains Characterization And Cell Viability
Country : Brazil
Authors : Keila M. R. Duarte, Luiz H. Gomes, Ana C. K. Sampaio, J. Issakowicz, Flavio Rocha, Thiago P. Granato, Suleize R. Terra
: 10.9790/2380-0121719       logo
ABSTRACT: The assay aimed to evaluate the cell viability of commercial yeast strains for bakery purpose in comparison to a selected strain (Yea-Sacc®1026, Alltech®) indicated as a probiotic to be added to animal feed, promising yield gains. The objective of this first study was to check the number of viable cells, once the indicated product to be classified as probiotic needs to provide live cells. We tested the viability of one commercial probiotic strain (Yea-Sacc®1026 ) in comparison to four bakery commercial yeast. Our results showed a low viability of the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which was 7.7 % and the bakery yeasts around 35 % of viable cells. The sustainability calls for alternative sources for animal feeding and the use of microorganisms is very welcome in the livestock chain, provided that the product presented has the characteristics inherent to it.
Key words: animal diet, livestock improvement, yeast
[1] F.S. Martins, Screening of yeast as probiotic based on capacities to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and to protect against enteropathogen challenge in mice. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 51(2) 2005, 83-92, .
[2] R.A. França, E.J. Rigo, Utilização de leveduras vivas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) na nutrição de ruminantes – Uma revisão. FAZU em Revista, 8, 2011, p. 187-195.
[3] M. Thurne, A. Bach, and M. Ruiz-Moreno Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal pH microbial fermentation in dairy cows yeast supplementation on rumen fermentation. Livestock Science, 124, 2009, p. 261-265.
[4] L.F. Costa, Leveduras na nutrição animal. Revista Eletrônica Nutritime, 1(1), 2004, p.01-06.
[5] F.S. Martins. Utilização de leveduras como probióticos. Revista de Biologia e Ciências da Terra, 5(2), 2005, 13-17.
[6] M. Abadias, A. Benabarre, N. Texidó,J. Usall and I. Vinãs, Effect of freeze drying and protectants on viability of the biocontrol yeast Candida sake. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 65, 2001, p. 173-182.
[7] P.A. Marechal, I. Martinez de Marnañon, I. Poirier and P. Gervais, The importance of the kinetics of application of physical stresses on viability of microrganisms: significance for minimal food processing. Trends Food Sci. Techonol.,10, 1999, 15-20.
[8] E.S. Callaway and S.A. Martin Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on animal bacteria that utilize lactate and digest cellulose. Journal of Dairy Science, 80,1997, 2035- 2044.
[9] J.L. Arcos-Garcia, F.A. Castrejom, G.D. Mendonza and E.P. Perez-Gavilan, Effect of two commercial yeast cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal fermentation an digestion in sheep fed sugar cane tops. Livestock Production Science, 63, p. 153-157, 2000.
[10] W. Yanbo and X. Zirong Effect of probiotics for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 127, 2006, 283–292.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Response of Groundnut Genotypes to Leaf Miner (Aproaerema modicella Deventer) Under Field Screening
Country : India
Authors : P. Arunachalam, Zadda Kavitha
: 10.9790/2380-0122023       logo
ABSTRACT: Twenty five groundnut genotypes were field screened for leaf miner and defoliator incidence. The study was conducted at Dryland Agricultural Research Station, Chettinad during Kharif 2011and Rabi 2011-12. Periodic observations on leaf miner and defoliator damage were recorded in all the genotypes. Incidence of leaf miner was increased with raise in maximum temperature and decrease in relative humidity, rainfall and leaf wetness. The field screening results revealed that less leaf miner incidence was recorded in the genotypes viz., ICGV 06424, ICGV 07220, ICGV 07222, ICGV 07240, ICGV 07245, ICGV 07247, ICGV 07268, ICGS 11 and VRI (Gn) 6 in both the seasons. To identify the resistant genotypes to leaf miner, further screening studies under in vitro conditions with the identified genotypes with less incidence of leaf miner are required.
Key words: Peanut, leaf miner, defoliator, Field screening, Arachis hypogaea
[1] Reddy, The Groundnut, ICAR Publication, 1988, pp. 572.
[2] Y.V. Praveena, K. Kotikal, J.S. Awaknavar, P.V. Kenchangoudar, and Somashekar. Evaluation of newer insecticides against groundnut leaf miner Aproaerema modicella Deventer Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 24 (4), 2011, 542-545
[3] G. Logiswaran, and M. Mohanasundaram, Effect of intercropping, spacing and mulching in the control of groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). Madras Agricultural Journal, 72, 1985, 695-700.
[4] H.D. Lewin, R.S. Saroja, D. Sundararaju, and M.D. Padmanabhan, Influence of sowing time and weather on the incidence of leaf miner. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 49, 1979, 886-891.
[5] G. Logiswaran, and M. Mohanasundaram, Influence of weather factors on the catches of moths of groundnut leaf miner Aproaerema modicella Deventer in the light trap. Entomon, 12, 1986, 147-150.
[6] T. Senguttuvan, and K. Sujatha, Biochemical basis of resistance in groundnut against leaf miner. International Arachis Newsletter, 20, 2000, 69-71.
[7] R.V. Satyanarayana Rao, Method of Screening for Resistance to Leafminer, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) Under Greenhouse Conditions. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 10 (1), 2002, 38-41.
[8] Y.V. Praveena, K. Kotikal, J.S. Awaknavar, P.V. Kenchangoudar, and Somashekar, Screening of groundnut varieties against leaf miner Aproaerema modicella Deventer Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 24 (4), 2011a. 561-56.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Agricultured Automatic Drip Irrigation System
Country : India
Authors : Mr. S.G.Galande, Dr. G.H. Agrawal
: 10.9790/2380-0122427       logo
ABSTRACT:Drip irrigation is one of the important area which affects the livelihood of farmers directly. In this paper a survey is carried out far the drip irrigation to be using electronic devices. The drip irrigation system will increase the productivity of the crop. Fertilizers used in irrigation are recommended by various agriculture universities will help the farmer to increase the productivity. Increasing the productivity of different crops soil and water contains are more important. The drip irrigation helps to save the water and increase the productivity of crop. After using embedded system proper mixing of the fertilizer will be possible for improve the productivity of crop. When we use the embedded system more complexity will reduce, but wiring in the field will create problem. Day by day the rainfall goes on decreasing, to save the water for irrigation drip irrigation is important tool in future.
Keyword: crop, productivity, drip irrigation, embedded system
[1] Dr. K. Kasturirangan, "Science and Technology as Instruments of faster, Sustainable and Inclusive Development" Technorama,
[2] Institute of Engineers, PP 5-13, volume 61, March 2012
[3] Dr. Arcot Ramachandran, "Technology and the Challenge of Sustainable Development", Technorama, The Institute of Engineers,
pp 14-20, volume 61, March 2012.
[4] Lida xu, ning Liang & Qiong Gao, "An Integrated Approach for Agriculture Eco Management", IEEE Transaction on system,
man, &
[5] Cybernetics-Part C , Application & Review, Vol-38, No.4, July 2008.
[6] Acim Dobermann, Simon Blackmore, Simon E. Cook, and Viacheslav I Adamchuk,"Precision faming challenges and Future
[7] Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science congress, 26 sep-1Oct 2004.
[8] Franceco Mattia, Malcolm W.J.Dividson, Thuy Le Toon Christophe M.F. Haese, "A Comparison Beteen Soil Roughness
Statistics Used in Surface Scattering Models Derived From Mechanical and Laser Profilers", IEEE Transaction on Geo-science
and Remote Sensing, Vol 41, No 7, July 2003.
[9] S. Sankaran and R. Ehsani, C. Dima, "Development Of Ground-Based Sensor System For Automated Agricultural Vehicle To
[10] Diseases In Citrus Plantations", paper no. 304, 10th International Conference Precision Agriculture, July 18-21, 2010, Denver, CO.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance and carcass and organ weights of broiler chicks fed graded levels of Acha grains (Digitaria exilis)
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ukim, C.I., Ojewola, G S. and Obun, C. O., Ndelekwute, E. N
: 10.9790/2380-0122833       logo
ABSTRACT:The effects of replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of maize with Acha grains in broiler chicks' diets on growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) and carcass and organ weights was studied in a 8 week experiment using 150 unsexed 7 days-old Abor-Acre broiler chicks. The results showed that Acha grains could be used to replaced maize up to 100% without significantly (P>0.05) affecting body weight gain, ADC and percentage carcass and cut-up parts and organ weights of finisher broilers, except the abdominal fat deposit. Acha grains is therefore recommended for use to replace maize as a good energy source in poultry rations.
Keyword: Acha grains, growth rate, digestibility, carcass, broiler chicks
[1] C O. Obun and E E. Abia. Performance and hematological changes of broiler chicks fed. Agro- chemical treated maize.
Journal of Sustainable Agric and the Environment, Umudike, Abia State Vol. 5 (2), 2003,313-318pp
[2] K O. Rachie, The millet and minor cereals: A bibliography of the world literature in millets processing 1930 and 1964-69 and all
literature on other minor cereals. The Scarecrew Pres Inc. Metuchen, NJ., 1974, 564.
[3] I A, Jideani and J. Akingbola, Some physical, chemical properties of Acha (D. exilis) and Iburu (D. Abura) grain. J. Sc. Food
Agric. 63, 1993, 369 –373.
[4] E H. Kwon-Ndung and S M. Misari, Overview of research and development of fonio (Digitaria exilis Kippis Stapf) and prospect
for improvement in Nigeria. In: Genetics and food security in Nigeria. GNS Publication, Nigeria, 1999, 71-76.
[5] A. Ibrahim, Hungry rice (Fonio): A neglected cereal crop. NAQAS Newsletter, 2001, Vol. 4-5.
[6] National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press,
[7] J F.Cruz, Fonio: a small grain with potential. In: Magazine on Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA). Vol.
20(1), 2004,16-17.
[8] M A. Hidalgo, A J. Davis, A M. Dale and W A. Dozier, Use of Whole Pearl Millet in Broiler Diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 13, 2004,
[9] C I. Medugu, I D. Kwari, J. Igwebuike, I. Nkama, I D. Mohammed and B. Hamaker, Carcass and blood components of broiler
chickens fed sorghum or millet as replacement for maize in the semi arid zone of Nigeria. Agric. Biol. Jour. Nutr. Amer.
1(3)2010: 326-329
[10] O. Chukwu and A J. Abdul-kadir, Proximate Chemical Composition of Acha (Digitaria exilis and Digitaria iburua) Grains. Jour.
Food Tech. 6 (5), 2008, 214-216.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Equine colic referred to University Veterinary hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia from 2005-2011
Country : Nigeria
Authors : L. Adamu1, , M. A. Noraniza, R. Abdullah, B. Ahmad
: 10.9790/2380-0123738       logo
ABSTRACT:Equine colic has been a devastating endemic disease condition confronted by horse owners in Malaysia. However, little attention is paid to the management aspect of these horses and the prevalence of colic. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between colic cases and horse usages, gender, breed, management system of establishments and the status of horses. Data were obtained from the University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia particularly from the equine and pathology units from January 2005 to December, 2011. Of the 92 number of horses studied for colic cases referred to the hospital, 40% were both stallions and mares respectively while 20% were geldings. 42% were used for patrolling, 18% for multipurpose, 14% were used for endurance followed by 10% for riding school, while 7% were used for both leisure ride and polo respectively and the least 2% were used for dressage. Three types of colic disease conditions were diagnosed and treated and these include tympanic (66%), spasmodic (23%) and impaction (11%) colic. Thus, these findings could assist veterinarians engrossed in the diagnosis and treatment of the conditions to put in place laudable measures in the prevention of the disease conditions.
Keyword:Colic, prevalence, University Veterinary Hospital, 2005 to 2011,
[1] D.N. Zimmel, How to manage pain and dehydration in horses with colic. American Association of Equine practitioners 49, 2003,
[2] C.J. Proudman, J.E. Smith, G.B. Edwards, and N.P. French, Long-term survival of equine surgical colic cases. Part 1: patterns of
mortality and morbidity. Equine veterinary Journal 34, 2002, 432-437.
[3] A. Nathaniel, J. White, and S. Ellen, Colic: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Prevention. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Resort
Symposium of the American Association of Equine practitioners 11, 2009, 297-307.
[4] J.L. Traub-Dargatz, C.A. Kopral, A. H. Seitzinger, L.P Garber, K. Forde, and N.A. White, Estimate of the national incidence of and
operation-level risk factors for colic among horses in the United States, spring 1998 to spring 1999. Journal of American Veterinary
Med. Association 219, 2001, 67-71.
[5] M.H. Hillyer, F.G. Taylor, and N.P. French, A cross-sectional study of colic in horses on Thoroughbred training premises in the
British Isles in 1997. Equine Veterinary Journal 33, 2001, 380-385.
[6] C. Uhlinger, Investigations into the incidence of field colic. Equine Veterinary Journal 13, 1992, 11-18.
[7] N.A. White, Epidemiology and etiology of colic. In: White, N.A. (Ed. 1990). The Equine Acute Abdomen. p. 50-64. Lea and
Febiger, Philadelphia
[8] C.J. Proudman, A two year, prospective survey of equine colic in general practice. Equine Veterinary Journal 24, 1992, 90-93.
[9] C. Langdon Fielding, K. Gary Magdesian, Diane M. Rhodes, Chloe A. Meier, Jill C. Higgins, Clinical and biochemical
abnormalities in endurance horses eliminated from competition for medical complications and requiring emergency medical
treatment: 30 cases (2005–2006). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 19(5), 2009, 473-478. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-
[10] G. R. Alexander, and G. R. Haines, Surgical colic in racing endurance horses. Equine Veterinary Education. 24(4), 2012, 193-199.
DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00360.x

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of Biomass Burning On Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality under Slash-And-Burn Agriculture
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Ini D. Edem, Oliver A. Opara-Nadi, Christiana J. Ijah
: 10.9790/2380-0123944       logo
ABSTRACT:Changes in soil properties, soil organic C (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks associated with different heating temperatures from 50, 100, and 150 kg/m2 dry biomass that provided for different heat intensities were compared with natural soil temperature of continuous cultivated arable land adjacent to the burnt plots. Soil samples were collected in three replicates from control and burnt plots and soil temperatures were measured with fire resistance soil thermometer placed at surface and sub-surface layers, while gases emission were measured with sensitive gas dictators. The induced temperatures were highly variable at the soil surface whereas below 15cm depth, the temperature rise was not more than 370C. The passage of fire promoted SOC and TN stocks, mean weight diameter, the aggregation of 2 mm stable structures which become even more resistant to disrupting action of water. Air quality measurement revealed that NO2, SO2 H2S and CO2 were above the Federal Ministry of Environment & Protection (FME&P) permissive limits indicating air pollution through these activities.
Keyword:Slash-and- burn, traditional farming, air quality, modification, temperature
[1] Danielson, R. E. and Sutherland, P. L.. Porosity in: Klute, A. (ed) Methods of soil Analysis: Part 1, 2nd (ed.), 1986, Pp. 443-61.
Agronomy Monogr. 9. ASA and SSA Madison, WI.
[2] Edem I. Dennis, Uduak C. Udo-Inyang and Ifiok. R. Inim. Erodibility of Slash-and-Burn Soils along a Toposequence in Relation to
Four Determinant Soil Characteristics. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. Vol 2, No.5, 2012, PP 93-102
[3] IPCC.. Climate Change 2001: the scientific basis. Inter-Government Panel on climate change. Cambridge Univ. Press, U.K., 2001,
P. 867.
[4] Opara-Nadi, O. A.; Uche J. N; Beese F. O and Schuite-Bisping H. Nurient Stocks and C. sequestration in forest and forest-derived
land use systems I the rain forest zone of Nigeria. 19th World congress of soil science. Soil solutions for changing world. Brisbane
Australia 1-6 August 2010
[5] Ruddiman, W. F. The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago. Clim. Change. 2003, 61: 261-293.
[6] Ruddiman, W. F. Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans took control of climate. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton N.J 2005.
[7] Valzano, I. P ; Greene, R. S. B; Murphy, B. W. Direct effect of Stubble Burning in a direct drill tillage system. Soil Tillage Res.
1997, 142, 209-219.
[8] W.A. Dick, R.L.Blevin, W.W. Frye, S.E. Peter, D.R. Christenson, F.J. Pierce, and M.L.Vitosh. Impacts of agricultural management
practices on C sequestration in forest-derived soil of the eastern Corn Belt. Soil &Tillage Res. 1998, 47, 235-244
[9] WMO. Greenhouse gas Bulletin. The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere using Global observations up to December
2004. World Teleological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 2006urgical colic in racing endurance horses. Equine Veterinary Education. 24(4), 2012, 193-199.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of Vetiver (Vetiveria nigritana) on Infiltration Characteristics of Kaolinitic Alfisol of Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Edem, I Dennis, Stephen O.Edem and Kingsley O. Harold
: 10.9790/2380-0124549       logo
ABSTRACT:The importance of erosion in relation to variability of water and soil losses from a parcel of land can be revealed in the measurements of the infiltration characteristics and runoff under a comparable vetiver grass strips and collection tanks within the plots. This experiment is aimed at assessing the variability of runoff and soil loss due to infiltration characteristics of the runoff plots. This study involved three vetiver plots of 20 m interval measured out of six plots (40 m × 3 m each) randomly distributed over a land area of 0.072 ha. The study was conducted on a 6 % slope experimental plot, along Parry Road of the University Ibadan, during the 2007 raining season. The texture of the soil was generally loamy sand. Mean total runoff among the plots was in the trend of no-vetiver plots > vetiver plots (13.50mm > 4.99 mm), the same was true for mean total soil loss (28.78kg/ha > 12.96kg/ha). Variability in the amounts of runoff was moderate in vetiver plots and highly variable in no-vetiver plots (CV = 24 % and 40 % respectively. The correlation between measured soil physical properties and infiltration characteristics with runoff revealed that fine sand content of the soil was negatively related with runoff (r = 0.6450*), but the reverse relationship was true for porosity inferred from soil bulk density and sorptivity of the soil (r = -0.7650*, and -0.8956* respectively).
Keyword:Vetiver, Infiltration capacity, kaolinite, Alfisol, Erosion and Root zone
[1] Aina, P.O. 1979. Soil changes resulting from long-term management practices in Western Nigeria SSSA Journal 43:173-177
[2] Alabi, R.T. and A.G. Ibiyemi. 2000. Rainfall in Nigeria and food crop production.P. 63 In Akoroda, M.O. (ed), Agronomy in
Nigeria. University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
[3] Angers, D.A. and G.R. Mehuys 1993 Aggregate stability to water: In M.R. Carter (ed) Canadian Society of Soil Science. Lewis
Publishers Pages 651-657
[4] Armstong, J.L.1990. Runoff and soil loss from bare fallow plot at Inverell, New South Wales,Australian Journal of Soil Research
28, 659-675.
[5] Babalola, O. 2000.Soil properties affecting infiltration, runoff and erodibility. In V.O SAGUA; E.E.Enabor; G.E.K. Ofomata; K.O.
Ologe and I. Oyegbande (eds), Ecological disasters in Nigeria; Soil Erosion, Fed. Min. Sci. &Tech., Lagos, Nigeria P.131-156
[6] Babalola, O., S.O. Oshunsanya, and K. Are 2007. Effects of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana) strips, vetiver grass mulch and an
organomineral fertilizer on soil, water and nutrient losses and maize (Zea mays, L) yields . Soil and Tillage Research 96 (2007) 6- 18
[7] Babalola, O., S. C. Jimba., O.Maduakolam, O. A. Dada. 2002. Use of vetiver grass for soil and water Conservation in Nigeria.
Proceedings of the third International Conference on Vetiver and Exhibition. Guangzhou, China. In: Truong and Xing (eds.) Pp293-300
[8] Edem I. Dennis, Uduak C. Udo-Inyang and Ifiok. R. Inim 2012. Erodibility of slash-and-burn soils along a toposequence in relation to four determinant soil characteristics. International Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare Vol. 2, No.5, 93- 102
[9] Hillel, D. 1982. Introduction to soil physics. Academic press publishers, Orlando, SanDiego, NY
[10] Kostiakov, A. N. 1932. On the Dynamics of the Coefficient of Water Percolation in Soils and on the Necessity of Studying it from
Dynamic Point of View for the Purposes of Ameliorating. Trans. Com. Int. Soc Soil Sci. 6 Moscow, Part A:17-21.

  • Citation
  • Abstract
  • Reference
  • Ful PDF
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Botanical Extracts against the Tukra (Maconellicoccus Hirsutus) Infested Mulberry on Trehalose and Phosphorylase Activity in Silkworm, Bombyx Mori L.
Country : India
Authors : Sambanaik Jagadish Naik
: 10.9790/2380-0125053       logo
ABSTRACT:Mulberry, Morus Alba, (L.)Leaves are the predominant food source for silkworm, Bombyx mori rearing. Pink mealy bug infests the mulberry plants and cause Tukra diseases that leads to qualitative loss of mulberry plantation. Hence a preliminary study was carried out using plant extracts as natural botanicals origin by spraying tukra infested mulberry leaves. The botanical extract sprayed to tukra infested mulberry leaves fed to the silkworms and its impact on Trehalose, Phosphorylase activity in tissues like fat bodies and haemolymph was studied. For the study, good healthy leaves(Control)and plant extracts viz., Azadirachta indica,Ocimum Sanctum,&parthenium hysterophorus were sprayed to tukra infested V1 mulberry variety and fed to Silkworm (CSR2 Bivoltine hybrid). The trehalose activity gradually increased, this increase however was significant (P>0.05). The elevation in total phosphorylase activity gradually progressed from day 3 to day 6, in the order: day 3<4<5<6; and the magnitude of increase between one day to the other were statistically significant when fed with natural extracts sprayed mulberry to silkworm Foliar spray of the extracts hold greater promise for control of tukra infested mulberry leaves and did not affect enzyme activity in silkworms. This can sturdily suggest that the aqueous Extract sprayed infested mulberry leaves can be effectively utilized for the silkworm rearing instead of pesticides insecticides for mulberry sericulturistes.
Keyword:Tukra, plant extracts, Trehalose, phosphorylase.
[1] Muralikumaran, N.V. and Bhaskhran, M. 1992.Incendence of severity of Mealybugs associated with mulberry leaf curl (tukra) in
tamilnadu proceedings of National seminar on Sericulture, CSRTIMysore, India pp: 49-53.
[2] Bandyopadhyay, UK. Santha Kumar, MV. 2007 Record of natural enemies of mulberry whitefly Dialueropora decempunta and
Alleuroclava (Homoptera: Aleyoroididae), West Bengal. Insect environment 13(2):62-64.
[3] Mukhopadhyay, SK. Santha Kumar, MV. Mitra, P. Das, SK. Bajpai, AK. 2008 Botanical mediated control of Whitefly in
mulberry (Morus alba L.) and their impact on leaf yield and silkworm rearing pp 233- 38, In insect pest management
Environment Safety , Sup.4. Vol.-I (EdSC Goel) Uttar Pradesh zoological Society, Muzaffarnagar, India.
[4] Mukhopadhyay, SK. Santha Kumar, MV. Mitra, P., Das, SK., Bajpai, AK. 2009. Studies on the residual effect of botanical
pesticides on silkworm,(Bombyx Mori L.) and its economic characters pp 171-80, In Mulberry sericulture:Problems&prospectus
(Eds. Jaiswal, Tribedi, Pandey&Tripathi )APH Publishing Corporation,NewDelhi, India.
[5] Cori, G.T. and Cori, C.F. 1945. The enzymatic conversion of phoshporylase "a" to "b". J. Biol.Chem., 158:321-332.
[6] Cori, G.T., Illingworth, B. and Keller, D.J. 1955. Muscle phoshporylase. In: methods in enzymology. Vol. I (eds.) S.P. Colowick
and N. Kaplan, Academic Press, New York, pp.200-205.
[7] Etebari, K. & Bizhannia, A.R. 2006. Effects of thrips (Pseudodendrothrips mori) infested mulberry leaves on silkworm and
commercial cocoon parameters. Caspian J.Environ.Sci. 4: 31-37.
[8] Govindachari, T.R. 1992.Chemical and biological investigation on Azadirachta indicia (neemtree) , J.Current Science, 63,117-
[9] Karippa, B.K. and Narashimhanna, M.N. 1978. Effect of insecticides in controlling the Mulberry thrips and their effect on
rearing silkworm, Bombyx mori. Indian J. Seric., 17:7-14.
[10] Manjunath, D. Prasad, K.S. Sidde Gowda, D.K.2003. Ecological approach for the management of Mealybug,(Maconellicoccus
hirsutus) causing tukra in mulberry. Proceeding the National Tropical Sericulture for Competitiveness, 2003, CSRTI, Mysore,
India, pp: 41-46.