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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Mapping Of Soil Deterioration Status for Biomass Production In The Eastern Part Of Natuna Districtss|
|Authors||:||Supriyadi, R. Sudaryanto, Afriyudi Hamzah, Muh Khoirul Anwar|
ABSTRACT:An uncontrolled utilization of land resources for biomass production can cause deterioration to the soil, so that the impact on the function and quality of soil. Soil deterioration for biomass production can be caused by the nature of the soil, or the result of human activities that cause soil disturbed or deterioration so that it can reduce the function of the soil as a medium for biomass production as normal. This research was conducted using a survey method, with observations and soil sampling, that was based on the results of a thematic map overlay scoring has been done before. This study aims to map out the conditions and status of the soils for the production of biomass in the eastern part of the Natuna Districtss based on the Government Regulation No. 150 of 2000 . The mapping is used as a guideline in the surveillance and control of land degradation in eastern part of Natuna Districts. Some soil characteristics and limiting factor is contributing in the scoring that makes this land placed in the broken state, among others: soil texture, redox value, bulk density, and the soil permeability. The results showed that there are two classes of land degradation in the study area, namely minor damage and moderate damage. Areas with the minor soil deterioration were located on East Bunguran, Central Bunguran, and parts of the Northeast Bunguran. And the moderate soil deterioration was in the north part of the Northeast Bunguran and South Bunguran.
Keywords: Soil Deterioration, Biomass Production, Natuna Districts.
 Indonesian Government Regulation No. 150. In 2000. Damage Control Land for Biomass Production. Jakarta.
 Minister of Environment Regulation No. 20, 2008. Technical Guidelines for Minimum Standards for Environment City Districts. Jakarta.
 Departement of Statistic 2012. Natuna in Figures. Ranai Natuna Districts.
 Siradz A. Syamsul 2006. Land Degradation due to Biomass Production in Rice Field DI-Jogjakarta. Journal of Soil and Environmental Sciences Vol 6 (1) (2006) p :47-51.
 Hanafiah Kemas Ali 2004. Fundamentals of Soil Science. London: King Grafindo Persada.
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 Yulnafatwawita, Luki, and Yana 2007. Studies of Soil Physical Properties Some Land Use in Bukit Gajabuih Tropical Rain Forest Gadut Mount Padang. J.Solum Vol IV No. 2 July 2007: 49-61. ISSN: 1829-7994.
 Triyono, Karis 2007. Effect of Soil Processing System and Mulching toward Resource Conservation Land. Journal of Agricultural Innovation Vol. 6, No. 1 in 2007 (11-21).
 Refliaty, Gindo Tampubolon, and Hendriansyah 2011. Effect of Compost Cow Manure Biogas Rest to Repair Some Physical Properties of Ultisol and Results in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Meriil). J. Hidrolitan. Vol. 2: 3: 103-114, 2011 ISSN 2086-4825.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Exploration of ITK with the self help group-a cost effective technique to develop digital databases for sustainable agriculture|
ABSTRACT: Climate change is inevitable although it is slow but steady .Although this inevitable change is perennial. But the anthropogenic commitment of human civilization in the name of industrialization, urbanization and so called market economy has expedited this change. In the past couple of years, an unprecedented interest and documentation in the phenomenon of climate change and its possible impact in the environment has been noticed. Global temperature is the main indicator of the climate change and a mean increase of average global temperature has a detrimental effect on environment-both on the man-made and natural ecosystem. An increase of spring temperature can accelerate the early flowering of many plants and the melting of ice caps can cause the extinction of valuable flora and fauna in general and marine ecosystem in particular. Thus biodiversity of natural as well as man-made agricultural ecosystem is supposed to be effected leading to the complication of food production. Indian economy, an agricultural based economy will suffer a lot leading to the ever increasing population into a starvation, Not only that the post harvesting management of agricultural crops is too unscientific to maintain a desirable buffer stock for the growing population. Due to climate change, the plants can develop a desirable adaptation much faster than animal but not too fast to cope up with the growing demands of millions. So the convenient tools to be explored with dependable inputs that can catalyze the productivity in sustainable manner for the on growing Population. As far as the modern scientific agricultural information system is concerned, the digital data base comprising of number of desirable parameters can built up to mitigate the problems. The cost effective agricultural based data base management system with the help of traditional knowledge of farmers including resistant varieties, soil parameters, weather parameters and others expertise opinions to maintain an avenue for the sustainable agricultural for the new millennium. The improved crop varieties along with management system can only solve the problems of emerging crisis corresponding to the global climate change.
Key words: Climate change, Market economy, Documentation, Digital Data Base, Sustainable Agriculture, Agriculture information system
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ABSTRACT: Sub-Saharan Africa is richly endowed with natural agro biodiversity that is being threatened by the impacts of climate change, deforestation, flooding, water and air pollution, genetic erosion, incessant hunting and collection of wild plants and animal species as well as natural disasters. The challenge is thus for the people and government to work together in safeguarding the environment and preserving biodiversity by adopting an integrated conservation strategies which include; application of indigenous knowledge in biodiversity conservation, adoption of organic and sustainable farming practices, setting up of botanic and zoological gardens, gene banks and a deliberate government policy aimed at environmental protection and agro biodiversity conservation to avoid extinction of endangered plant, and animal species.
Keywords; Agro biodiversity, climate change, genetic-erosion, deforestation, organic-framings, botanic and zoological garden, government policy.
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ABSTRACT: The improvement of the animal production in Malaysia need the animal population number also to raise accordingly, the cost of animals feeds is intenselyassociated with the cost of animal production as feeds comprise 70% of total cost (Jelan, 2005). To reduce the cost, local feed resources could be an alternative.in Malaysia, a huge amount of biomass is produced from the process of palm oil extraction. Among these by-products, palm oil decanter cake (PODC) is a potential, available, cheap feed resource for ruminants (Wan Zahari et al., 2012).Therefore,the objective of presentexperiment was to evaluate the feed intake, body weight (BW) and carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed varying levels of PODC.
. Abubakr, A. R., Alimon, A. R., Yaakub, H., Abdullah, N. & Ivan, M. (2012). Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences (In press).
. Afdal, A., Kasim, A., Alimon, A. R. & Abdullah, N. (2012). Some chemical properties of oil palm decanter meal. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(27), 7128-7134.
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. Devendra, C. (1985). Non conventional feed resources in Asia and the Pacific. FAO regional office for Asia and the Pacific, 2nd edition, Bangkok, Thailand.
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. Galal, E. S. E. (1979). A study on fattening Ethiopian sheep: 2: Performance of Adal lambs on supplemented grazing. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Science, 1, 99–107.
. Jelan, Z. A. (2005). Recent advances in animal nutrition in Malaysia: its relevance and importance for farming system in Indonesia. In Seminar nasional teknologi peternakan dan veteriner, 12-13 September 2005. Bogor, Indonesia.
. Lam, M. K., Tan, K. T., Lee, K. T. & Mohamed, A. R. (2009). Malaysian palm oil: Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(6–7), 1456-1464.
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. Seephueak, W., Ngampongsai, W. & Chanjula, P. (2011). Effects of palm oil sludge in concentrate on nutrient utilization and rumen ecology of thai native cattle fed with hay. Songklanakarin Journal of Scieince and Technolology, 3(33), 271-280.
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ABSTRACT: Primates refer to a zoological order of placental mammals, consisting of lemurs, bushbabies, tarsiers, marmosets, monkeys, apes, and humans. In an effort to evaluate the occurrence of bacterial organisms with zoonotic and biohazard potential in captive non-human primates (NHP) in the park, we performed a prevalence study examining 18 aparently healthy young adult monkeys and apes. We sampled them by faecal culture on three separate occasions using appropriate media and specific selective culture methods. The survey lasted for a period of three months with sampling at 2 weeks intervals. Enteric organisms potentially transmissible to humans were subcultured and identified based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Prevalence results at start and finish points obtained revealed six (6) bacterial organisms as follows: Escherichia coli (100.0%), Salmonella paratyphi A (72.8.0-77.8%), Proteus mirabilis (61.1-83.3%), Campylobacter species (5.6%), Citrobacter ferundii 13(16.7-33.3%), and Yersinia enterocolitica (22.4%). The presence of these pathogenic bacteria has public health significance because of the nature and use of their location (being a park) and its proximity to human dwellings. We recommend proper hygienic husbandry and vigilant sampling of NHP populations anywhere they are kept; also the appropriate use of antibiotics to eliminate shedding of bacteria and spread of the disease should be undertaken.
Key Words: Non-human primates, zoonotic bacteria, Jos- Nigeria.
. Barley C., Mansfield K.: Review paper: Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases of non-human primates in the laboratory setting. Veterinary pathology, May, 2010 vol 47(3): 462-481.
. Barry PA, Strelow L: Development of breeding populations of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that are specific pathogen-free for rhesus cytomegalovirus. Comp Med 58:43–46, 2008.
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ABSTRACT: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is a major cause of losses to livestock production in many countries around the world. In Malaysia, more specifically, the disease yet remains a major constraint to the national industry. However, the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic septicaemia is another scenario in which the limitations still exists. Thus, the present paper provides more information on the pathogenicity and host response dynamics in a mouse model. Our study of experimental nature manipulates P. multocida serotype B:2, the bacterium responsible for the disease in Asia. In this study, sixteen mice (n=16) were divided into two groups (A & B) of 8 mice each group. Animals in group A were inoculated orally with 1.0 ml 109 cfu/ml of P. multocida type B while mice in group 2 were challenged orally with 1.0 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The animals were observed for clinical signs for 5 days. The mice showing severe signs and surviving mice after 5 days of post- inoculation were euthanized using cervical dislocation approach and the organs such as heart, lung, kidney, stomach, spleen, colon and small intestine were collected for microscopic examinations. The result indicated that mice inoculated with the Pasteurella multocida showed significant (p<0.05) severe clinical signs compared to control group.These clinical signs ranged from mild to severe in which most of individuals infected with Pasteurella multocida showed moderate to severe clinical signs of ruffled hair, laboured breathing, eye discharge and responsiveness with mean levels of 2.13±0.64, 1.88±0.99, 1.50±1.20 and 1.88±0.99 respectively in comparison to the control group. Moreover, mortality rate was recorded between 24 to 50 h post-inoculation in the group that challenged with Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Microscopically, the extent of visceral tissue damages due to the infection was scored. The interested parameters included pulmonary oedema, presence of inflammatory cells, haemorrhage and necrosis. Of these parameters, animals in infected group showed significant (p<0.05) differences in all most all visceral organs. Lungs, liver and kidney were, in particular, the most predominantly affected tissues. Therefore, oral inoculation of P. multocida type B in mice showed significant clinical response and cellular changes.
Keywords: Pasteurella multocida type B, oral inoculation, histopathology, clinical signs, mice
 De Alwis, M.C.L. (1999). Haemorrhagic Septicaemia. In: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). ACIAR Monograph Series, Canberra, Australia. pp 1-141.
 Rodostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C., Hinchcliff, K.W. (2000). In Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses. (Ed.) 9th ed. Elsevier Limited, London.
 Joseph, P.G. (1979). Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Peninsular Malaysia. Kajian Vet. 11:65-79.
 Ramdani, Dawkins, H.J.S., Johnson, R.B., Spencer, T.L. and Adler, B. (1990). Pasteurella multocida infections in mice with reference to haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffalo. Immunol. Cell Biol. 68: 57-61.
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ABSTRACT: Analyses on the spreading of SpltMNPV (Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus) multiplied in midgut epithelium cell of in third instar of S. litura larvae has been done through histological studies. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of SpltMNPV in S. litura larvae. The third instars of S. litura larvae that had been infected with SpltMNPV were incubated for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Afterwards, the infected S. litura larvae were cut crosswise in the anterior, middle, and posterior of the midguts. The crosswise cuts at the midguts were fixed using Gilson solution, executed under the paraffin method, and cut as thick as of 4 μm, and then stained with Hematoxylin and eosin. The results of this study indicate that SpltMNPV (PIB, Polyhedral inclusion bodies) have infected various organs of the S. litura larvae, i.e. lumen, peritrophic membrane, midgut epithelial layers, trachea, blood vessels, malpigian tubules, muscle cells and adipocyte. The only organ which is not infected by SpltMNPV is the cuticle.
Keyword: SpltMNPV, midgut epithelial cells, and Spodoptera litura
. Adisarwanto, T. and Rini Widianto, 1999. Improvement of soybean crops in wetland, dry and lowtide. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya. pp. 4-10 (in Indonesia)
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the growth of Trichoderma harzianum on different culture media namely, potato dextrose agar, modified potato dextrose agar, water agar, carrot agar and cornmeal agar. Linear growth was recorded at 24 hours intervals after inoculation and average growth rates were calculated. Fresh weight and dry weight were also recorded. The highest linear growth, fresh weight and dry weight were found in potato dextrose agar and lowest in water agar. The highest values were followed by modified potato dextrose agar which was statistically similar to carrot agar which was differed and followed by cornmeal agar.
Key word: growth performance, Trichoderma harzianum, different culture media Corresponding author: Sabiha sultana, Assistant professor, Agrotechnology discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh-9208
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. Azher Mustafa, M. Aslam Khan, M. Inam-ul-Haq, M. Aslam Pervez and Ummad- ud-DinUmar. 2009. Usefulness of different culture media for in-vitro evaluation of Trichoderma spp. Against seed-borne fungi of economic importance. Pak. J.Phytopathol., 21(1): 83-88.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Telanthera Ficoidea - A New Source of Natural Dye for Mulberry Silk|
|Authors||:||Ms. Pomima Duarah|
ABSTRACT: Environmental considerations are now becoming an additional importantfactor during the selection of consumer goods including textiles all over the world. The world has become increasingly aware of the environmental issues through pollution and waste disposal. So, interest in natural products is gaining importance throughout the world and people are becoming aware of the need for eco-friendly materials. Thus, revival of the use of natural dyes world-wide is primarily due to the increasing environmental consciousness today. Naturally occurring materials are non-toxic, biodegradable and non-carcinogenic. Natural dyeing is the way to save environment. Natural dyes make an important contribution to fabric decoration by producing various shades by the use of mordants and different dyeing methods.a
. Agarwal, S. and Gupta, K. C. (2005). Optimization of dyeing conditions for natural dye – Madder roots (Rubia corifolia). Tex. Trends XLVIII:24-27.
. Bhal, D. and Gupta, K. C. (1988). Development of dyeing process of silk with natural dye cutch. Colourage 33(22):22-24.
. Bisht, B. G. and Goel, A. (1999). Dyeing of natural fibre – Bhimal with natural dye. Kilmora. Tex. Trends. 42(5):33-35.
. Bhuyan, R.; Saikia, D. C. and Saikia, C. N. (2002). Isolation of colour component from the roots of Moriunda augustifolia Roxb. and evaluation of its dyeing characteristics. Indian J. Fibre Tex. Res. 27:429-433.
. Gulrajani, M. L. and Maulik, S. R. (2002). Evaluation of fastness characteristics and colour value of selected natural dyes on synthetic fibres. Tex. Trends XLV(2):31-34.
. Phukan, R.; Phukan, A. and Ahmed, G. (2004). Dyeing of silk yarn with the heartwood of jackfruit. Tex. Trends XLVII:29-31.
. Sengupta, S. (2001). Application of tea liqueur for colouration of cotton fabric. Tex. Trends XLIV(3):23-24.
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ABSTRACT: Cause and effect relationship studies were carried out in 59 tomato genotypes for fourteen yield attributes and four shelf life attributes. Cause and effect relationship analysis for fruit yield per plant revealed that the characters number of primary branches per plant and number of flowers per cluster had high positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant. Cause and effect relationship analysis for shelf-life had revealed that total soluble solids (TSS) had high positive direct effect on shelf-life. Hence, direct selection based on the characters number of primary branches per plant and number of flowers per cluster will be rewarding for improving fruit yield per plant. For improving shelf life in these genotypes direct selection based on high TSS will be rewarding.
Key words: Cause and effect relationship, Genotypes, Yield, Shelf-life, TSS, Direct effect
. B. S. Asati, N. Rai. and A. K. Singh. Genetic parameters study for yield and quality traits in tomato. The Asian J. Horti. 3(2), 2008, 222-225.
. B. Chaudhary. Exploitation of heterosis in tomato yield and components. South Indian Horti. 29, 1996, 59-85.
. W. T. Federer. Augmented Designs.Hawain Planters Record. 40, 1975, 191-207.
. E. Giovannucci. Tomatoes, tomato – based products, lycopene and cancer : review of the epidemiologic literature. J. National Cancer Inst. 91, 1999, 317-331.
. C. Indu Rani, D. Veeraragavathatham. and S. Sanjutha. Studies on correlation and path coefficient analysis on yield attributes in root knot nematode resistant F1 hybrids of tomato. J. Applied Sci. Res. 2 (3),2008, 287-295.Joshi, A. Vikram. and M. C. Thakur. Studies on genetic variability, correlation and path analysis for yield and physico-chemical traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Progressive Horti. 36 (1), 2004, 51-58.
. R. Kumar. and M. C. Thakur. Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient and path analysis in tomato. Haryana J. Hortil. Sci., 36(3 & 4), 2007, 370-373.Mayavel, G. Balakrishnamurthy. and S. Natarajan. Correlation and path analysis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). South Indian Horti., 53(1-6), 2005, 253-257.
. K. Mohanty. Studies on variability, heritability, interrelationship and path analysis in tomato. Ann. Agril. Research. (1), 2002, 65-69.
. K. Singh. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient studies in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under cold arid region. Progressive Horti. 37(2), 2005, 437- 443.
. K. Singh. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance studies in tomato under cold arid region of Ladakh. Indian J. Horti. 66 (3), 2009, 400-403.
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ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to explore the status of coastal plantations, land accretion, erosion and stabilization at Nolchira Range of Hatiya Upa-zila of Noakhali district, Bangladesh. Among four beats of Nolchira coastal Range, Ochkhali and Dalchar beats were selected. Sample plots of 20m×20m (400m2) were taken randomly for mangrove plantation. For highway, embankment and feeder road plantations, 50m long strips were selected for the vegetation sampling. In Nolchira forest range of Hatiya Island about 14370.73 ha of newly accreted land was planted by Sonneratia apetala of which 12450.62 ha was stabilized during the period of 1967 to 2007 under Coastal Afforestation Project (CAP), Mangrove Afforestation Project (MAP), 2nd Forestry Project, Forest Resource Management Project (FRMP) and Revenue projects in Nolchira range. The rest 1920.11 ha was eroded by river and wave action. 27 years old Sonneratia apetala attained 21 cm dbh and 16.5 m height growth in Ochkhali beat, whereas 27 years old Sonneratia apetala attained 24.5 cm dbh and 18.5 m height growth in Dalchar beat. Whereas, 27 years old Albizia saman attained 54 cm dbh in Ochkhali highway plantations, 40 cm in 14 years old embankment and 16.4 cm in 12 years old feeder road plantations respectively. Similarly, Acacia auriculiformis attained the dbh of 37 cm, 19.6 cm and 10.5 cm respectively for the same site. Whereas, Casuarina equisetifolia attained the dbh of 17 cm, 13.5 cm and 12.5 cm respectively in the same site. The soil PH and salinity showed lower in old coastal plantation in comparisons in comparison to uri-grass land and newly accreted char lands. Among 12450.62 ha of stabilized coastal lands, 795 ha mature forest land was already converted into agricultural land. The stabilized coastal plantations protected the coastal environment of Hatiya Island from the severe loss and damage of coastal lives and properties due to the catastrophic effect of super cyclone SIDR in November 2007.
Keywords- coastal plantations, coastal environment, mangrove, land stabilization, soil PH and salinity.
 N.A. Siddiqi, Mangrove forestry in Bangladesh (Bangladesh: Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2001, 201pp).
 P. Saenger, N.A. Siddiqi, Land from the sea: the mangrove afforestation program of Bangladesh, Ocean and Coastal Management, 20, 1993, 23- 39.
 S. Das and N.A. Siddiqi, The coastal and coastal forest of Bangladesh, Coastal silviculture division, bulletin no. 2, Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Chittagong, 1985, 168pp.
 M.A. Haque, Study of Coastal Afforestation Programme in Bangladesh, review paper, Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh, 1984, 36pp
 M.K. Hossain, Alam and M.M. Danesh, Forest restoration and rehabilitation in Bangladesh, in: Don Koo Lee (Ed.), Keep Asia Green Volume III " South Asia" (Vienna: IUFRO World Series Volume 20-III, 2008) 21-65.
 N.A. Siddiqi, Development and sustainable management of coastal plantations in Bangladesh, J. Asiat. Soc. Sci., 28(2), 2002, 145-166.
 M.M. Hasan, Preliminary reports on coastal afforestation sites, in R. Drigo, et al (Ed.), The maturing coastal plantation of the coastal afforestation project, field document no. 2 (BGD: FAO/ UNDP Project), 1987, 64-66.
 C.A.K. Black, D.D. Evans, J. L. White, L.E. Ensminger and F.E. Clark, Methods of soil analysis, in Series of Agronomy, Chemical and microbiological properties, part 2, no.9, American society of Agronomy. Inc., USA, 1965.
 S.M.S. Haque M.K. Hossain and M.A. Kabir, Performance of some common mangrove species in Sitakunda and Mirersarai forest ranges under Chittagong coastal afforestation division, The Chittagong Univ.J.Sci., 24 (2), 2000, 01-10.
 N.A. Siddiqi. and M.A.S. Khan, Growth performance of coastal trees along the coastal belt of Bangladesh, Coastal ecosystems occasional papers, no. 8 UNDP/ UNESCO/ RAS/ 86/ 120, Thomson Press, Delhi, 1990, 5-14.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Degradation Characteristics of Legume Straw Based Complete Rations in the Rumen Using Nylon Bag Technique|
|Authors||:||S. Venkateswarlu, D. Srinivas Kumar, E. Raghava Rao|
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and nutrient degradability of legume straw based complete rations using nylon bag technique in buffalo bulls. Two iso-nitrogenous complete rations were prepared by incorporating two legume straws viz. red gram (T1) and black gram (T2) and concentrate mixture in 60: 40 proportion. The experiment was conducted using two rumen fistulated buffalo bulls, fed a basal diet comprising of 5 kg para grass, 4 kg paddy straw and 1.5 kg concentrate mixture. Feed samples were incubated in the ventral sac of rumen for 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72hr. In sacco degradation kinetics revealed that rapidly soluble fraction (a), slowly degradable fraction (b), potential degradation (a+b) and effective degradability of DM, NDF and ADF were significantly (P<0.01) higher in T2 compared to T1. Degradation kinetics of CP revealed that rate constant (c) was higher (P<0.05) in T1 while potential degradation (a+b) was higher (P<0.05) in T2 compared to other ration. Hence it can be concluded that black gram straw based complete ration have an advantage over red gram straw based complete ration due its higher degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF in the rumen.
Key Words: black gram straw, complete diet, in situ degradability, nylon bag, red gram straw
. SaskatchewanMinistry of Agriculture, Straw, a roughage source for ruminants. Production Fact Sheet, Saskatchewan ministry of agriculture.http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default. aspx ?DN= 13d85902-ba4c-4170-a2c0-7f4486ea031d. 2008.
. R Lal, World crop residues production and implications of its use as a biofuel. Environment International 31, 2005, 575-584.
. K.S. Ramachandra, R.P.Tanejs, K.T.Sampat, U.B.Angadi and S .Anandan, Availability and Requirement of Feeds and Fodders in India. National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore, India 2007.
. R.K. Dhuria, G.R.Purohit and T Sharma, Nutritional evaluation of complete feed containing gram (Cicerarietinum) straw in sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 21(2), 2004, 100-103.
. S. Chumpawadee, C. Anut and C. Piyanate,Chemical compositions and nutritional evaluation of energy feeds for ruminant using in vitro gas production technique. Pak. J. Nutr., 6, 2007 607-612.
. N. Maheri-Sis, M. Chamani, A.A. Sadeghi, A. Mirza- Aghazadeh and A. Aghajanzadeh-Golshani, Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desitype chickpeas (CicerarietinumL.) for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7, 2008, 2946-2951.
. E.R. Ørskov, F.D. DeBHovell and F. Mould, The use of the nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feedstuffs. Trop. Anim. Prod., 5, 1980, 195-213.
. A.M. Bruno-Soares, J.M.F. Abreu, C.V.M. Guedes and A.A. Dias-da-Silva, Chemical composition, DM and NDF degradation kinetics in rumen of seven legume straws. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 83, 2000, 75-80.
. AOAC, Official methods of Analysis (18thed.) Association of Official Analytical chemists, Washington DC, 2007.
. P.J. Van Soest, J.D.Robertson and B.A.Lewis, Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 1991,3583-3597.
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ABSTRACT: The cytochrome b F129L mutation has been detected in several plant pathogens including Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch of barley. Isolates of this pathogen were obtained from different parts of the UK and from other European countries for determination of the presence of F129L mutation and its effect on the performance of several QoI fungicides. Results from in vitro assays of fungicides tested showed that the pathogen was inhibited on QoI amended agar medium but the mutations compromised fungal inhibition: isolates with F129L mutation had greater EC50 values than wild type isolates for all QoI fungicides tested. Experiments carried out in planta using barley seedlings also showed variation between the level of disease control provided by different QoI fungicides ; for example picoxystrobin showed greater efficacy than azoxystrobin. It is concluded that determination of the effects of fungicide resistance mutations should be based on genotyping, combined with both in vitro and in planta evaluations of activity.
Key words: Pyrenophora teres, barley, QoI fungicides, F129L mutation
 Baik B K, Ullrich S E. Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science 48, 233-42 (2008).
 Arabi M I E, Al-Safadi B, Charbaji T. Pathogenic variation among isolates of Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of barley net blotch. Journal of Phytopathology-Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 151, 376-82 (2003).
 Carmona M, Barreto D, Moschini R, Reis E. Epidemiology and Control of Seed-borne Drechslera teres on Barley. Cereal Research Communications 36, 637-45 (2008).
 Mathre D E. Compendium of barley diseases, second edition The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States 90 pp. (1997).
 Gisi U, Chin K M, Knapova G, Farber R K, Mohr U, Parisi S, Sierotzki H Steinfeld U. Recent developments in elucidating modes of resistance to phenylamide, DMI and strobilurin fungicides. Crop Protection 19, 863–72 (2000).
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ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the production efficiency of credit users and non- credit users among poultry egg farmers in Ogun state, Nigeria. The study made use of primary data via questionnaire administration. A multi – stage sampling technique was used to randomly select 120 farmers. Technical, allocative and economic efficiencies were assessed using Data Envelopment Analysis. Factors affecting Production Efficiencies of poultry farmers were determined by Tobit regression method. The result revealed the mean technical efficiency of 62.67%, allocative efficiency of 71.05% and the overall economic efficiency of 42.16%. This implied that poultry farmers could still increase their output by 37.33% or increase revenue by 28.95% showing that maximum output level can be achieved. The mean economic efficiency score of credit users was 0.42 while that of non-credit users was 0.39, this further showed that poultry farmers that used credit were more economically efficient than their counterparts who did not. Tobit regression analysis revealed that an increase in age (p<.05), educational status (p<0.01), number of birds stocked (p<0.01), credit amount (p<0.05) will increase the likelihood of being technically and allocatively efficient while credit amount (p<0.05) increased the likelihood of being economically efficient. However, access to extension agents (p<0.1) by farmers, tends to make farmers economically inefficient. Age, farming experience, educational level, flock size, interest rate were factors affecting the production efficiency of credit and non- credit users of poultry egg farmers. Based on the results, appropriate policy on provision of credit should be made available for poultry egg farmers in order to increase their production efficiency.
Keywords: Agricultural credit, ,Allocative efficiency, Data envelopment analysis,Economic efficiency,Technical efficiency, tobit.n
. Central Bank of Nigeria, 2004. Annual Report and statement of Accounts.CBN Publications.
. Niang, T. and S. Jubrin, 2001. Quarterly Newsletter of the Nigeria Agriculture Question and Answer Service Vol.1 No. 3.
. Coelli, T.J. Rao, D.S.P, Battase, G.E 1998. An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
. Yusuf and Malomo 2007. " Technical Efficiency of poultry egg production in Ogun State. International journal of Poultry Science 6 (9): 622-629.
. Hussain, Syed S. 1989: "Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Northern Pakistan: Estimation, Causes and Policy Implications." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois.
Journal Paper :
. Farrel, J.M., 1957: The Measurement of Productive Efficiency. Journal of Royal Statistics 506 vol.120 part III Pp 253-290.
. Bravo-Ureta, B.E., and Pinheiro A.O. 1997. Technical, Economic, and Allocative Efficiency in Peasant Farming: Evidence from the Dominican Republic. The Developing Economies, Vol.35 (1): 48–67.
. Bravo-Ureta, B.E., and. Evenson. 1994. "Efficiency in Agricultural Production: The Case of PeasantFarmers in Eastern Paraguay." Agricultural Economics 10(1): 27–37.
. Hussain, Syed S. 1989: "Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Northern Pakistan: Estimation, Causes and Policy Implications." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois.
. Onu, J.I., Amaza, P.S and Okunmadewa F. Y. 2000. Determinant of Cotton Production and Economic Efficiency in Nigeria.African Journal of Business and Economic research 112: 34-40.
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ABSTRACT: An examination of small holders' fields in almost any part of Nigeria will reveal that production is based on crop associations of varying complexity rather than on the mono cropping characteristic of mechanized production in more developed agricultural economics. The study was therefore conducted to determine the factors responsible for farmers' diversification of their cropping enterprises in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data for the study were obtained from 45 randomly selected farmers in three villages in the study area between March and April, 1998 using pre-tested structured questionnaires. The collected data were then analyzed using simple descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. The study revealed that, all the respondents cultivated more than one crop in the same field. Price instability, unpredictable weather, fear of crop failure, lack of sufficient inputs, lack of enough supply of different crop types all year round/food insecurity inputs, lack of special skills on any specific crop, among others were identified as reasons for farmers diversification of their cropping enterprises. It is therefore suggested that while emphasis should be placed on the provision of credit and/or farm inputs to farmers at the right time and quantity, effort should also be made to develop and promote improved agronomic packages given the farmers' total resources.
Key Words: Cropping enterprise, farmers diversification
. Asif, Ali Abro (2012). Determinant of Crop Diversification towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: International Journal of Business and Management Economic Resources Vol. 3(3), 2012, 536-545
. Andrews, D.J., and Kassam, A.H. (1981). The important of multiple cropping in increasing world food supplies pp1 – 10. In (Papendick, R.I., Sanchez, P.A., and Tripett, G.B. eds) Multiple Cropping American Society of Agronomy Special Publication No. 27 378pp.
. Ajakaiye, M.B. (1984). The Private Sector and Nigerian Agricultural Development. Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, Ilorin, Nigeria, 259pp
. Awoyemi, O. (1981). Problems of Agriculture in Nigeria pp37 – 49. In (Ojo, M.O., Edordu, C.C. and Akingbade, J.A. eds) Agricultural Credit and Finance in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. Proceedings of a Seminar Organised by the Central Bank of Nigeria, April 27 – 30, 1981 at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, pp 659.
. Brajesh, Jha, Amarnath Tripathi and Biswajit Mohanty (2009). Drivers of Agricultural Diversification in India, Haryana and Greenbelt Farms of India. Working Paper Series No E/303/2009
. Chuks, C. E. and J.O. Olukosi (1990). Farmers Perception of Risk and their Responses in Dry Season Farming: A Study of the Kano River Project. Nigerian Journal of Agric. Extension (AERLS/ABU)
. De,U.K. and Manabendu, C. (2010). Crop diversification by poor peasants and role of infrastructure: Evidence from West Bangal. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics Vol. 2(10), pp. 340-350 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/JDAE
. Mendelsolen J. (2010). Farming Systems in Namibia. Windhoek, Namibia: NNFU
. Milton, S. (1997). Comparative Economic analysis of mixed cropping in Bauchi State: a case study of Darazo Local Government Area of Bauchi State. B. Tech. Agriculture Project, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi 43pp
. Norman, D. W. (1974). Rationalising mixed Cropping under indigenous conditions: The example of Northern Nigeria. Journal of Development studies 11: 3 – 21
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Implementation of PCI Target Controller Interfacing with Asynchronous SRAM|
|Authors||:||Kodam Latha, M. Srilatha, K. Swathi, Sangeeta Singh|
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present design of a PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) target controller which is interfacing with asynchronous SRAM 64kX8 memory. The target controller provides the control signals to the SRAM for read and writes cycles. The master sends the address, data and other control signals. Based on these signals the controller initiates the read and write cycles we have designed PCI block diagram which represents how the master controls target and target interfaces with memory. We also designed state machine to generate control signals for target controller by which the controller initiates the read and write cycles. PCI implements a 32-bit multiplexed Address and Data bus (AD [31:0]).The simulation results presented in this paper represents read and write transactions between slave and memory according to commands generated by controller. We have been used Xilinx ISE project navigator 0.40d to simulate project code which is written in Verilog Hardware Description Language. We have been tested our functionality by writing test bench and then compared that results with actual functionality.
Keywords – Asynchronous SRAM, PCI, PCI connector
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