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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Study on Child Labour in Assam with Special Reference to Dibrugarh Town|
ABSTRACT:Background- As is the case with other developing countries of the world, child labour is also a problem in India. Though child labour in the country has been banned by the Supreme Court, the order of the apex court is yet to be implemented in true spirit. It has become a common sight to see a child working in a garage, hotel, and business establishment and under hazardous condition as well throughout the country. Assam is also not an exception in this regard. The present study was done to understand the causes and consequences of child work prevalent in the consciousness of the work force involved in child development and to suggest ways and means to divert erroneous and deeply engraved notions on sociological perspective.
Objectives- To assess the reasons for the exploitation of child labour the nature and magnitude of problems encountered by child labours.
. Basu Mallik (2006) A study report on knowledge attitude practice on child domestic work with ICDS functionaries, Right Track, Kolkata.
. Child Labour in Shillong, Impulse NGO Network Shillong Meghalaya 2004
. Desai, Kiran and Raj, Nikhil 2001, Child labour in the homebased industries in the wake of legislation: the case of Diamond industry of Surat, Centre for social Studies Surat.
. Lakshmi Rani,D and Roy, Manabendra Nath, (2005) Child domestic work : a violation of human right: quantitative analysis of the situation in West Bengal, Sava the children, New Delhi.
. Mohan Jitendra, et al,(1998) Drug abuse among child workers : an exploratory survey, Department of Psychology, Punjab University, Chandigarh
. Sekar,Helan R (2007) Impact of technological change on the demand for child labour in brassware industry of Muradabad, V.V Giri National Labour institute, NOIDA
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ABSTRACT: The study examined farmers' perception of priority in oil palm production and processing. The study was carried out in Aniocha South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty oil palm farmers randomly selected from eight communities were sampled. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection, while percentage, frequency count and mean scores were used to summarize data. The findings of the study show that nine priority areas are crucial to increased oil palm production and processing. These are: credit facilities for oil palm farmers, favourable land tenure policy; establishment of agro-chemical and fertilizer companies; building of mechanized processing mills at strategic locations; construction of access roads to palm plantations; providing ready markets for oil palm products; and sponsoring research on high yielding varieties and low-cost processing techniques. The study also found low technology utilization among oil palm farmers. The study recommends that the priority areas identified in this study should guide future efforts of government in revitalizing the oil palm production sub-sector. Also, oil palm farmers should be sensitized by the agricultural extension agency on the need to use improved production technologies.
Key words: Oil palm, priority areas, production technologies, processing technologies
. Agwu, A.E. (2006) Adoption of improved oil palm production and processing technologies in Arochukwu Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Agro-Science, Journal of Agriculture, Food Environment and Extension 5(1): 25-35.
. Food and Agriculture Organisation (1987) Consultations on oil palm production, FAO, Rome.
. Food and Agriculture Organisation (1970) Consultations on palm oil and palm kernel production, FAO, Rome.
. Ibitoye, O.O; Akinsorotan, A.O; Meludu, N.T and Ibitoye, B.O. (2011) Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo State of Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) 11(2): 97-105.
. Komolafe, M.I. and Joy, D.C. (1990) Agricultural Science for Secondary Schools. Book one. Ibadan: Nigeria University Press Ltd.
. Omoti, U (2003) Oil palm in Africa: Evolution during the last decade, trends and new challenges. Invited paper, XIV. International Conference: Palm oil: The alternative in oil and fats in Latin America. Cartogena Colombia. 23-26 September.
. Soyebo, K.O; Farinde, A.J; and Dionco-Adetayo, E.D. (2005) Constraints of oil palm production in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Science. 10(1): 55-59holding time on performance and on residual yolk and liver composition. Poult. Sci., 1993, 72: 1994-1997.
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ABSTRACT: occidentalis are economically important, highly valued and threatened freshwater fish species. To contribute to their ecological knowledge the Length-Weight Relationship and changes in the condition factor of A. occidentalis were analyzed from samples collected between May 2008-April 2009, in Lake Akata. A total of 770 fish specimens used for the study were obtained from fishermen operating on Lake Akata. These fishermen use various fishing gears including hand nets, cast nets and gill nets of various standard mesh sizes (20.2, 25.4, and 30.5mm).The aim was to supply basic information on the form of growth of the population of A. occidentalis, as well as to assess changes in the fish condition. The Length-weight relationship of fish was estimated from the equation: . b W a L which was transformed to base 10 logarithm, and condition factor, (k) was determined using the equation: 3 K 100.W L The mean weight and standard lengths of A. occidentalis, were 284.6(g)±6.9 and 25.34(cm)±0.36. The growth pattern of both male and femaleA. occidentalisin Lake Akata exhibited negative allometric growth pattern. The Length-Weight relationship equation for male and female of A. occidentalis was described by the equation: were LogW= - 1.1115 + 2.4729 Logl and LogW= - 1.1725 + 2.5029 Logl, respectively. The combined length weight relationship for both sexes was LogW = – 1.5644 + 2.8152 Log L. Fish species in the lake were generally in good condition. The mean condition factor for the combined sexes was 1.53±0.02, but individually, male A. occidentaliswere in better condition (1.53±0.03) compared to the females (1.52±0.03). There were no significant differences between the monthly condition factors of males and females of A. occidentalis (p>0.05). The wet season condition factor of A. occidentalis was higher than dry season values; The seasonal condition factor for A. occidentalis showed that there was no significant differences in the condition factor between dry and wet seasons (p>0.05).Lake Akata is a good environment for growth, reproduction and survival of the fish species.
Keyword: Growth pattern, seasonal condition, A. occidentalis, Lake Akata.
. J. S.Nelson, Fishes of the World(John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2006).
. T.Berra, Freshwater fish distribution (Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA, 2001) 604p.
. L. Etim, P.E. Lebo, and R.P. King, The dynamics of an exploited population of siluriod catfish (Schilbe intermidius Rueppel, 1832).
In the Cross River, Nigeria,Fisheries Research, 40, 1999, 295-307.
. D.H. Eccles, FAO species identification sheet for fishery purposes, Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Tanzania. Prepared and
published with the support of the United Nations Development programme (Project URT/87/016).FAO, Rome, 1992, 145P/56.
. A. Anene, Condition factors of four cichlid species of a man-made lake in Imo State, Southeastern, Nigeria,Turkish journal of
fisheries and aquatic sciences, 5, 2005, 43-47.
. T.P. Morato, P. Afonso, P. Lourinho, J.P. Barreiros, R.S. Santos and R.D.M. Nash, Length-weight relationships for 21 coastal fish
species of the Azores, North-Eastern Atlantic,Fisheries Research,50, 2001, 297-302.
. D. K. Moutopoulos, and K. I. Stergiou, Length-weight and length-length relationships of fish species from Aegean Sea
(Greece),Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 18 (3), 2000, 200-203.
. G. Petrakis, and K.I. Stergiou, Weight-Length relationships for 33 fish species in Greek waters,Fisheries Research,21, 1995, 465-
. J. Dulčić, and M. Kraljević, Weight -length relationships for fish species in the eastern Adriatic (Crotian waters),Fisheries
Research, 28, 1996, 243-251.
. O.O. Fafioye, and O.A. Oluajo, Length-weight relationships of five fish species in Epe Lagoon, Nigeria,African journal of
Biotechnology, 4,2005, 749-751.
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ABSTRACT: Selection indices are useful in understanding the extent of improvement that can be effected in yield by combination of characters. It forms the basis in considering the correlated characters for higher efficiency in selection for yield. Keeping the above points in view, study on classical selection indices in 34 exotic genotypes of Italian millet carried out for 13 characters during kharif and rabi. Among exotic group of genotypes, GS 462, GS 489 and GS 488 for kharif and GS 462, GS 463 and GS 458 for rabi are to be favoured. In general, the indices, which include more than one character, gave high genetic advance suggesting the utility of selection index for simultaneous improvement of several characters. It was observed that inclusion of characters one by one in the function gave fluctuating changes in the value of genetic advance and relative efficiencies over yield. A selection index of eight characters combination i.e. grain yield per plant, days to 50% flowering , plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, ear weight, carotene, 1000 grain weight and crude protein content had recorded high genetic advance and relative efficiency over grain yield per plant alone during kharif where as selection index of nine characters combination i.e. grain yield per plant, days to 50% flowering , plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, ear length, ear weight, 1000 grain weight, crude protein content and calcium content had recorded high genetic advance and relative efficiency over grain yield per plant alone during rabi. These classical selection indices may be given due weightage for simultaneous improvement in the respective groups.
Key words: Italian millet, selection indices, Seteria italica, classical selection
. Panse V. G. A discriminant function for selection of yield in cotton. Indian Cotton Growing. Rew. 1949, 111.
. Panse V. G. 1957. Genetics of quantitative characters in relation to plant breeding. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 17, 1957,318-328.
. Falconer D. S. An Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Second edition. Oliver and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh .1964, 312-324.
. Smith H. F.A discriminant function for plant selections. Annals of Eugenics. 7, 1936,40-250.
. Brim C. A., Johnson H. W., Cockerham C. C. Multiple selection in soyabeans. Agronomy Journal 51, 1959, 42-46.
. Hazel L. N and Lush J. L. The efficiency of three methods of selection. Journal of Heredity. 23, 1942, 293-339.
. Lerner I. M.Population genetics and Animal improvement. Cambridge University Press. XVIII. 1950, 342.
. Robison H. F., Comstock, R. E and Harvey, P. H. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation in corn and their implication in selection. Agronomy Journal. 43, 1951, 262-267.
. Shankar K. The use of selection indices in the improvement of a pearl millet population. Indian Journal of Genetics. 23 (1), 1963, 30-33.
. Mahadevappa M and Ponnaiya B. W. X. A discriminant function for selection for yield in Eleusine coracana Gaertn. Madras Agricultural Journal. 1965, 47-5.
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ABSTRACT: This research was aimed to investigate the blood profile and daily gain of fat-tailed growing rams by substituting dried leaves of Moringa oleifera (MOL) and Samanea saman (SSL) to other ingredients in the concentrate feed. 16 growing rams aged between 6 and 8 months (PI0), average body weight (BW) was 13.83±1.73 kg, were placed randomly in an individual cage. The treatments were P14L0=14% of CP concentrate feed without leaves supplement, P14LM-S=14% of CP concentrate feed with MOL (30%),SSL (10%), P18L0=18% of CP feed concentrates without leaves, P18LM-S=18% of CP feed concentrates with MOL (30%), SSL (10%). The rams were fed a basal diet of maize stover plus the concentrate at 2.5 % and 1.% of body weight on dry matter basis, respectively. Drinking water was available ad libitum. Blood sample was taken from the jugular vein and analysed for blood metabolites profile. The results showed that substituting ingredients with MOL and SSL had no significant effect on feed dry matter digestibility as well as on the blood profile. Nevertheless, the total feed intake and daily weight gain increased significantly (P<0.05) as compared to the control diet by 6.5 % and 12.5 %, respectively. The blood profiles of rams i.e.: hemoglobin (8.3 to 9.38 g/dl), leukocyte (47.90 to 68.71/mm3), erythrocytes (4.95 to 5.85 x 106/mm3), blood glucose (53.63 to 56.50 mg/dl), blood urea (19.75 to 24.28 mg/dl), albumin (1.95 to 2.28 g/dl), and globulin (2.73 to 4.10 g/dl) were considered within the normal range suggesting that substituting MOL and SSL did not impair the general health of the rams.
Keywords - supplementation, tree foliages, and blood profile.
 Z.A. Gworgwor, T.F. Mbahi and B. Yakubu, Environmental implications of methane production by ruminants: A Review. Journal of Sustainable in Agriculture and Environment. Vol 2(1). 2006, ISSN 0794-8867 Retrieved Mei 9, 2009, from www.verypdf.com/.
 P.R. Cheeke , Actual and potential applications of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria saponins in human and animal nutrition. In Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Science, Indiapolis 2000 10p. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from http://www.asas. org/JAS/symposia/proceeding/0909.pd
 C.S. Mc Sweeney, B. Palmer, D.M. Mc Neill and D.O Krause, Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol. 91, 2001, 83-93. Retrieved Mei 21, 2011, from http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:60404
 R.J. Wallace, N.R. Mc Ewen, F.M. McIntosh, B. Teferedegne and C.J. Newbold , Natural products as manipulators of rumen fermentation. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15, 2002, 1458-1468.
 A.R. Bobadilla, L. Hernandez, Ramirez, Alive and C.A. Sandoval-castro , Effect of supplementing tree foliage to grazing dual-purpose cows on milk composition and yield. J of Anim and Vet. Adv. 6(9), 2007 , 1042-1046. Retrieved Mei 7, 2010, from www.medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=javaa.2007.1042.1046
 R.A. Leng, Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No 139. Rome, 1997 pp 100 Retrieved August 5 2011 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w7448e/W7448E00.htm
 B. Teferedegne , New perspectives on the use of tropical plants to improve ruminant nutrition. Proc. Nutr. Soc. (59), 2000, 209-214.
 N.N. Maw, K. San mu, A. Aung and M.T. Htun , Preliminary report on nutritive value of some tree foliages. Conference on Internasional Agricultural Research for Development. October 11-13, 2006. University of Bonn.Myanmar.
 J. Verbic, Factors affecting microbial protein synthesis in the rumen with emphasis on diets containing forages. Bericht 29. Viehwirtschaftliche Factgang, BAL, Gumpenstein April 24-25, 2002, p. 1-6.
 L. Kearl , Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant in Developing Countries. Utah State Univ. Logam. USA. 1982.
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ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to study the compatibility of copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000) with bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents under in vitro conditions. Bacterial biocontrol agents viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were compatible with copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000) even at a high concentration of 300 ppm. Fungal biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride was inhibited by copper hydroxide at a concentration above 2500 ppm. The fungal biocontrol agent was highly compatible with the fungicide than the bacterial biocontrol agents.
Key words: Copper hydroxide (Kocide 3000), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma viride
. http://www.dupont.com/ProductionAgriculture/en_US/products_services/fungicides/Kocide3000_fungicide.html - 25k.
. G C Papaviza and J.A. Lewis, Introduction and augmentation of microbial antagonists for the control of soil borne plant pathogens, in G.C. Papavizas (Ed.), Biological Control in Crop Production, (New York Allanheld, Osmum 1981) 305-322
. S J Kay and A.Stewart. The effect of fungicides on fungal antagonists of onion white rot and selection of dicarboximide-resistant biotypes. Plant Pathology, 43, 1994, 863-871.
. Z Naar and M. Keeskes. Antagonism of Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma viride strains against Sclerotinia minor as influenced by mancozeb, benomyl and vinclozolin. Acta Phytopathologica Et Entomologica Hungarica, 33, 1998, 123-130.
. R S Utkhede and C.A. Koch, Chemical and biological treatments for control of gummy stem blight of greenhouse cucmber. European journal of Plant Pathology, 108, 2002, 443-448.
. V. Sendhilvel, T. Marimuthu and T. Raguchander, Compatibility of azoxystrobin 25 SC with biocontrol agents. Pestology, 28, 2004, 61-64.
. T Anand, V. Prakasam, A. Chandrasekaran, R. Samiyappan, G. Karthikeyan, and A. Saravanan, Compatibility of azoxystrobin (Amistar 25 SC) with biocontrol agents. Pestology, 31, 2007, 21-24.
. R Rodriguez – Kabana, and E.A. Curl, Non target effect of pesticides on soil borne pathogens and disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 17, 1980, 311 - 312.
. R S Singh, A. Jindal, D. Singh and T. Singh, Selection of Trichoderma isolates against common fungicides for their use in Integrated Plant Disease Management, in Special issue of the Global conference on Advances in Research on plant disease and their management, (Udaipur, Rajasthan 1995) 127-128.
. S C Dubey, Biological management of web blight of groundnut (Rhizoctonia solani), Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 30, 2000, 89-90..
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ABSTRACT: A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of difference phosphorus fertilizers on growth and nutrient status of soya bean cultivars. The treatments including, three cultivars of soybean (C1=4.7, C2=43355, C3=44NK), the phosphorus fertilizers including (P1=Control no fertilizer,P2=Triple super phosphate, P3=Di ammonium phosphate,P4=Di potassium phosphate, P5=NPK 20:20:20 with some trace elements and P6=NPK 12:36:12 with Mg) each of them applied in 75 Kg P.ha -1 . The factorial experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The results indicates that the highest values (23.47 g.pot-112.07 g.pot-1 and 1117.62 kg.ka-1) for shoot dry matter , root dry matter and biological yield respectively were given by the application superphosphate fertilizers in the cultivar 44NK followed by the cultivars 4.7 and 43355 which treated by the PK and NPK (12:36:12) Mg respectively. However the result revealed that the increase in uptake of P with the application of phosphorus over control was 280.49% in case of 44NK cultivar, 255.01 % in case of 4.7 cultivar and 99.75% in case of 43355cultivar. The high values of PUEp (55.556%) and PFE(10.079%) were recorded by the application of superphosphate in 44NK cultivars, while the low values were (4.622% and 0.392%) over control recorded by the application of NPK(20:20:20) trace elements and super phosphate in case of 4.7 and 43355 cultivars respectively.
Keywords: DAP, nutrient status, phosphorus fertilizers, Phosphorus use efficiency, Soybean.
1] C. Hamel, B.V. Furlan and D.L. Smith, N2 –Fixation and transfer in a field grown mycorrhizal corn and soybean intercrop, Plant and Soil, 133, 1991, 177-185.
 B. Nacer, and A. M. Gillen, Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, N, and S partitioning as affected by node position and cultivar , Agricultural Sciences,1(3), 2010, 110-118 .
 A. Singh, A.L. Baoule, H. G. Ahmed, A.U. Dikko, U. Aliyu, M.B. Sokoto, M.Musa, B. Haliru, J. Alhassan, Influence of phosphorus on the performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) varieties in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria , Agricultural Sciences, 2(3), 2011, 313-317
 C. Suwannarat, and W. Wajananawat, Effects of sources of phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in rice-soybean double cropping. Kaset sart Journal (National sciences), 21, 1984, 93-101.
 P. Barbagelata, R. Melchiori and O. Paparotti, Phosphorus fertilization of soybeans in clay soils of Entre Rios Province. Better Crops International Journal, 16(1), 2002.
 M.A. Malik, M. A. Cheema, H. Z. Khan and M.A. Wahid, Gowth and yield response of soybean(Glycine max L.) to seed inoculation and varying phosphorus levels. Journal Agriculture. Research, 44 (1), 2006, 47-54.
 U.C. Sharma and B. Singh, Effect of Applied P on the Yield and Incidence of Pod Blight of Soybean in Nagaland. Journal of Hill Research, Vol. 4, 1991, 94-96.
 R. Sandeep, S. Joseph and M. S. Jisha, "Yiel and Nutrient Uptake of Soybean as Influenced by Phosphate Solubilising Microorganisms," World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 4, 2008, 835-838.
 F. G. Boswell and O. E Anderson, "Long Term Residual Fertility and Current NPK Application Effects on Soybean," Agronomy Journal, 68(2), 1976, 642-645.  A.A.M. Schuffelen and J.G.H. Vanschaunouwenburg, Quick testes for soil and plant analysis used by small laboratories, Netherland Journal of Agriculture Science, 9, 1961, 2-16.
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ABSTRACT: Induction of resistance against plant diseases by seed treatment is simple, cost effective and an efficient strategy for disease management. Aqueous extracts of three plants namely, Duranta repens, Polyalthia longifolia and Parthenium hysterophorus were evaluated for induction of resistance against sorghum downy mildew at 2.5% and 5% concentrations by seed dip method. Seeds were dipped for 3 h, followed by decanting and incubation to obtain sprouts. The sprouts obtained after 42 h incubation were inoculated by dipping in conidial suspension, planted in pots and raised in greenhouse conditions to observe systemic disease incidence. Duranta repens extract at 2.5% and 5% concentrations provided protection of 50.9% and 85% respectively, as against 38.5% protection provided by positive control. Biochemical analysis showed enhanced levels of defence enzymes PAL and POX in plant extract-treated seedlings. Evaluation of 6 solvent fractions of D. repens revealed disease protection by almost all fractions, indicating synergistic effect by various biochemicals. The method is helpful to attain goal of sustainable agriculture with biological and ecological safety. The novel method developed in the present investigation of using weight of seedlings as indicator of health index is effective and more convenient as compared to measurement of root and shoot lengths.
Key words: Downy mildew, Duranta repens, Induction, Organic farming, Sorghum, IAH consortium.
 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2010. FAOSTAT Database, Rome, Italy, Faostat. Available from: http://faostat.fao.org (verified 2013 jan 10).
 N. Seetharama, S. Audilakshmi, T.G. Nageshwar Rao, V.R. Bhagawat, S. Ravikumar, Chari Appaji, S.S. Rao, M. Elangovan, V.A. Tonapi, N. Kannababu, B. Dayakar Rao, A. Ratnavathi Reddy, M.S. Raut, Prabhakar and R.P.S. Grewal, Report of AICSIP coordinating team 2005-06. India: Directorate of Sorghum Research, 2006, 78 .
 R.G. Kenneth, Downy mildews of graminaceous crops, in D.M. Spencer (Ed.), The downy mildews (London: Academic Press, 1981) 367-394.
 I.R. Crute, J.M. Noorwood and D.L. Gordon, Resistance to phenylamine fungicides in lettuce and brassica downy mildew, Proc. of the Bordeaux Mixture centenary Meeting, British Crop Protection Council, Monograph, Bordeaux, France, 1985, 31, 311-314.
 T. Isakeit, G. Odvody, R. Jahn and L. Decanini, Peronosclerospora sorghi resistant to metalaxyl treatment of sorghum seed in Texas. Phytopathology, 93, 2003, S39.
 A. Garcia-Brugger, O. Lamotte, E. Vandelle, S. Bourque, D. Lecourieux, B. Poinssot, D. Wendehenne and A. Pugin,. Early signaling events induced by elicitors of plant defences. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 19, 2006, 711-724
 G.E. Vallad and R.M. Goodman, Systemic acquired resistance and induced systemic resistance in conventional agriculture. Crop Science, 44, 2004, 1920 - 1934.
 D. Walters, D. Walsh, A. Newton and G. Lyon, Induced resistance for plant disease control: maximizing the efficacy of resistance elicitors. Phytopathology, 95, 2005, 1368-1373.
 J. Kuc, What's old and what's new in concepts of induced systemic resistance in plants and its application, in T. Tuzun and E. Bent (Eds.), Multigenic and induced systemic resistance in plants (USA: Springer, 2006) 9-20.
 M. Oostendorp, W. Kunz, B. Dietrich and T. Staub, Induced disease resistance in plants by chemicals. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 107, 2001, 19-28.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the usefulness of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a potential probiotic in fish farming using C. gariepinus as biological model. The experimental fish were divided into four groups, the first group was fed on diet supplemented with 0.5ml of L. acidophilusand designated as Group A ,the second group was fed on diet supplemented with 1 ml of L. acidophilusand designated as Group B the third group was fed on diet supplemented with 1.5ml of L. acidophilusand designated as Group C and the fourth group was served as control fed on L. acidophilus-free diet. The final weight of the groups that received L. acidophilus were not statistically different with the following mean values 390g, 395g and 400g for Group A ,B and C respectively but the mean weight of the control that does not receive L. acidophilus was 350g which is statistically different from the groups that received L. acidophilus. The result obtained revealed that percentage of fish that survived in the groups fed with L. acidophilus were 84%, 88% and 88% for Group A ,B and C respectively and 72% for the control that was not fed with L. acidophilus the corresponding percentage mortality was calculated to be 16%, 12%,12% and 20 % respectively. The result indicated that percentage mortality was very high in the control group that was not fed with L. acidophilus.This study was able to establish that L. acidophilus could be a good probiotic candidate in fish production because of its ability to enhance growth of C. gariepinus.
Key words: antibiotics, probiotics, , growth, aquaculture, environment
. Kolndadacha. O. D., Adikwu, I. A., Okaeme A. N., Atiribom R. Y., Mohammed A and Musa Y. M. (2011): The role of probiotics in aquaculture in Nigeria. Continental j. Fisheries and Aquatic Science5 (1):8-15
. Verschuere, L., Romout, G., Sorgeloos, P. and Verstrate, W. (2000): Probiotic bacteria as Biologcal control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reveiws, 64(4): 65-671.
. Irianto A, Austin B (2002). Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis. 25: 333-342.
. Strom E and Ringo E. (1993): Changes in bacterial floral in developing cod, Gadusmorhua L. Larvae after inoculation of Lactobacullusplantarum in the water In: physiological and biochemical aspects of Fish larval development (ed by B. Walther and H. J. Fyhn),. 226-228. University of Bergen, Bergen Norway
. Panigrahi, A. and Azad, I. S. (2007):Microbial intervention for better fish health in aquaculture: the Indian scenario. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 33:429-40,
. Balcazar, L. J., Blas, I., Ruiz-Zarzuela, I., Cunningham D., Vendrell, D. and Muzquiz, L.J. (2006). The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Veterinary Microbiology 114:173-186
. Carnevali, O., De Vivo, L., Sulpizio, R., Gioacchini, G., Olivotto, I., Silvi, S., and Cresci, A., (2006): Growth improvement by probiotic in European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.), with particular attention to IGF-1, myostatin and cortisol gene expression . Aquaculture, 258 (1-4):430 – 438.
. Ziaei-Nejad S., Rezaei M. H., Ghobad Azari Takami G. A., Lovett D. L., Ali-Reza Mirvaghefi A. and Shakouri M., (2006): The effect of Bacillus spp. bacteria used as probiotics on digestive enzyme activity, survival and growth in the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Aquaculture.
. Kumar R., Mukherjee S. C., Prasad K. P. and Pal A. K. (2006): Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis as a probiotic to Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.) Aquaculture Research 37 (12), 1215–1221.
. Taoka Y, Maeda H, Jo J Y, Jeon MJ, Bai SC, Lee WJ, Yuge K, Koshio S. 2006: Growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus to probiotics in a closed recirculating system. Fisheries Sci 72 (2): 310-321.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of the Cichlid, Commonly Called 'Wesafu' Reared In Hapa|
ABSTRACT: The ecotype cichlid, 'wesafu', as it is commonly called, grows to a massive size of 1.5kg and 414mm total length in the wild, which makes it a fish of great aquacultural importance in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted to evaluate its growth performance and nutrient utilization when reared in hapa. 50 Fingerlings with average weight of 7.73g were allocated into 1m3 m hapa installed in a 0.025ha pond and replicated. Four experimental diets (T1, T2 , T3 and T4) were formulated with crude protein levels of 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% respectively, using a locally fabricated pelletizing machine, with particle sizes of 1.5- 2.0 mm. Fish were fed 3% of their body weight twice daily while samplings were carried out forthnightly. The results showed that fish fed T4 (Crude protein of 45%) recorded the highest growth performance and nutrient utilization. This was followed by T3, T2 while T1 had the least of these indices. No significant difference (P< 0.05) was observed in fish survival and the range was 78.7- 87.8. It showed that final weight gain was significantly higher while FCR was significantly lower in T4 and T3 when compared to T1 and T2. The Food Conversion Ratio was least in T4 and T3 indicating better nutrient utilization. Similarly, protein efficiency was enhanced when the crude protein was increased. There was however no significant (P< 0.05) variation in the growth performance and nutrient utilization between T3 (35%) and T4 (45%) crude protein levels. It can therefore be inferred that the optimum protein requirement for the studied fish ('wesafu') is 35% crude protein. The extra cost incurred on the addition protein (T3 to T4) did not produce any appreciable increase in growth. Feeding above this level will lead to increased cost with little or no proportionate benefit.
Key Words: Growth, Performance, Nutrient utilization, cichlid, 'wesafu'
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. Ecotype Cichlid "Wesafu‟ in Epe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7(1): 105-109.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Nigeria and bamboo plants as a forest product|
|Authors||:||Okwori, Robert Ogbanje, Chado, Mohammed Diko|
ABSTRACT: Bamboo is one of the most valuable non-timber products in the world today and it provides livelihood to millions of people in the world. The paper explained bamboo and discussed the morphology of a bamboo plant. It explained the uses and properties of bamboo. The paper also identified impediments to effective utilization of bamboo as a forest product in Nigeria. Some of these impediments include lack of public awareness in the use of bamboo for modern construction work, lack of bamboo research institute, unavailability of technical experts for processing bamboo and government attitude towards bamboo as a forest product. The paper suggests establishment of Bamboo research institute for conducting researches in bamboo and for the production of technical personnel for processing bamboo.
Key words: Bamboo, Morphology, Properties, Structure, Wood industries
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ABSTRACT: The study was conducted at four villages of Katsina- Ala Local Government Area of Benue State of Nigeria. Measurements were taken on 1378 birds on body linear parameters and weight. The data generated were subjected to discriminant analysis to estimate group statistics, test of equality of group means, canonical correlation coefficients, Wilks' lambda, structure matrix and classification statistics. The high value of canonical correlation coefficients indicated the strength of the models that explained the variation existing between the groups. The significance of the discriminant functions indicated their strength that differentiated between the groups. There were variations in body dimensions between isolated populations of the Tiv Local chicken ecotype. These morphological measurements can be used to increase consistency of individuals in a population and separation of individuals between populations.
Key words: Canonical correlation, Classification statistics and Discriminant function.
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