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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Farmers' Perception of Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Delivery in Cross-River State, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Agbarevo, Machiadikwe N. Benjamin|
ABSTRACT: Evaluation of the success of extension delivery programmes, in most cases, has focused on farmers, viz-`a-viz behavioural change in terms of adoption as well as increased use of production inputs, yield, income and impact assessment (farmers standard of living). And when the indices on these variables are low, farmers are blamed for not responding to extension delivery programmes. However, the effectiveness and efficiency with which extension personnel deliver extension services cannot be over looked as this may in fact be a greater reason for success or failure of extension programmes. In this regard, the study was conducted to find out how farmers perceive or evaluate the effectiveness of extension delivery. In conducting the study, 180 farmers participating in extension programme in Cross River state were randomly selected using the multi-stage random sampling technique. The data collected through a structured questionnaire were analyzed using the t-test of significance of difference between sample and population means., The study found that farmers were unanimous that extension delivery process was not very effective as the study found no significant difference between the population and sample means at 95% confidence level. The strongest links in the delivery process areas were found to be farmer visits, meetings between farmers and extension personnel, demonstration, while the weakest links were organization of Research-Extension-Farmer-Linkages, farmer training programmes and distribution of training materials.
Keywords: Perception, effectiveness, extension, delivery, farmers.
. Agbarevo, M.N. 2005.Sustainable agriculture in Nigeria: Issues and the way forward. Journal of Research in Agriculture. 2(2) 1-6
. Ajayi, A.R., 2005. Programme, planning, monitoring and evaluation in agricultural extension. In S. F. Adedoyin, (ed.), Agricultural Extension in Nigeria. Ilorin: Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria.
. Amalu, U.C., 1998. Agricultural Research and Extension Delivery in Sub-Saharan Africa. Calabar University of Calabar Press.
. Chinaka et al. cited in Imoh, A.N and Essien, M.U., 2005. Adoption of improved cassava varieties among small scale farmers in Ikot-Ekpene Zone of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria, in M.A. orheruata, S.O. Nwokoro, M.T. Ajayi, A.T. Adekunle and G.N. Asumugha (eds.), Agricultural Rebirth for Improved Production in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria held at the University of Benin, Benin-City, Edo State, Nigeria, October 9-13, 2005, pp.8-10
. Iwueke, C.C., 1990. Variables influencing technology transfer, adoption and monitoring. A paper presented at the 3rd National Farming Systems Research Network workshop, 14-16, August, University of Calabar.
. Lebo, A.E.A., 1986. Management and coordination of technical services in Cross River Agricultural Development Programme, Monograph series.
. Misra, D.C.,1997. Monitoring extension programmes and resources in B.E. Swanson R.P. Bentz, A.J. Sofranko (eds.), Improving Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual(2nd ed.), pp. 151-160.
. Moris, J. cited in Igbokwe, E.A and Enwere, N.J., 2001. Participatory Rural Appraisal in Developmental Research. Enugu: New Generation Books.
. Otuokere,R.T., 1998. Co-ordination between Agricultural Research Institutes and Extension service in Imo State. Unpublished M.sc Thesis,. University of Nigeria.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Region wise decadal analysis of area of major cereal crops in Maharashtra|
|Authors||:||Pratima Jogdand, Suhas Avhad, Gautam Bhong|
ABSTRACT: The present article describes the region wise changes in area of five major cereals (Rice, Kharip Jowar, Rabbi Jowar, Bajara and Wheat) in four decades (1960-1970, 1970-1980, 1980-1990 and 1990-2000). The changes in area are investigated by using Fisher-Pry model. Study of changes in area is useful to understand cropping pattern.
Key Words: Area, Cereals, Fisher-Pry model.
. Singh, A.J. and Kaur, Parmjit (1990), "Structural Changes In Punjab Agriculture", Agriculture Situation in India, 45(4), 225-232.
. Thomas, K.J., Thomas, E.K. and Devi, P. Indira (1990), "An Analysis of cropping pattern in Kerala", Agriculture Situation in India, 45(3), 183-186.
. Moni,K.P and Jose, P.P.(1994), "Shifts in cropping pattern in Kerala-an Inter district Analysis", Indian Journal of Agriculture Economics, 52(3), 433-434.
. Vivekananda and Satyapriya(1994), "Karnataka‟s changing cropping pattern", Agriculture Situation in India, 49(6), 441-444.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Economic Impact Of Amnesty Policy Intervention On Artisanal Fishing Agribusiness In Niger-Delta, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Achoja, F.O. Idoge D.E, Ukwaba, S.I. and Ariyoh, L.E.|
ABSTRACT: A stable political environment is an important factor in the productivity of agribusiness enterprises. Amnesty policy was formulated to stop the ugly effect of militancy on the economy of Nigeria. Economic impact of government amnesty policy on artisanal fishing business, was studied using randomly selected 80 fishers. Structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data from the respondents. Following a counter factual approach, collected data were disaggregated into pre-amnesty and post - amnesty policy eras. Null hypothesis of no significant impact was tested using t-statistics. The result shows that artisanal fishing output after the amnesty policy is significantly higher than output before the amnesty policy. Similarly, test of hypothesis shows that the average revenue from fish sales (N10,428.750) after the amnesty policy is significantly higher (P<0.05) than revenue obtained before amnesty policy intervention. The result of the counter factual analysis of output/revenue of fishers indicates that government amnesty policy intervention significantly and positively impacted on artisanal fishing business in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. It was concluded the amnesty policy (presidential pardon granted militants,disarmament and re-integration) actualy translated to peaceful business environment necessary for development of artisanal fishing agribusiness in the Niger-Delta, Nigeria. This policy option should be replicated as a template in locations were political instability is a threat to economic development.
Keywords: economic resonance, amnesty policy intervention, Niger-Delta, artisanal fishing, agrjbusiness,
. Achoja, F.O. (2010). Economic Effects of Malaria on the Productivity loss of Artisanal Fisher-Folks in Lake Ona, Delta State, Nigeria. In Agriculturae Et Sub Tropical 44 (3).
. Adeola, O. (2010). The Nations Newspaper of 13/01/2010 the nationonlineng.net/../page1.htm/
. Damodar, N. Gujarati (2009). Basic Econometrics Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Company Inc New York. Pp. 553 – 565.
. Ekong E. Ekong (2003). An Introduction to Rural-Sociology. Publisher Dove Educational Publishers 80 Wellington Bassey Way Uyo, Nigeria. pp. 132-190.
. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography of Nigeria (24 June, 2009)
. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/warri-climatic conditions (Jan, 11 2008).
. Environmental issues in the Niger-Delta http://en.org/wiki/environmental (April, 2011).
. Goh, C.L. (1973) Certificate physical and human geography. Oxford University Press Hong Kong pp. 75.
. Lan B. and Paul C. (2003). Natural Resources and Violent Conflict options and Actions. The World Bank Washington, D.C pg. 1.
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ABSTRACT: Electrical Conductivity measurements are often used to measure the amount of soluble salts in the soil. It is most common measure of soil salinity and is indicative of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electrical current. By Agricultural standards, soils with an Electrical Conductivity greater than 4 ds/m are considered for saline. In actually salt-sensitive plants may be affected by conductivities less than 4 ds/m and salt tolerant species may be impacted by concentrations of up to twice this maximum agricultural tolerant limit. Hence in the present an attempt is made to implement and embedded based soil conductivity meter. Keywords: Agriculture, Analyzer, Conductivity, Instrumentation, Salinity, Soil.
. Doolittle, J.A., K.A. Sudduth, N.R. Kitchen and S.J. Indorante. 1994. Estimating depths to claypans using electromagnetic induction methods. J. Soil and Water Cons. 49:572-575.
. Geonics Limited. 1980. Electrical conductivity of soils and rocks. Technical Note 5. http://www.geonics.com/lit.html
. Halvorson, A.D. and J.D. Rhoades. 1974. Assessing soil salinity and identifying potential s aline seep areas with field soil resistance measurements. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 38:576 -581.
. Jaynes, D.B. 1996. Improved soil mapping using electromagnetic induction surveys. Precision
. Agriculture, Proceedings of the 3rdInternational Conference, Ed. P.C. Robert, R.H. Rust and W.E.Larson. p. 169-179.
. Jaynes, D.B., J.M. Novak, T.B. Moorman and C.A. Cambardella. 1994. Estimating herbicide partition coefficients from electromagnetic induction measurements. J. Environ. Qual. 24:26-41.
. ArchanaMangla&Anjansil, indian J Pure & Apply Phys, 39 (2001) 267.
. Sheehan W F, Physical Chemistry (Prentice Hall of India), 1966,412.
. Takagishi E, IEEE Trans Instrum, Meas, 29 (1980) 131
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Active yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation improves digestibility of lamb diet|
|Authors||:||M.S. Bueno, M.H.T. Watanabe, J. Issakowicz, A.C.K. Sampaio|
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the supplementation of active yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on diets of lambs fed with two different concentrate proportion on DM intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, in vitro digestibility of dry matter and rumen fermentation parameters. Twenty non-castrated male lambs, averaging 120 days-old, housed in metabolism cages, with collector and separator of feces and urine fed with diets comprising grass hay and concentrate rations in two different proportion (80% or 60%, on DM basis), supplemented or not with active yeast (5 g/day) were used. Supplementation with active yeast increased (p<0.05) apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, NDF, non-fibrous CHO and HEM, as well as, TDN values, with no significant effect (P>0.05) on DM intake, independently of concentrate proportion. The rumen parameters were not changed by the active yeast supplementation since the rumen pH and ammonia nitrogen were similar between diets with or without active yeast. Values of in vitro digestibility of DM were higher for active yeast supplemented diets. Supplementation of diets of lambs with active yeast improves digestibility of DM and fiber, regardless of concentrate proportion, without changing DM intake.
Keywords - probiotic, rumen ammonia, rumen pH, rumen parameters, sheep
 S. Khampa and M. Wanapat, Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation with Organic Acids Supplementation in Ruminants Raised in the Tropics, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6, 2007, 20-27.
 P. Mossoni, F. Chaucheyras-Durand, C. Béra-Maillet and E. Forano, Quantification by real-time PCR of cellulolyticbacteria in the rumen of sheep after supplementation of forage diet with readily fermentable carbohydrate: effect of a yeast additive, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103, 2007, 2676-2685. [
3] G. Fonty and F. Chaucheyras-Durand, Effects and modes of action of live yeasts in the rumen. Biologia (Bratislava), 61, 2006, 741-750.
 C.M. Guedes, D. Gonçalves, M.A.M. Rodrigues and A. Dias-da-Silva, Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on ruminal fermentation and fiber degradation of maize silages in cows, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145 (1-4), 2008, 27–40.
 S.G. Haddad and S.N. Goussous, Effect of yeast culture supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of Awassi lambs, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 118, 2005, 343-348.
 J. Sales, Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on ruminal parameters, nutrient digestibility and growth in sheep: A meta-analysis, Small Ruminant Research, 100, 2011, 19-29.
 National Research Council (NRC), Nutrient requirements of sheep (Washington: National Academies Press, 2007).
 H. Fenner, Method for determining total volatile bases in rumen fluid by steam destilation, Journal Dairy Science, 48, 1965, 249-251
 D.J. Silva and A.C. Queiroz, Análises de alimentos: métodos químicos e biológicos (Editora UFV- Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 2002).
 J.M.A. Tilley and R.A. Terry, A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops, Joumal of the British Grassiand Society, 18, 1963, 104-111.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Repellency of Ethanolic Extract of Some Indigenous Plants Against Tribolium confusum (du val))(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)|
|Authors||:||Hana H. Mohammed|
ABSTRACT: Repellency of ethanolic extracts of five plants extract viz. Eucalyptus gluaca, Melia azedarach, Mentha arvensis, Olea europaea leaves and pericarp of Punica granatum was tested against adult and larvae of the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum using a choice test with treated filter paper. The plant extracts were applied at four concentrations which (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) for each adult and larvae. All the plant extracts were found to be effective repellents and showed more than 20 % average repellency. The M.arvensis extract had potent repellent activity against T. confusum adults with 100 % repellency values with 2.5% concentration at 1h of exposure time for adult stage, while for larval stage it was observed that E. glauaca induce 100% repellency with concentration 7.5% at 2h after exposure. These naturally occurring plant extracts could be useful to protect the grains from the damages caused by of T.confusum.
Keywords: Repellency, Tribolium confusum, plants extract, Indigenous Plants.
. J.A. Freeman. Infestation and control of pests beetle of stored grain in international trade. Grain Storage Part of a system. R.N. Sinha and W D.E. Muir (Eds.). Avi Publ. Co. Inc. Westport, C.T., 1973, pp: 99-136.
. F.M. Bughio and R.M. Wilkins. Influence of malathion resistance status on survival and growth of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), when fed on flour from insect resistant and susceptible grain rice cultivars. Journal of Stored Products Research 40, 2004, 65-75.
. P.D. Cox. Potential for using semiochemicals to protect stored products from insect infestation. Journal of Stored Products Research 40, 2004, 1-25.
. I. Kubo. New concept to search for alternate insect control agents from plants. In Rai, M., and M. Carpinella (eds.) naturally occurring bioactive compounds 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006, 61-80.
. G. Jilani, R.C. Saxena and B.P. Rueda. Repellent and growth-inhibiting effects of turmeric oil,sweeflag oil, neem oil and "Margosan-O" on red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 81, 1980, 1226-1230.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Role of Indian Government in the Development of Organic Agriculture|
ABSTRACT: The growth of organic agriculture production and trade has been accompanied by an increase in national legislation in order to set the minimum requirements for organic agriculture and create the institutional framework for certification, thus giving the organic label greater credibility. Government intervention can take the form of public inspection and certification, or the accreditation of private inspection and certification bodies. Legislation also ensures fair competition among producers and facilitates equivalence with other countries for international trade. Because of the health and environmental benefits and trade opportunities associated with organic agriculture, governments may pass regulations that encourage farmers to shift to organic methods, through tax reductions/exemptions, subsidies, or support in research and marketing. In India with the introduction of NPOP programme, minimum standards for organic products have been set up. But the measures taken are not adequate. The paper throws light on the development of different agencies in setting standards for Organic Agriculture.
Key Words: Organic Agriculture, IFOAM, APEDA, NPOP and FAO
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ABSTRACT: The effect of an antibiotic, oxytetracycline Hc1 and a vitamin supplement on the performance and cost of production of broiler chickens were investigated in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria using eighty four Anak 2000 breed of broilers in a study which lasted for nine weeks. Oxytetracycline antibiotic and vita-stress were given to the broilers as prescribed by the manufacturers to supplement the commercial broiler starter and finisher diets as follows: Treatment 1 (Basal diet only – T1) (control), Treatment 2 (Basal diet + oxymed injectable – T2), Treatment 3 (Basal diet + vita-stress in water – T3) and Treatment 4 (Basal diet + oxymed injectable + vita-stress in water – T4). Results of the study showed that supplementation of broiler chicken feeds with oxytetracycline Hc1 antibiotic and vita-stress (T4) significantly (P<0.05) improved the chicken body weight gain of the birds at different periods of the study, although the overall mean body weight gain of all the experimental groups did not differ (P>0.05) from one another. Mortality records however, showed broiler finisher diets with oxytetracycline or vita-stress, lowered mortality rates of birds in T2, T3 and T4 treatment groups. Evaluation of the cost of production shows that supplement of feeds with oxytetracycline and vita-stressed increased the cost of production without significant gain in revenue at the end of the study. The results of the study therefore shows that supplementation of broiler diets with oxytetracycline or vita-stress which is practiced in the North-Eastern States of Nigeria during the hot weather do not improve live weight gain in broilers but decreased the mortality rates of the birds.
Key words: Performance, oxytetracycline, vita-stress
 Berger, L. R., Harish, C. S. and Neginius, J. (1952). Factors Affecting the Growth Response of Chicks and Turkeys Poults to Antibiotics. Poult, Sc. 31: 1070 – 1074.
 Brander, C. P. (1986). Effectiveness of Antibiotic. Zoo and Wild Animal: Med. J. 15(13): 392 – 394.
 Briggs, G. M. (1950). Antibiotics in Poultry Rations. Feedstuffs 22 No.32.12.
 Cantor, G. H. and Johnson, Y. H. (1983). Effect of Unidentified Growth factor Sources on Feed Preference of Chicks. Poult. Sci. 62(7): 1281 – 1286.
 Fernandez, P., Mannis, B. and Meginnis, J. (1973). Influence of Diet Composition on Chick Growth Response to Different Antibiotics, Feed Additives and Composition of the Additives. Poult. Sci. 52: 2299 – 2305.
 Kelly, M. and Potter, L. M. (1971). Protein Requirement and Value of Added Fat and Antibiotics in Diet of Broiler Chicken. Poult. Sci. 50: 1590.
 McDougald, L. R. and Mcguisition, T. E. (1980). Mortality from Heat Stress in Broiler Chickens Influence by Anti-coccidial Drugs. Poult. Sci. 59: 2421-2423.
 Mange, H. (1973). Lack of Growth Response of eight Weeks old Broilers to certain Antibiotics. Poult. Sci. 53: 89 – 1895.  Steel, R. G. D. Torrie, J. M. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book. Comp. N. Y.
 Ubosi, C. O. (1986). Poultry Production in the Livestock Industry in Nigeria. Paper Presented at Association of Veterinary Medical Students (AVMS) Symposium on august 28th, 1986 at the University of Maiduguri.
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ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of sorrel seed (Hibiscus sabdariffa) meal on the haematological and biochemical indices of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty (160) 7 days old chicks (Anak 2000) were used. The birds were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with 40 birds per treatment and ten (10) birds per replicate. Results of serum biochemistry showed significant differences (P<0.05) among treatments except for blood cholesterol and hydrogencarbonate which showed no significant difference (P>0.05). However, significant difference (P<0.05) were observed for the haematological parameters though MCHC, MCH and MCV did not differ among treatments. The result showed that incorporation of differently processed sorrel seed meal has no negative effect on the blood biochemical indices and haematology.
Key words: Haematology, Blood Chemistry, Sorrel Seed Meal, Broilers
. Ogbuewu, I.P., M.C. Uchegbu, C.C. Ezuma, and M. N. Opara, 2010. Physiological responses of finisher broilers to yam peel meal: haematology and serum biochemistry. EJEAFChe 9(10): 1657-1664
. Igboeli, G. 2000. Animal Production and Agriculture in the new millennium. Book of Proc. 25th Ann. NSAP. Conf. pp. 1 - 3.
. Esonu, B. O. 2000. Animal nutrition and feeding: A functional approach. Rukzeal and Rukson Association Memory Press, Owerri, Nigeria.
. Philips, T. A. 1977. An Agricultural Textbook. Longman Group Limited, London. 89 – 101.
. Muhammad, N.O., A.O. Adeyina and O.M. Peters, 2000. Nutritional evaluation of fungi treated cocoa bean shell. Nigerian J. Pure and Appl. Sci., 5: 1059-1064.
. Stenesh, J. 1975. Dictionary of Biochemistry. Wiley-Interscience Publication, London, pp: 137.
. Karnish, A.R. 2003. Immune regulation in health and disease. Academic Press. San Diego, pp: 121-127.
. Alaku, S. O. 1983. Body and carcass losses in goats during the advance dry period of the West Africa Sahelian Zone. Journal of Animal Science. 79: 504 - 513.
. AOAC 2002. Official Methods of Analysis of the Official Analytical Chemists, 17th ed.(Horwitz,W.,ed.), Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
. Polshettiwar, S. A., R.O. Ganjiwale, S.J. Wadher, P.G. Yeole, 2007. Spectrophotometric estimation of total tannins in some ayurvedic eye drops. Indian J. Pharmaceutical Sci. 69 (4):574-576
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Embedded Instrumentation Based Soil pH Measurement System|
|Authors||:||B.SalehaBegum, A.Suresh Kumar|
ABSTRACT: Soil pH is a measure of hydronium ion (more commonly the H+) activity in the soil solution. Activity is similar to concentration in non-salt-affected soils. Soil pH influences many facets of crop production and soil chemistry, including availabilities of nutrients and toxic substances, activities and nature of microbial populations, and activities of certain pesticides. Soil pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the H+ activity (moles per liter) in the soil solution. As the activity of H+ in the soil solution increases, the soil pH value decreases. Soils with pH values below pH 7 are referred to as "acid" and those with pH values above pH 7 as "alkaline"; soils at pH 7 are referred to as "neutral." Hence in present study an attempt is made to implement Embedded based Soil pH meter.
Keywords: Acidity, Agriculture, Alkalinity, Analyzer, Instrumentation, Salinity, Soil.
. Galster, H. pH Measurement; VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 1991.
. Skoog, D. A.; West, D. M.; Holler, F. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry,6th ed.; Saunders: Philadelphia, PA. 1992.
. Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 4th ed.; Freeman: NY, 1998.
. Handbook of Electronic Technology 3rd. ed.; Orion Research: Cambridge, U.K., 1982.
. Practice and Theory of pH Measurement; Ingold: Urdorf, Switzerland, 1989.
. Temsamani, K. L.; Cheng, K. L. Sensors and Actuators B 2001, 76, 551-555.
. Milazzo, G.; Sagloo, C. Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials; Wiley: New York, 1978.
. Bates, R. Determination of pH, 2nd ed.: Wiley: New York, 1974.
. Bockris, J. O'M.; Reddy, A.K.N. Modern Electrochemistry; Plenum: New York, 1970; p. 18,
. Wu, Y. C.; Koch, W. F.; Marinenko, G. J. Res. NBC 1989, 395.
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ABSTRACT: The weed flora of maize crop in Chinthapalli mandal Visakhapatnam district was assessed to identify the weeds and evaluate their abundance. The comprehensive stock of weeds obtained was analyzed to determine the relative abundance of taxa and life forms. Forty five weed species belonging to 15 dicot families, 4 monocot families were identified. In terms of abundance and distribution, weeds of Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae were found to be far more invasive. The diversity of weed species represented by Shannon's and Simpson's and species evenness were calculated in the maize crop. Out of 45 weeds 35 weeds are Ethnomedicinal use along with local name, botanical name, family, parts used, ailments for which the drug is administered and mode of administration are presented.
Keywords: Floristic composition, weeds abundance, ethnomedicinal importance, maize crop, Chinthapalli
. Adiseshu G. Ecological aspects of weed flora of sugarcane fields at Anakapalle Ph.D.Thesis submitted to the Andhra University,1997, Visakhapatnam.
. Bhattacharyya G. Medico-Ethno-botanical value of Saurashtra weeds. J Econ Taxon Bot Additional Series, 1996. 12: 166-168.
. Daulay HS, Singh KC. Chemical weed control in greengram and clusterbean. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 1982. 52 (11): 758-763.
. Frick B, Thomas AG. Weed surveys in different village systems in south-western Ontario field crops. Can. J. Plant Sci., 1992, 72:1337-1347
. Govindiah 1981. Role of weeds in Ayurvedic medicine. Bull Medico-Ethno-Botanical Res, 1981, 4(3-4): 144-147. . Kasara PK, Mohammed S, Chawan DD, Sen DN. Weeds of Indian desert and their chemical control. Indian journal of Environmental Sciences, 1998, 2(1): 23-27.
. McClosky WB, Beker PB, Sherman W. Survey of cotton weeds and weed control practices in Arizona upland cotton fields. Publication AZ1006 cotton: College of Agric., 1998. Univ.Of Arizona.
. Morse LE, Kartesz JT, Kutner LS. Native vascular plants. Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, Health of U.S. Plants, Animals and Ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC, 1995. p. 205-209.
. Nath KK, Deka P, Borthakur SK. Ethnomedicinal aspects of some weeds from Darrang district of Assam. Ethnobotany, 2007, 19(1&2): 82-87.
. Patnaik H. Some useful weeds in and around Cuttack. J Bombay Hist Soc, 1956, 54: 140-152.
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ABSTRACT: The VP2 protein of highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus (hvIBDV) carries major neutralizing epitopes which is able to induce host neutralizing antibodies. This feature makes VP2 as a suitable target protein for the development of subunit vaccine. Plant viral-based expression system has been identified as a potential system that is capable to express foreign proteins in plants. The present study was aimed at developing a vaccine candidate for the hvIBDV by constructing a chimeric plant virus of Potato virus X (PVX) that capable of expressing the VP2 gene of hvIBDV in Nicotiana tabacum. Western blot analyses indicated the VP2 protein was expressed either as a 50 kDa protein or fused with the PVX coat protein of 80 kDa. Dot blot analysis of rat serum immunized with the VP2 protein from total soluble protein showed positive signal when immunoreacted against the hvIBDV antigen. Immunization of the expressed VP2 protein in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens revealed detection of anti-VP2 analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Keywords - highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus, VP2 protein, Potato virus X, Nicotiana tabacum, neutralizing antibodies
 H. N. Lasher, and S. M. Shane, Infectious bursal disease, World's Poultry Science Journal, 50, 1994, 133-166.
 H. Becht, and H. Muller, Infectious bursal disease-B cell dependent immunodeficiency syndrome in chickens. Behring Inst. Mitteilungen, 89, 1991, 217-225.
 M. M. Nagarajan, and F.S.B. Kibenge, Infectious bursal disease virus: A review of molecular basis for variations in antigenicity and virulence. Can. J. Vet. Res., 61(2), 1997, 81-88.
 J. Rong, X. N. Liu, and T. P. Cheng, Application of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for diagnosis of wild IBDV infection of chicks after to be inoculated IBDV vaccine. Chin. J. Vet. Sci. Technol. 31, 2001, 18-19.
 J. Giambrone, and J. Closser, Efficacy of live vaccines against serologic subtypes of infectious bursal disease. Avian Diseases, 34, 1990, 7-11.
 J. C. Muskett, N. E. Reed, D. H. Thornton, Increased virulence of an infectious bursal disease live virus vaccine after passage in chicks. Vaccine, 3, 1985, 309-312.
 K. J. Fahey, K. Erny, and J. A. Crooks, conformational immunogen on VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus that induces virus-neutralizing antibodies that passively protect chickens. J. Gen. Virol., 70, 1989, 1473-1481.
 S. K. Reddy, A. Silim, and M. J. Ratcliffe, Biological roles of the major capsid proteins and relationships between two existing serotypes of infectious bursal disease virus. Arch. Virol., 127, 1992, 209–222.
 A. R. Omar, C. L. Kim, M. Hair-Bejo, and I. Aini, Efficacy of VP2 protein expressed in E.coli for protection against highly virulent infectious bursal disease virus. J. Vet. Sci., 7, 2006, 241-247.
 C. D. Bayliss, R.W. Peters, J. K. Cook, R. L. Reece, K. Howes, M. M. Binns, and M.E. Boursnell, A recombinant fowlpox virus that expresses the VP2 antigen of infectious bursal disease virus induces protection against mortality caused by the virus. Arch Virol., 120, 1991, 193-205.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Depth of Women's Involvement in National Special Program for Food Security in Niger state, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||M.S. Sadiq*, Mohammed Abubakar, T.L.Yusuf|
ABSTRACT: The study evaluates women's involvement in National Special Programme for Food Security in Niger State Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select participants from the three Agricultural sites of the programme using structured interview schedule to gather information from one hundred and three respondents. Descriptive statistics, Likert scale and t-test were used to analyse the data collected. Results emerging from analyzed data indicated that 55.9% of the women participated in crop production which led to increase in their farm size, output and income. Women's participation was low in marketing 13.7%) and fairly high in livestocks (30.2%). The study also indicted that respondents expressed satisfaction interms of involvement in the implementation of NSPFS programme components identified. Loans provided for the project participants assisted the recipients in boosting their farm production. The t-test result revealed that significant increases were found in the farm size, output and income of participants after the programme. This means that the programme has impacted positively on the participants especially in Agricultural production. The study concluded that women participation in NSPFS programme actually reduced poverty level and significantly contributed to food security. This has given them more access to production credit and other specific benefits. It has increased their output, improved their living condition. It was recommended that the programme should have more sites and participants so as to better raise their output, income and farm size.
Keywords: Food security, Poverty alleviation, Farm size, Income, Output
. Adekoya, A., Onifade, F.A. and Oladele, O.I. (2000). Awareness and Participation in Family Support Programme Activities in Oyo State. Proceedings of 10th Annual Conference oftheNigerianRural Sociological Association, Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife. pp. 122-127.
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ABSTRACT: The study was designed to examine market integration with the help of co-integration test on the price of Raphia palm wine (RPW) in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria using evidences from Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States of Nigeria. Issues considered included; the determination of the existence and level of RPW inter-market price dependences; description of short-run interactions through cross-market lagged price changes; evaluation of long-run responses to contemporaneous price changes in the RPW market; and speed of price adjustments to long-run equilibrium. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select the markets used for the study. Primary data was used for the study while data analysis was achieved using co-integration test by Johansen and Jeselius (1990) applied to four daily market prices of two (rural and urban) Raphia palm wine markets in each of the selected States. Results obtained from the study revealed that price signals and information were transmitted smoothly, but slowly across the markets. The short-run estimates indicated that the rural markets adjusted to price changes in the urban markets within each State, while at the State level, it was observed that Delta and Rivers States did all the price adjustment. The long-run responses to exogenous price changes showed that a one percent increase in the urban prices of RPW within the States resulted in a corresponding decrease in the rural price of RPW by 2.5%, 1.05% and 1.27% for Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States respectively. While at State level, a 1% increase in price of RPW in Bayelsa State would cause a decrease in price of RPW in Delta and Rivers States' prices by 1.37% and 6.8% respectively. The speed of price adjustment between the short-run and long-run RPW prices measured by ECM within the States were -0.14423 and 0.09206 for urban and rural price in Bayelsa State; -0.2811 and 0.3259 for urban and rural price in Delta State; and 0.3674 and 0.7609 for urban and rural price in Rivers State respectively. On State level, however, Bayelsa State had an adjustment speed of -0.154, Delta had a speed of 0.235, while Rivers State had a speed of 0.0189 respectively. These results have important policy implications. Since Raphia palm wine markets are spatially integrated, the government may think of reducing or even withdrawing its efforts to influence the price in the market.
Key Words: Market Integration, Co-integration, Rural Raphia palm wine market, Urban Raphia palm wine market, Price signal and information
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. Chirwa, E.W. (2000). Food Marketing Reforms and Integration of Maize and Rice Markets In Malawi. Working Paper, School of Economics, University of East Anglia.
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. Enibe, D. O., Chidebelu, S. A. N. D., Onwubuya, E. A., Agbo, C., & Mbah, a. A. (2008).
. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performances of Banana Market in Anambra State. Journal of Agricultural Extension 12(2).
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Diagnosis Of Motile Aeromonas Sobria From Cat Fishes With Septicemia By PCR|
|Authors||:||Arunava Das, Ashish Rathore, C Janani1, C Hemanth, R Arvind Balakrishnan|
ABSTRACT: Aeromonas septicemia is a life threatening bacterial infection in fishes, concurrently in human with weakened immune systems. Present research work aims to isolate and identify the virulent strains of motile Aeromonas species linked with the septicemia in 12 fresh water cat fishes (Clarius batrachus) in the locality of Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu. A total of 72 samples consisting of intestinal contents, spleen, kidney, gills, liver and skin were collected aseptically from the infected cat fishes. Upon detailed bacteriological investigation, 56(77.78%) isolates were tentatively identified as A. sobria. All these isolates were further screened for hemolysin gene (ahh1), A. hydrophila aerolysin gene (area), A. sobria hemolysin gene (asa1) and A. caviae hemolysin gene (cav1) by polymerase chain reaction. In PCR, 43(76.78%) of 56 isolates, were found positive for single asa1 gene, while, 3(5.35%) were also positive for both asa1 and ahh1 genes. None of the isolates were positive for aerA and cav1 genes. PCR result suggested the presence of virulence genes in 46(82.14%) isolates of A. sobria. The asa1 gene has proven to be the predominant virulence factor in A. sobria associated with Aeromonas septicemia in cat fish. PCR based identification of virulent strains of A. sobria appeared to be very useful, sensitive and less time consuming method than traditional microbiological identification system.
Keywords : Aeromonas sobria, Clarius batrachus, hemolytic, PCR, septicaemia
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ABSTRACT: This study shows empirical findings of economies of scale and cost efficiency of small scale egusi melon production in Niger State, Nigeria, using multi-stage random sampling techniques to elicit data from 125 respondents in the study area. Findings indicates that there is relative presence of economies of scale among the respondents; an average farm in the study area produce at a minimum cost considering the size of the farm which is an indication that they operates in stage II of production surface which is an efficient stage of resource utilization. Findings were further collaborated by mean cost efficiency of 1.165 which shows that an average farm in the study area is about 17% above the frontier cost, indicating that they are relatively efficient in allocating their scarce resources. The significance of the estimated gamma coefficient (0.65) indicate the presence of cost inefficiency effects in egusi melon production
Keywords: Cost efficiency; stochastic frontier cost function; economies of scale; small scale; Egusi melon; Niger state
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