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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In silico approach to prevent soft rot in vegetable crops|
|Authors||:||N. C. Nisha, S. Sreekumar, C. K. Biju, P. N. Krishnan|
ABSTRACT:Soft rot is a serious disease among vegetable crops that leads to high rate of economic loss to farmers. The disease is mainly caused by gram negative bacteria belonging to Pectobacterium species. The main symptom is necrosis due to degradation of cell wall by the activity of certain exo-enzymes (Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes) which is produced by the bacteria in accordance with quorum sensing and signal transduction. The present study focused to control the synthesis of autoinducer called Acyl homoserine lactone, which modulates quorum sensing through the inhibition of Methionine S-adenosyl transferase (S-adenosyl methionine synthase) and Acyl homoserine lactone synthase enzymes. The inhibitory activities of Cycloleucine on Methionine S-adenosyl transferase and S-adenosyl methionine analogs on Acyl homoserine lactone synthase were studied by docking method using AutoDock 4.2. The results obtained indicate that the organic molecules used for the inhibition of targeted enzymes may be the best choice for the control of soft rot in vegetable crops.
Keywords: Soft rot, Quorum sensing, Cycloleucine, Pectobacterium carotovora, Docking.
 N. A. Whitehead, A. M. L. Barnard, H. Slater, N. J. L. Simpson, and G. P. C. Salmond, Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 25, 2001, 365-404.
 S. Jones, B. Yu, N. J. Bainton, M. Birdsall, B. W. Bycroft, S. R. Chhabra, A. J. R. Cox, P. Golby, P. J. Reeves, S. Stephens, M. K. Winson, G. P. C. Salmond, G. S. A. Stewart, P. Williams, The lux autoinducer regulates the production of exoenzyme virulence determinants in Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EMBO Journal, 12(6), 1993, 2477-2482.
 M. Pirhonen, D. Flego, Heikinheimo, E. T. A. Palva, Small diffusible signal molecule is responsible for the global control of virulence and exoenzyme production in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. EMBO Journal, 12 (6), 1993, 2467-2476.
 C. M. Waters, B. L. Bassler, Quorum sensing: Cell-to-cell communication in bacteria. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 21, 2005, 319-346.
 M. B. Miller, B. L. Bassler, Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology, 55, 2001, 165-199.
 M. Sturme, M. Kleerebezem, J. Nakayama, A. Akkermans, E. Vaughan, W. de Vos, Cell to cell communication by autoinducing peptides in gram-positive bacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 81, 2002, 233-243.
 A. M. L. Barnard, S. D. Bowden, T. Burr, S. J. Coulthurst, R. E. Monson, G. P. C. Salmond, Quorum sensing, virulence and secondary metabolite production in plant soft-rotting bacteria. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 362, 2007, 1165-1183.
 M. Hentzer, M. Givskov, Pharmacological inhibition of quorum sensing for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 112(9), 2003, 1300-1307.
 B. L. Hanzelka, E. P. Greenberg, Quorum sensing in Vibrio fischeri: Evidence that S-Adenosylmethionine is the amino acid substrate for autoinducer synthesis. Journal of Bacteriology, 178(17), 1996, 5291-5294.
 K. Arnold, L. Bordoli, J. Kopp, T. Schwede, The SWISS-MODEL Workspace: A web-based environment for protein structure homology modelling. Bioinformatics, 22, 2006, 195-201.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effects of Photoperiod and Different Artificial Light Colors on Nile Tilapia Growth Rate|
|Authors||:||Atef Mohamed Elsbaay|
ABSTRACT:Theobjectivesofthepresentstudyweretoexaminetheeffectsofphotoperiodandlight colors on growth rate and activity of Nil Tilapia (Tilapia Niloticus).The fish were fed by hand a commercial feed (crude protein, 27%; crudelipid 5.06 %; crude fiber 5.08 %; total energy 4000 kcal/kg) for 60 days.The results indicated that photoperiod (24L:0D, 16L:8D and control) and light colors (white, red and blue) were significantly affected fish growth performance. The blue light was better than other colors lights, both at different photoperiods. The blue light and long light phase (24 light hours) produced the best fish percentage weight gain (WG = 1037.8 %), specific growth rate (SGR = 4.05 %), daily growth rate (DGR = 17.3 %) and growth efficiency (GE = 0.29). On the other hand, the blue light and light cycle 16L:8D gave weight gain (WG = 890.4 %), specific growth rate (SGR = 3.82 %), daily growth rate (DGR = 14.84 %) and growth efficiency (GE = 0.27). The lowest mean values of feed conversation ratio (FCR = 1.04) was observed in blue light and long light photoperiod. The highest mean values of feed conversation ratio (FCR = 1.19) was observed in blue light and 16L:8D light cycle.
Keywords: photoperiod, light colors, fish performance.
 Al Hafedh, Y.S., 1999. Effects of dietary protein on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus L. Aquaculture Research 30, 385–393.
 Barahona-Fernandes, M.H., 1979. Some effects of light intensity and photoperiod on the sea bass larvae _Dicentrarchuslabrax. reared at the Centre Oce´anologique de Bretagne. Aquaculture 17, 311–321.
 Barlow, C.G., Pearce, M.G., Rodgers, L.J., Clayton, P., 1995. Effects of photoperiod on growth, survival, and feeding periodicity of larval and juvenile barramundi, Latescalcarifer (Bloch). Aquaculture 138, 159– 168.
 Biswas, A.K., Endo, M., Takeuchi, T., 2002. Effects of different photoperiod cycles on metabolic rate and energy loss of both fed and unfed young tilapia Orochromisniloticus: part I. Fisheries Science 68, 465–477.
 Biswas, A.K., Morita, T., Yoshizaki, G., Maita, M., Takeuchi, T., 2005. Control of reproduction in Nile tilapia Oreochromisniloticus (L.) by photoperiod manipulation. Aquaculture 243, 229–239.
 Biswas, A.K., Takeuchi, T., 2002. Effects of different photoperiod cycles on metabolic rate and energy loss of both fed and unfed adult tilapia Orochromisniloticus: part II. Fisheries Science 68, 543–553.
 Biswas, A.K., Takeuchi, T., 2003. Effects of photoperiod and feeding interval on food intake and growth of Nile tilapia Orochromisniloticus L. Fisheries Science 69, 1010–1016.
 Boehlert, G.W., 1981. The effects of photoperiod and temperature on laboratory growth of juvenile Sebastesdiploproaand a comparison with growth in the field. Fish. Bull. 79, 789– 794.
 Boeuf, G.; Le Bail, P.-Y., 1999: Does light have an influence on fish growth? Aquaculture 177, 129–152.
 Bryan, S.D., Souprir, C.A., Duffy, W.G., Freiburger, C.E., 1996. Caloric densities of three predatory fishes and their prey in lake Oahe, South Dakota. J. Freshw. Ecol. 11, 153–161.
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ABSTRACT:An investigation was conducted on the toxic effects of the fruit extract of (Balanites aegyptiaca L.) on the mortality and behaviour of juveniles of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In the acute lethal toxicity study, the fish were exposed to different concentration levels of 64.0, 32.0, 16.0, 08.0, 04.0 and 0.00gL-1 (control) of the fruit extract. A positive correlation (r=0.9811) was observed between fish mortality and the various concentrations used. Prior to death of fish, some behavioural activities observed were erratic swimming on the water surface, loss of reflex and hyperventilation. Haemoglobin estimation and packed cell volume (PCV) values were significant (P< 0.05) for acute lethal toxic dose. The 96h-LC50 value of the fruit extract was obtained as 12.59gL-1, with lower and upper confidence limits of 7.87gL-1 and 20.14gL-1 respectively. Phytochemical analysis showed that the fruit contained saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and carbohydrates. In conclusion, solution of the fruit extract caused fish mortality, and its toxic effects lowered the values of some haematological parameters compared to the control group.
Key Words: Balanites aegyptiaca, Clarias gariepinus, haematology, acute toxicity.
. Abrahamsson, T. and Nilson, S. (1975). Effects of nerve sectioning and drugs onthe catecholamine content in the spleen of the Cod (Gadus morhua),Comparative Biochemistry and physiology 51: 2231.
. Agbon, A.O., Omoniyi, I.J. and Teko, A.A. (2002). Acute toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on Oreochromis niloticus and haematological changes resulting from sublethal exposure. Journal of Aquatic Science.17(1):5-8.
. Annune, P.A., Iyantwwa, I.T., Ebele, S. and Oladumey Y.A.A.(1994).Effect of sublethal concentrations of Zinc on haematological parameters of fresh water fishes, Clarias gariepinus (Burch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas). Journal of Aquatic Sciences. 9:1-6.
. Brandt, A. (1984). Fish Catching Meth. of the World: Fishing News Book Ltd.; England; 418p.
. Brown, B. (1980). Haematology: Principles and procedures. Lea and Fabiger Philadelphia. 319pp.
. Cassilas, E. and Smith, L.S. (1977). Effect of stress on blood coagulation and haematology in Rainbow Trout (Salmon Gairdneri). Journal of Fish Biology, 10:481-491.
. Courville, C.B., Courville, D.A. and Halstead, B.W. (1963). Ciguatera – A Neurotoxic Fish Poisoning. Trans. Ame. Neurol. Ass. 10-12, 88, 204.
. Dubey, P.K., Yogi, M., Bwaradwaj, A., Soni, M.L., Singh, A. and Sachan, A.K. (2011). Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., a Semi-Arid Forest: A Review. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences 4(1): 12-18.
. Eze, C.C. (1991). Tranquilizing and anaesthetizing effects of some indigenous plants in fish aquaculture. Bachelor Thesis. University of Nigeria, Nsukka Nigeria.
. Duman, E., Dorucu, M. and Sen, D. (2001). Toxic effects of fish feed ( Anamirta cocculus) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Online Jounal of Biological sciences, 1 (11), 1093-1094.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effects of Agriculture Base Educational Intervention on Rural School Students' Awareness and Attitudes toward Agriculture|
|Authors||:||Gaikwad N., Shaikh R, Shinde P.|
ABSTRACT: A sample of randomly selected 300 rural school students from Std 7th, Std 8th and Std 9th were included in this study. Out of 300 rural school students 150 (75-girls and 75-boys) from Narsinha Vidyalaya Pokharni belonged to experimental group and the remaining 150 students from Narsinha Vidyalaya Lohgaon of Parbhani district of same standard were selected and it was considered as control group. Prior to the initiation of the experiment, scales developed by AICRP-HD component for assessment of SES, awareness about agriculture and attitudes toward agriculture were administered on both the groups'. The experimental groups' students were educated in the village for 3-4 hrs in a day, weekly twice by investigators regularly and by experts 3-4 times during the intervention by organizing series of lectures, quiz competition, exhibition and providing free of cost literature related to agriculture developed by MKV Parbhani. After implementing the intervention of awareness about agriculture and attitudes toward agriculture for a period of 3 months, all the sample rural school students in the experimental and control groups were reassessed for studying the effects of implemented agriculture base educational intervention. The experimental rural school students' post test result i.e awareness about agriculture and attitudes toward agriculture were compared with control group. It is concluded that agriculture based educational intervention on selected aspects of agriculture to rural school students' about awareness and attitudes toward agriculture found to be significantly useful in enhancing the awareness and attitudes of rural school students toward selected aspects of agriculture. Therefore rural school students need a positive agriculture based educational intervention for their contribution in agriculture
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Induced Breeding of Fresh Water Angelfish (Pterophyllum Scalare) Using Ova prim|
|Authors||:||N. R.Chatterjee, Samiran Patra, N. A. Talwar|
ABSTRACT: Induced spawning experiments on fresh water angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare was carried out for the first time using Ovaprim (sGnRH+ Domperidone). The optimum dose of Ovaprim (0.35ml/kg of body weight) was standardized based on three experiments, viz., fecundity (relative fecundity) at different doses (r = -0.94; p< 0.01, n = 6), response time (hrs) at various doses and fertilization rate (r = -0.69; p<0.01; n = 6) at different doses. Maximum fecundity (665.66) obtained at the dose of 0.35ml/kg of body weight and a significant relation was observed between doses and response time (hrs.) of spawning at 1% level (F = 189.14; p<0.01; n = 6). Lower breeding response time recorded at this dose.
Keywords: Angelfish, Induced breeding, Fecundity, Fertilization rate and Response time
. Alok D., T. Krishnan, G.P. Talwar, L.C. Garg., 1993. Induced spawning of catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), using D-Lys super (6) salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analog. Aquaculture 115, 159-167.
. Azad, I.S. and D.K. Shimray., 1991. First success in induced breeding of Indian and exotic carps in Manipur using Ovaprim-c. Fishing Chimes. 10, 28-29.
. Chattopadhyay, N.R., 2003. Breeding of ornamental fish (Egg layer). In: Compendium on ornamental fish farming (state level collaboration training course), Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture; WBUAFS, PP-46.
. Das, R.N., 2003. Ornamental fish breeding cum rearing. In: Compendium on ornamental fish farming (state level collaboration training course), Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture; WBUAFS, PP. 43-45.
. Das, S.K., Bhattacharjya, B.K. and Sarma, K., 1994. Induced spawning and hatching of Tawes, Puntius javanicus (Bleeker).
. Nandeesha, M.C., Rao, K.G., Jayanna, R. N., Parker, N.C., Varghese, T.G., Keshavanath, P., and Shetty, H.P.C., 1990. Induced spawning of Indian major carps through single application of Ovaprim-C. Proc. of the second Asian fisheries forum. Tokyo, Japan. 581-585.
. Nayak, P.K.; Mishra, T.K.; Singh B.N; Pandey, A.K. and Das, R.C., 2001. Induced maturation and ovulation in Heteropneustes fossilis by using LHRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim for production of quality eggs and larvae. Indian J.Fish. 48 (3), 269-275.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of hot and cold treatments for the management of Pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab) in pulses|
|Authors||:||J. Alice R. P. Sujeetha, N. Srikanth|
ABSTRACT: The pulse beetle C. maculatus (Fab.) is a major pest of economically important leguminous grains, such as cow peas, lentils, green gram, and black gram. Effect of sun drying on oviposition of pulse beetle, C. maculatus showed 100 per cent egg mortality during the second, third and fourth months. It was observed that there is no significant difference among the exposure periods .Effect of sun drying on adult emergence of pulse beetle, C. maculatus, indicated that 100 per cent adult mortality was recorded during the second, third and fourth months and significant difference was not observed among the exposure periods.Effect of cold treatment on oviposition of the pulse beetle, C. maculatus recorded with 100 per cent mortality and no significant difference was noticed among the exposure periods in which was observed. Effect of cold treatment on adult emergence of the pulse beetle, C. maculatus revealed 100 per cent adult mortality was observed in all the exposure period during the second, third and fourth months.
Key words: Adult beetles,Bruchids,Black Gram,Cold treatment ,Oviposition,Sun drying
 Das, M. Biswas and K. K. Ghosh. Genetic divergence in green gram (Vigna radiata L.). Journal of Agronomy. 9(3),2010,126-130.
 FAO. http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx, accessed December 2010 to March2011.
 Anonymous. Post-harvest food losses in Developing Countries. National. Academy of Science,Washington, D. C.,1978, p. 220.
 A.B.Saxena, Recent advances in Entomology. Anmol publications Pvt. Ltd.New Delhi-11, 1995,pp. 334-335.
 D.KSalunkhe, S. S. Kadam and J. K. Chavan. Post-harvest biotechnology of food legumes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL,1985, p. 160.  O.Ogunwolu, and O. Idowu. Potential of powderd Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides root bark and Azadirachta Indica seed for control of the cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) in Nigeria. Journal of African Zoology, 108(8),1994,521-528.
 F.A.Ajayi and N. E. S. Lale,. Seed coat texture, host species and time of application affect and the efficacy of essential oils applied for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) in stored pulses. International Journal of Pest Management, 47(3),2001,161-166.
 L.A.Tapondjou, C. Alder, H. Bouda and D. A. Fontem. .Efficacy of powder and essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves as post- harvest grain protectants against six stored product beetles. Journal of Stored Product Research, 38(4),2002,395-402.
 F.A.Talukder, and P. E. Howse. Repellent, toxic and food protectant effects of Aphanamixis polystachya extracts against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) in storage. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20(4),1994, 498-504.
 E.U.Okonkwo, and W. I. Okoye.. The efficacy of four seed powders and essential oils as protectants of cowpea against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) in Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(3),1996,143-146.
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ABSTRACT: The study examined technical efficiency and its determinants among small scale rice farmers in Patigi Local Government Areas of Kwara State. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty rice farmers for the study. Primary data were obtained with the aid of well structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier model were employed in the analysis of the data. 60% of the rice farmers had one form of education or the other while the age of rice farmers ranges from between 18 to 67 years with mean age of 38 years. The result of technical efficiency shows that the mean was approximately 0.65. The minimum technical efficiency was 0.10 while the maximum was 0.93. The determinants of technical efficiency in the study area were household size, farming experience, level of education, labour, farm size and non farm income in paddy rice production. It was recommended that the government at all levels should provide labour saving technology, social services and support and ensure farmers are educated to ensure proper understanding of indices of technical efficiency with attendance boost in rice yield.
Keywords: Technical efficiency, Determinant, Rice, Patigi, Kwara State
. Ajani, O. I. Y., 2000. Resource productivity in food farming in Northern area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria.
. Ajibefun, I. A. and A. O. Abdulkadir, 2004. Impact of Size Farm Operation on Resource Use Efficency in Small Scale Farming: Evidence from South Western Nigeria. J. of Food, Agric. and Environ. 2(1): 359-364
. Akinwumi, F.O., Akinwumi, I.O. and Ogundahunsi, O.A. 2011. Characterization of Artisan Fishery in the Coastal Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science. 1(3): 83-89
. Amaza, P.S. and D. C. Maurice, 2005. Identification of Factors that Influence Technical Efficiency of Rice Based Production System in Nigeria: A Paper presented at workshop on policies and strategies for promoting Rice Production and Food Security in Sub-Sahara Africa, Cotonou, Benin.
. Battese, G.E. and G. S. Coelli, 1977. Estimation of a Production Frontier Model with Application to the Pastoral zone of Eastern Nigeria. Australia J. of Agric. Econs. Vol. 21.
. CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria), 2007. Central Bank of Nigeria. Yearly Report 2007 Edition.
. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2001. Food and Agricultural Organization Report.
. Food and Agriculture Organization, (2013). FAO Country Programming Framework (CPF) Federal Republic of Nigeria, Fiat Panis, pp 1-41
. FAOSTAT, 2006. Online Datase. Available at http://faostatfao.org and http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/rice Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Rome
. FAO, (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2010. Online Datase, Available at http://faostatfao.org and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/rice Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Rome.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Growth and Water Status in Narbonne Vetch (Vicia Narbonensis L.) Under Salt Stress|
|Authors||:||Majid Mezni, Asma Ben Ghnaya-Chakroun, Sywar Haffani|
ABSTRACT: Plants are known for their ability to resist or tolerate various types of stress (water and salt stresses, heat, frost, etc.). Particularly, water or soil salinity is a major environmental stress which limits plant growth and crop productivity. Salt alters wide metabolic and physiologic processes in plants during their growth and induces changes. In this context, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse to study the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations (0 - 2.5 - 5 and 7.5g.l-1) on growth parameters (dry matter, leaf area, plant height) and water status (WC, RWC, w) in Narbonne vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.). Results showed that salt stress reduced dry matter of shoot and root, plant height and leaf area which was accelerated by premature leaf senescence on one hand, and the difficulty in producing new leaves, on the other hand. NaCl decreased water content, relative water content and water potential. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive and a significant relationship between the LA, plant height and the root growth. For, water status, a positive and significant relationship was observed between LA, on one hand, and RWC and WC on the other hand. This study showed that in spite of the large geographical distribution of the Narbonne vetch in Tunisia (arid to the subhumid bioclimatic level). This specie was very sensitive to the salt, and does not tolerate NaCl concentrations greater than 2.5g.l-1.
Keywords - Dry matter (DM), leaf area (LA), Narbonne vetch, plant height, relative water content (RWC), salt stress, water content (WC), water potential (w).
. Afzal I.; Basra S.M.A.; Hameed A., Farooq M., Physiological enhancement for alleviation of salt stress in wheat. Pak. J. Botany, 38(5), 2006, 1649-1659.
. Al-Hamdani S.H., Influence of varies NaCl concentrations on selected physiological responses of Kudzu. Asian J. of Plant Sci., 3(1), 2004, 114-119.
. Amirjani M.R., Effect of salinity stress on growth, mineral composition, proline content, antioxidant enzymes of soybean. Am. J. of Plant Physiol., 5(6), 2010, 350-360.
. Ashraf M., Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora, 199, 2004, 361-376.
. Ashraf M., Harris P.J.C., Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci., 166, 2004, 3-16.
. Athar H.R., Ashraf M., Strategies for crop improvement against salinity and drought stress: an overview. In Ashraf M., Ozturk M., Athar H.R. (eds). Salinity and Water Stress: Improving Crop Efficiency. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 2009, 244p.
. Ben Hassine H., Effets de la nappe phréatique sur la salinisation des sols de cinq périmètres irrigués en Tunisie. Étude et Gestion des Sols, 12(4), 2005, 281-300.
. Borowski E., Photosynthetic activity of some domestic and foreign cultivars of Lolium perenne L. under conditions of sodium chloride salinity. Acta Agrobot., 61(2), 2008, 75-83.
. Boughalleb F., Hajlaoui H., Denden M., Effect of salt stress on growth, water relations, solute composition and photosynthetic capacity of Xero-halophyte (Nitraria retusa L.). Environ. Res. J., 6(1), 2012, 1-13.
. Boyer J.S., James R.A., Munns R., Condon T. (A.G.), Passioura J.B., Osmotic adjustment leads to anomalously low estimates of relative water content in wheat and barley. Funct. Plant Biol., 35(11), 2008, 1172-1182.
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ABSTRACT: Two hundred and fifty (250) white cockerels were used to compare the differences between the intraocular and oral routes of administration of ND vaccine La Sota in adult chickens. At 20 weeks of age, serum samples were collected from the chickens and used to estimate the antibody levels against Newcastle disease virus using heamagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The birds were randomly divided into two groups, G1 and G2. Birds in G1 were vaccinated with ND vaccine La Sota intraocularly while birds in G2 were vaccinated orally. Serum samples were collected from chickens in the two groups weekly and used to estimate the HI antibody. Result showed higher antibody level in the chickens vaccinated intraocularly when compared with those vaccinated orally. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between the geometric HI titres of chickens in the two groups on days 7, 14 and 28 PV but it did not differ significantly on day 21 PV. Challenge studies showed 100% protection of chicken in the two groups on day 21 PV. We identified Harderian glands' possible roles in producing local and humoral immunity in intraocular vaccinations and the destruction of some of the vaccinal viruses by gastric secretions in oral vaccinations as the possible reasons for the production of higher antibodies in intraocular vaccination in adult chickens.
Keywords: Oral and intraocular routes, Newcastle disease, La Sota vaccine, chickens, immune responses
. D. J. Alexander, Newcastle Disease and other Avian Paramyxovirus Infections. In B.N. Calneck, H.J. Barnes, C.W. Beard,L.R. Dougold and Y.M.Saif (eds) Diseases of Poultry 10th Edition Pp, 1997, 541-570.
. M.B Rahman, M. M Rahman, M. Rahman, S. M. L. Kabir, K. H. M. N. H. Nazir, M. M Amin, Efficacy of V4HR Newcastle disease (V4HR-ND) vaccine in broiler birds in Bangladesh. International Journal of Poultry Science 3, 2004, 365-368.
. A. J Alexander, Newcastle Disease and Others. In: Paramyxoviridae F.T.N Jordan and M. Pattison (eds 4th Edition W.B. Sanuders. London Pp, 1990, 139-155.
. D.H. Hill, O.S. Davis, and J.K. Wilde, Newcastle Disease in Nigeria. British Veterinary Journal, 109, 1953, 381-385.
. F.D. Adu, U Edo, and B. Sokale, Newcastle Disease: The Immunological Status of Nigerian Local Chickens. Tropical Veterinarian, 4, 1986 149-159.
. L. Saidu, P.A. Abdu, J.U. Umoh, and U.S. Abdullahi, Diseases of Nigerian Indigenous Chickens. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42, 1994, 25-30.
. L. Saidu, and P.A. Abdu, Outbreak of Viscerotropic Velogenic Form of Newcastle Disease in vaccinated six weeks old pullets. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences 7(1), 2008, 37-40.
. S. B. Oladele, A.J. Nok, P.A. Abdu, L. Saidu, and K.A.N. Esiero, Comparative Studies on Serum Neuraminidase, Free and Erythrocyte Surface Sialic acid, packed cell volume and Haemogglutination Inhibition Antibodies of Chickens Vaccination with dirent Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccines. Veterinarski Arhiv 76(5), (2006, 391-401.
. K. Almassy, N. Barhouma, A. El-sabbagh, S.N. Ibrahim, N. Boktor, E. Khashaba, and S. A. Gawad Comparaive immunization experiments with lentogenic Newcastle disease vaccine strains. Journal of Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association, 35 (4), 1979, 95-104.
. T. Degefa, L. Dadi, A. Yami, K. G. Mariam, M. Nassi, Technical and Economic Evaluation of Different Methods of Newcastle Disease Vaccine Administration. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 51 (7-8), 2004, 365–369.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Standardization of seed testing procedure for seedling evaluation in Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) the endangered medicinal tree|
|Authors||:||B. Venudevan, P. Srimathi|
ABSTRACT: In any plantation programme, seed is the basic input and evaluation of the quality of collected seed has to be tested before sowing at nursery/plantation, which warrant seed testing. Evaluation of seedling is the first step in seed testing and nursery management which help in identification and separation of abnormalities respectively that could explore and predict the actual planting value at field and the abnormal seedling growth at nursery. These abnormal seedlings are generally discarded from packing stock before transportation of seedling to the planting site. Hence studies were initiated on seedling evaluation for prediction of quality of the seed before sowing both at nursery and germination room. The results would also be much useful in standardization of seedling evaluation techniques in formulation of seed testing procedure for newer inclusion of crops in International and National seed testing rules.
. Islam, R., M. Hossain, M.R. Karim and O.I.Joarder, 1995. Regeneration of Aegle marmelos(L.) Corr., plantlets in vitro from callus cultures of embryonic tissues. Current Science, 69: 494-495.
. Purohit, S.S. and S.P. Vyas. 2005. Medicinal Plant Cultivation-A Scientific Approach. (Agrobion. India), pp. 282.
. Mazumder, R., S. Bhattacharya, A. Mazumder, A.K. Pattnaik, P.M. Tiwary and S. Chaudhary, 2006. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Aegle marmelos (Correa) Linn. root extract. Phytotherapy Research, 20: 82–84.
. Kala, C.P., 2006. Ethnobotany and ethnoconservation of Aegle marmelos (L) Correa. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5: 541-550.
. Nadkarni, K.M.,1954. Indian material Medica, 3rd edn. Popular Book Depot, Bombay, India, pp. 45-49.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Species Composition and Abundance in Uta Ewa Creek, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Akpan, I. I.|
ABSTRACT: Study on the ichthyofauna of Uta Ewa Creek, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria was carried out for a period of 12 months.(January-December,2010). A total of 26 species of fish in 14 families were identified from the Creek to determine the species diversity and its abundance. The index of prepondence (IP) revealed that Chrysichthys auratus (0.84%), Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (1.25%) and Liza grandisquamis (0.42%) were the dominant species while Eleotris vittata (0.0003%), Pellonula leonensis (0.0007%) and Odaxothnissa mento (0.0003%) were the least abundant species.
Keywords: Ichthyofauna, Creek, Uta Ewa, Niger Delta, Species
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Calving Period Affects Cow And Calf Performance In Semi-Arid Areas In Zimbabwe.|
|Authors||:||J. Gusha, S. Katsande, P. I. Zvinorova, I. Tavengwa|
ABSTRACT: One hundred and twenty cow records of communal reared beef cattle were used to evaluate cow and calf performance. The animals were group according to calving period and there were three calving periods namely January to April, M ay to August and the September to December period. The result showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) on performance for calving down on different months. High postpartum weight loses were observed on dry season calvers and mid rain season calvers as well. The time taken to recover and recommencement of oestrus was significantly different as shown by the conception rate values. High calf and cow mortality was observed in May to August calving and January to April calving. Results demonstrate that poor resource farmers in region that experience April to November dry season should embrace the September to December calving period in order to succeed. If all other seasons are to be used more investment in feed supplement and drugs is needed.
Key Words; Calving season, pre-partum weight, postpartum weight, conception rate
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