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ABSTRACT: Shifting cultivation is the major cultivation in hilly region of North-Eastern India. Shifting cultivation cycles and landuses practices of shifting cultivated area of are considerably related. Fertility status of owing to the shrunk of jhum cycle (2-3 years); resulted deterioration of in soil health and ecological imbalance. So to keep shifting cultivation a sustainable farming system, we examine the relationship between fallow cycles (0-1, 3-5years, 5-7 years, 8-10 years and 12 years) and improved/alternated landuses (intermittent agriculture, agroforestry, abandoned jhum land) in relation to fertility status in shifting cultivated area of Chandel district of Manipur, India. In all landuses short term fallow cycle (3-5 years) deteriorated soil fertility attributes by significant reduction in soil pH, organic carbon and available and total major nutrients. With the increased of fallow cycles (>8 years) its fertility status in all the landuses were significantly restored except intermittent agriculture due to irregular crop fallow rotation. Among the landuses, abandoned jhum land were relatively stable in restoring soil in 5-7 years fallow cycle onwards due to sufficient surface coverage, lack of anthropogenic intervention and internal regulation. Soil restoration starts from 8-10 years onwards in agroforestry system dominated with soil enriching pulse crops and deep rooted nitrogen fixing trees and was remarkable improved from 25 years old pine dominated undisturbed secondary forest ecosystem. Therefore, adoption of improved appropriate landuses in combination with optimum fallow cycles 5-7 years more and proper combination of soil enriching crops and tress have the significant potential in restoring soil fertility status and sustain production in degraded jhum land of northeastern India.
Keywords - Fallow cycles, Improved landuses, Shifting cultivation, Soil fertility
 Anon. Agro-climatic planning for agricultural development in Meghalaya. Working group, Zonal Planning Team, Eastern Himalayan Region, AAU, Jorhat, Assam. (1992).
 Sen, T.K., Baruah, U., Sarkar, D., Maji, A.K. and Patil, V.P.. Soil Series of Manipur. Publ. 134.NBSS and LUP, Nagpur. (2006). pp.53
 Tanaka, S., Kendawang, J.J., Yoshida, N., Shibata, K., Jee, A., Tanaka, K., Ninomiya, I. and Sakurai, K.. Effects of Shifting Cultivation on Soil Ecosystems in Sarawak, Malaysia II. Changes in soil chemical properties and runoff water at Balai Ringin and Sabal experimental sites. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 50 (5). 2004, 689-699.
 Singh, B.P., Madhumita Das and Prasad, R.N. Effect of different landuse systems on nutrient availability in hill terrains of Meghalaya (India). Proc. of the Inter. Symp. on Nutrient Management for sustained productivity. Vol.II. 1992, 60-62.
 Dhyani, S.K. and Chauhan, D.S.. Agroforestry practices of North-Eastern hill region of India. In: Agroforestry traditions and innovations (ed.P.Narain et al.,) CSWCR&TI, Dehradun. 1994,19-23.
 Arunachalam, A.. Dynamics of soil nutrients and microbial biomass during first year cropping in an 8-year jhum cycle. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 64, 2002, 283-291.
 Kass, D.L., Arya, S.J.S., Sanchez, J.O., Pinto, L.S. and Ferreira, P. Ten years experience with alley farming in Central America. Plant and Soil. 63,1992, 165-179.
 Singh, G. and Singh, N.T., Dagar, J.C., Singh, H. and Sharma, V.P. An evaluation of agriculture, forestry and agroforestry practices in a moderately alkali soil in northwestern India. Agroforestry Systems. 37, 1997, 279-295.
 Entz, M.H., Baron, V.S., Carr, P.M., Meyer, D.W., Smith, S.R. and McCaughey, W.P.. Potential of forages to diversify cropping systems in the northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal. 94, 2002,240–250.
 Katsvairo, T.W., Wright, D.L., Marois, J.J., Hartzog, D.L., Rich, J.R., and Wiatrak, P.J.. Sod–Livestock Integration into the Peanut–Cotton Rotation: A Systems Farming Approach. Agronomy Journal. 98, 2006,1156–1171.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of potential erodibility of basin wetland using soil particles distribution|
|Authors||:||O. E. Essien|
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to predict soil erodibility using soil properties of upper and lower tributary river (Enyong Creek and Ikpa river) basins wetland, comprising different soil groups or series. Mathematical formulation used for the nomograph of Wischmeier et al was used for the evaluation. Investigated soil properties included soil organic matter (SOM); granulometry of silt and clay; soil structure and permeability. The predicted K-factors, hence soil erodibility potentials, were high and significantly different (p<.05) from each catchment soil, and ranged between 0.0073 and 0.0827 for Ikpa River wetland, and between 0.0827 and 0.121 for Enyong Creek wetland. Percentage SOM was significantly different (P<0.01) between the wetlands, with Ikpa river wetland registering higher values. Percentage clay in Ikpa was generally higher than its values in Enyong Creek; other properties were not significantly different. Significant correlation was observed between silt percentage and erodibility factor. Further investigation is required between K-factor and influence of saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, the study provided baseline information on wetland erodibility for the reduction of soil susceptibility to erosion when considering any appropriate wetland development projects. Keywords: Soil erodibility, K-factor, river basin development, granulometry, wetland erosion.
 R. Suresh, Soil and water conservation engineering (New Delhi: Standard Publishers Distributors; 2006)
 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services, (NRCS),National SoilSurvey handbook, title 430 – VI, 2005. Available at: http://soil.usda.gov/technical/handbook/.
 A.T. O'Geen, R. Elkins, D. Lewis, D. Erodibility of agricultural soils, withexamples in Lake and Mendocino countries (Oakland: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2006), Publication 8194.
 FAO, Natural Resources Management and Environment Department. The land husbandrycomponents and strategy: soil erodibility.(Rome: Natural Resources Management and Environment Department, 2008) Accessed 22 July, 2013. Available at www.fao.org/docrep/t1765e/t1765eof.htm
 O. Babalola, Soil properties affecting infiltration, runoff, and erodibility, In V. O. Saqua, E. E. Enabor, G. E.K. Ofomata, K. O. Ologe and L. Oyebande (Eds.),Ecological disasters in Nigeria, (Lagos, Nigeria: Fed. Min. Sci. Tec., 1988).
 W. E. Wildman, K. D. Gowans. Some physical environment and how it affects plant growth. (Oakland: Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, 1978), Leaflet 2280.
 K. Bhattachanya, A. M. Michael, Land drainage principles, method and application (NewDelhi, India: Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2003).  W. H. Wischmeier, J. V. Mannering, Relation of soil properties to its erodibility. Soil Science Society of America Journal (SSSAJ) 33 (1), 1969, 131-137.
 S. J. Goldsman, K. Jackson, Bursztynsky, T. A. Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook, (New York W87- 08688:Mc.Graw Hill Book Co., 1986).
 W. H. Wischmeier, C. B. Johnson, B. U. Cross, and contracted sites, Journal of soil and waterconservation 28, 1971, 189 – 192. ISSN 1941 – 3300.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Quantative Real-Time PCR of Phytophthora infestans in different Indian potato cultivars|
|Authors||:||Touseef Hussain, B. P. Singh, Firoz Anwar|
ABSTRACT: Reliable and sensitive quantification of Phytophthorainfestansin potato plant is of crucial importance in managing the multiple syndromes caused by this pathogen. A Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the determination of P.infestans in host tissues. DNA levels of a highly virulent isolate were measured in different potato cultivars with varying degrees of resistance. Using SYBR Green and specific primers for P.infestans the minimal amount of pathogen DNA quantified was 0.0005ng/μl. Pathogen DNA was recorded at 24 hours postinoculation. Thereafter, the increase was rapid in susceptible cultivars and slower in resistant ones. The amount of pathogen DNA quantified in each potato cultivars correlated with susceptibility to late blight. Likewise, there was a relationship between the virulence of the pathogen and the degree of colonization. Differences also were found in pathogen amount among host tissues, with maximal pathogen biomass occurring in susceptible one. The real-time PCR technique developed in this study was sensitive and robust enough to assess both pathogen development and resistance to Late blight in different potato genotypes. Keywords: Phytophtohorainfestans, resistance, potato, cultivars, Real Time PCR
 Hooker, W.J, Late blight. In: WJ Hooker ed. compendium of potato disease(APS Press. St. Paul, MN, USA, 1983) 40-42.
 Haverkort, A., Struik, P., Visser, R., Jacobsen, E, Applied biotechnology to combat late blight in potato caused by Phytophthorainfestans. Potato Res.52,2009,249–264.
 Fry WE, and ES Mizubuti,potato late blight. (In: DG Jones ed. The epidemiology of plant diseases. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Ma USA,1998,371-388.)
 Peters, R.D., Platt, H.W., Hall, R., Medina, M,Variation in aggressiveness of Canadian isolates of Phytophthorainfestans as indicated by their relative abilities to cause potato tuber rot. Plant Dis. 83,1999,652–661.
 Smart, C. D., Mayton, H., Mizubuti, E. S. G., Willmann, M. R., and Fry, W. E,Environmental and genetic factors influencing self-fertility in Phytophthorainfestans. Phytopathology. 90,2001, 987-994.
 Turkensteen, L.J., Flier, W.G., Wanningen, R and Mulder, A,Production, survival and infectivity of oospores of Phytophthorainfestans. Plant Pathology. 49,2000, 688-696.
 Inglis, D.A., Johnson, D.A., Legard, D.E., Fry, W.E., and Hamm, P.B, Relative resistances of potato clones in response to new and old populations of Phytophthorainfestans. Plant Dis. 80,1996,575–578.
 Pomar, F., Bernal, M. A., Collar, J., Díaz, J., Caramelo, C., Gayoso, C., Novo, M., Prego, C., Saavedra, A., Silvar, C., and Merino, F,A survey of "Tristeza" of pepper in Galicia and the fungal pathogens causing the disease. Capsicum Eggplant Newsl. 20,2001,90-93.
 Flor, H.H, Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol,9,1971, 275-296.
 Henson, J. M., and French, R, The polymerase chain reaction and plant disease diagnosis. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 31,1993,81-109.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Determinants of Financial Performance of Maize Farms in Egba Division of Ogun State, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||A. O. Otunaiya, O. A. C. Ologbon, O. Oyebanjo|
ABSTRACT: This study examines the financial performance of maize farms in Egba division of Ogun State, Nigeria, using primary data obtained, by use of simple random procedure, from 150 maize farm operators. A regression analysis was used to measure maize farmers' financial performance given farm and farmer's characteristics, production and marketing, and risk management strategies. Results indicate that income from off-farm sources, having production and marketing contracts, and having a written farm records lead to higher financial performance while participation in government price support programme lowered financial performance in maize farms.
Keywords: Financial Performance, Maize, Net Farm Income, Nigeria.
 O. O. Alabi. Forecasting total maize, sorghum and Millet demanded by industries in Kaduna and Kano States of Nigeria: An application of Grafted Polynomials Model. In Umeh, Obinne and Lawal (eds). Prospects and Challenges of Adding value to Agricultural Products. Farm Management Association of Nigeria 22nd Annual National Conference Proceeding. Makurdi, 8th-11th September, 2008, pp 35-44.
 FAO, Food and Agricultural Organization, Maize in human nutrition, Rome Italy, 1992.
 A.O. Otunaiya, P.A. Okuneye and J.O.Y. Aihonsu, Pattern of Inorganic Fertilizer use among Food Crop Farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(1): 2012, 26-31.
 G. O. Plumley, and R. H. Hornbaker, Financial Management Characteristics of Successful Farm Firms Agricultural Finance Review 51: 1991, 9-20.
 P. N. Ellinger,., P. J. Barry, T. L. Frey, and J. T. Scott. Financial Characteristics of Illinois Farm 1985-1986. University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, Department of Agricultural Economics, 1989
 A. K. Mishra, C. A. Wilson and R. P Williams, Technology Adoption, Management Practices, and Financial Performance of New and Beginning Farmers: Evidence from a National Survey. Unpublished paper presented at the 2007 AAEA annual meeting. Portland, July 29-Aug. 1:13-18, 2007.
 J. B. Kauffman and L.W. Tauer, Successful Dairy Farm Management Strategies Identified by Stochastic Dominance Analysis of Farm Records. Northeastern Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 15: 1986, 168-177.
 E. Melichar, Capital Gains versus Current Income in the Farming Sector. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 61: 1979, 1085-1102.
 K. L Haden,. and L. A. Johnson, Factors which contribute to financial performance of selected Tennessee Dairies. Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics, 21: 1989, 105-112.
 S.O. Ewuola, Farm Credit as a Lever to Rural Development In S.F Adedoyin and J.O.Y Aihonsu (eds). Sustainable Development In Rural Nigeria. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of the Nigerian Rural Sociological Association. 1995, pp. 141-146.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Growth Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Blood Meal with Enzyme Supplementation as a Replacement for Fish Meal|
|Authors||:||K. U. Anoh, S. O. Akpet|
ABSTRACT: A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth response of broiler chickens fed diets containing blood meal with enzyme supplementation as a replacement for fishmeal. A total of two hundred and forty (240) day old broiler birds with average initial weight of 60.00g were used. The birds were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with three replicates of 20 birds each in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were T1 (the control), T2 (0% blood meal and 10% fish meal without enzyme), T3 (5% blood meal and 5% fish meal with enzyme) and T4 (10% blood meal 0% fish meal with enzyme). The diets were compounded to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Feed and water were given ad-libitum. The result showed that in the starters phase, there was significant (p<0.05) difference in all the parameters measured except in the feed to gain ratio. Treatment 3 recorded the highest value in all the parameters including mortality while the control recorded the least. In the finishers phase, it was shown that there was no significant difference in the final weight and the average daily weight gain except in feed intake, feed to gain ratio and feed cost per kg gain which showed a significant (p<0.05) difference. Treatment 3 also gave better result compared to the other treatments. There was no mortality in this phase. This result showed that blood meal can be used with enzymes supplementation up to 10% in the diets of broilers without any adverse effect on growth performance.
Key Word: Enzyme, Feed intake, Weight gain, Feed cost.
. A. M. Kingori, J. K. Tuitoek and H. K. Muiruri, Comparison of fermented dried blood meal and cooked dried blood meal as protein supplements for growing pigs, Tropical Animal health and Production, (30), 1998, 191- 196.
. J. E. Swan, Animal by- product processing, In Hui, Y. H ( Ed), Encyclopedia Food Science Technology, 4, (1992), 42-49.
. K. U. Anoh, J. J. Omage, A. M. Adamu, I. Abdullahi and S. O. Akpet, Nutrients Digestibility and Carcass Characteristics of Weaner Rabbit Fed Diets Containing Rumen Digesta from Cattle, Sheep and Goat, International Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 1 (7), 2012, 60 – 65. . P. McDonald, R. A. Edward, J. F. D. Greenhalgh and C. A. Morgan, Animal nutrition (Longman publishers, 1998).
. NRC, Nutrient Requirement for Poultry, 9th Ed, ( National Academy Press, Washington D. C., U.S.A. 1994).
. I. I. Dafwang, J. M. Olomu, S. A. Offiong and S. A. Bello, The effects of replacing fish meal with blood meal in the diets of laying chickens, Journal of Animal Production Research. (6), 1986, 81-92.
. A. Haq and M. Akhtar, Poultry Farming, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan. (206), 2004, 221 – 231.
. A. Donkoh, C. C. Atuahene, D. M. Anang and S. K. Ofori, Chemical composition of solar-dried blood meal and its effect on performance of broiler chickens, Elsevier: Animal Feed Science and Technology (81), 1999, 299 – 30.
. A. Memon, N. N. Ansari, A. A. Solangi, and G. Memon, Effects of Blood meal on the growth and Carcass Yield of broilers, Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 22 (3), 2002, 97 – 100.
. K. Tabinda, H. K. Sohail and N. A. Noor, Effect of different levels of blood meal on broiler performance during two phases of growth. International Journal of Poultry Science 6 (12), 2007 860 – 865.
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ABSTRACT: Nine samples of wheat grains cv. Sakha 69, were screened for the associated fungi, 15 fungal species belonging to eight genera were isolated from wheat seeds. The isolated fungi were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceous, Aspergillus parasiticus, Alternaria altrenata, Stemphylium sp., Cladosporium sp., Drechslera sp. Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium semitectum, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma sp. The genus Aspergillus gave the highest percentage of seed colonization of the isolated fungi followed by Fusarium spp. Pathogenicity test for nine isolates of F. moniliforme, were studied for the levels of pathogenicity on wheat cv. Sakah 69. Pathogenicity test were conducted under greenhouse conditions and the percentage of infection was used as a criteria to evaluate the pathogenicity of F. moniliforme isolates against wheat plants, cluster analysis was a reliable method to differentiate between nine isolates belonging to genus Fusarium. Three different primers were used in the following study to differentiate among F. moniliforme isolates and the third primer proved to be the best in grouping F. moniliforme isolates into distinct groups.
Key Words: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), seed-borne mycoflora, RAPD analysis, pathogenicity of F. moniliforme.
 Wiese MV (1984). Compendium of wheat diseases. 3 rd Ed. The American Phytopathological Society, pp. 106
 Embaby EM, Nahed M Ayaat, Abd El-Hamid NH, Mona M Abdel-Galil, Yaseen AA, Marwa A Younos (2012). Detection of Fungi and Mycotoxin Affected Wheat Quality. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8 (7): 3382-3392.
 Mathur SB, Olga Kongsdul (2003). Common Laboratory seed healthy testing methods for detecting Fungi,Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries Thorvaldsensvey57, DK- 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. Pp. 399.  Mahmuda K, Yasmin N, Khanzada AK (1987). Effect of black point disease on the germination of wheat verities. Pak. J. Agric. Res., 8: 467-473.
 Kunwar IK (1989). Mycoflora associated with stored wheat and its milling fractions in India. Plant Sci., 99: 437-443.
 Armstrong GM, Armstrong JK (1981). Formae speciales and races of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt diseases. Pp. 391-399. In: Fusarium Diseases, Biology and Taxonomy. P.E. Nelson; T. A. Toussoun and R.J. Cook(eds.). Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. pp. 457
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Salinity Stress on Glutathione –S-Transferases (GSTs) of Maize|
|Authors||:||R. N. Remme, N. A. Ivy, M. A. K. Mian, M. Rohman|
ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to explore the responses of maize GST to salinity. GST activities were found to induce with the increasing of salinity levels and duration of stress. At 3 day, 5 day and 7 day stress most of all the salinity concentration (4 dS/m, 8 dS/m and 12 dS/m) increased the GST activities over control. However 16 dS/m salinity decreased the activity over control. In foliar application of proline GST activities were increased gradually over control and NaCl treatment at 3 day, 5 day and 7 day stress in all the salinity level. In betaine application at 4 dS/m, 8 dS/m, 12 dS/m and 16 dS/m salinity also increased GST activity were gradually over control at 3 day, 5 day and 7 day stress. It also increases the GST activity during the stress period over NaCl stress in all the salinity levels, except 12 dS/m and 16 dS/m salinity at 3 day stress. When both proline and betaine applied together in stressed seedlings at 4 dS/m, 8 dS/m, 12 dS/m and 16 dS/m salinity increased the GST activity at 3 day, 5 day and 7 day stress over control. Though the combination of 15 mM proline and betaine decreased the activities at 3 day and 7 day stress at 4 dS/m, 8 dS/m and 12 dS/m at 3 day stress GST activity increased at other salinity stress in different stress period. To examine the detoxification role of maize GST, concentration of MDA (peroxident product of poly unsaturated fatty acid) in the stressed maize seedlings was studied. In all the salinity levels, MDA contents increased over control. Supplementation of proline and betaine reduced the concentrations of MDA over salinity stresses. The simultaneous increased GST activities and lower MDA concentration suggested the detoxification role of maize GST on cytotoxic MDA.
Keywords: Glutathione –S-transferases, Maize, NaCl, Melondialdehide
. Abenavoli, M.R., D. Santis, C.M. Sidari, A. Sorgona, M. Badiani and G. Cacco. 2001. Influence of coumarin on the net nitrate uptake in durum wheat. New Phytologist. 150: 619-627.
. Alexios, N., Polidoros and J. G. Scandalios. 1999. Role of hydrogen peroxide and different classes of antioxidants in the regulation of catalase and glutathione S-transferase gene expression in maize (Zea mays L.). Physiologia Plantarum. 106: 112–120.
. Anderson, J.V. and D.G. Davis. 2004. Abiotic stress alters transcript profiles and activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in Euphorbia esula. Physiol Plant. 120: 421-433.
. Ashraf, M. and M. R. Foolad. 2007. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot. 59:206-216.
. Atkins, W.M., W. Regina, W. Andrew and Y. H. Anthony. 2003. The catalytic mechanism of glutathione S-transferase (GSTs). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. . 26: 267-268.
. Awasthi, Y.C., Y.Yang, N.K. Tiwari and S. Awasthi. 2004. Regulation of 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated signaling by gluathione S-transferases. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 27(5): 607-619.
. Awasthi. S., S.S. Singhal, J. Singhal, Y. Yang, P. Zimniak, Y.C. Awasthi. 2003b. Role of RLIP76 in lung cancer doxorubicin resistance: III. Anti-RLIP76 antibodies trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells and synergistically increase doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 56(1):69-70.
. Blokhina, O., E. Virolainen and K.V. Gagerstedt. 2003. Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Ann Bot (Lond). 91: 179-194.
. Chinnusamy, V., A. Jagendorf and J. Zhu. 2005. Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci. 45:437–448.
. Csiszár, J., Z. Váry, E. Horváth, A. Gallé and I. Tari. 2011. Role of glutathione transferases in the improved acclimation to salt stress in salicylic acid-hardened tomato. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 55(1):67-68.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Genetic diversity studies in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)|
|Authors||:||B. Rajasekhar Reddy, Mula Pratapa Reddy, Hameedunnisa Begum, N. Sunil|
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted using nineteen exotic collections of tomato. Genetic divergence analysis following Mahalanobis D2 statistics revealed considerable genetic diversity among 19 genotypes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for all the eighteen quantitative characters which was pertaining to the growth, earliness, yield and quality. Fruit weight, plant height and number of fruits per plant contributed 92.40% to the total divergence. Appreciable diversity within and between the clusters was observed. The characters fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and plant height were the potent factors in differentiating the germplasm of tomato under study. Five clusters were fanned from the D2 analysis using Tocher's method. Cluster II topped with maximum number of genotypes among cluster fanned, while maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster III and IV followed by cluster IV and V.
Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum L., clusters, D2 analysis, Solanaceae, germplasm, diversity
. Basavaraj, N.S., Patil, B.C., Salimath, P.M., Hosamani, R.M. and Krishnaraj, P.U. 2010. Genetic divergence in tomato (Solanum lycoperiscon [Mill.] Wettsd.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(3) : 508-539, 5 ref.
. De, R. N., Seetharaman, R., Sinha, M.T. and Banerjee, S.P. 1988. Genetic divergence in rice. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 48 : 189-194.
. Evgenidis, G., Traka-Mavrona, E. and Koutsika – Sotiriou, M. 2011. Principal component and clusters analysis as a tool in the assessment of tomato hybrids and cultivars. International Journal of Agronomy, 27 ref.
. Mahalanobis, P. C., 1936. On the generalized distance in statristics. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, (India.), 2: 49-55.
. Mahesha, D.K., Apte, U.B. and Jadhav, B.B. 2006. Studies on genetic divergence in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Crop Research, 32(3): 401-402.
. Rao, C. R. 1952. Advanced Statistical Methods in Biometrical Research. John Wiley and Sons Inc., Newyork, PP-390.
. Sekhar, L., Prakash, B.G., Salimath, P.M., Sridevi, O. and Patil, A.A. 2008. Genetic diversity among some productive hybrids of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 21(2): 264-265.
. Singh, J. K., Singh, J. P., Jain, S. K., Aradhana, J. and Joshi, A. 2002. Studies on genetic variability and its importance in tomato (Lycopesicum esculentum Mill.). Progressive Horticulture, 34: 77-79.
. Mohanty, B.K. and Prusti, A.M. 2001. Analysis of genetic distance in tomato. Research on Crops. 2(3): 382-385.
. Frankel, H., Brudon, J. J. and Peacock, W. J. 1995. Landraces in transit-the threat perceived. Diversity. 11: 14-15.
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ABSTRACT: Correlation and path analysis were carried out in nineteen tomato genotypes for yield and quality characters. The association studies showed that fruit yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with number of fruits per plant and fruit width. However, fruit yield per plant was negatively and significantly correlated with days to last fruit harvest and shelf life. Path analysis studies done to study the cause and effect relationship revealed that plant height, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit width and ascorbic acid had high positive direct effects on fruit yield per plant. Hence, direct selection for these traits is done for improving fruit yield per plant.
Key words: Correlation and Path analysis, Tomato, Genotypes, Yield and quality
. Anonymous. 2009. FAOSTAT Database. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, Italy.
. Asati, B.S., Rai, N. and Singh, A.K. 2008. Genetic parameters study for yield and quality traits in tomato. The Asian Journal of Horticulture, 3(2): 222-225. [
3]. Dhankhar, S.K. and Dhankar, S.S. 2006. Variability, heritability, correlation and path coefficient studies in tomato. Haryana Journal of Hortcultural Science, 35(1&2): 179-181. .
. He, C., Poysa, V. and Yu, K. 2003. Development and characterization of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their use in determining relationships among Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars. Theoretical Applied Genetics, 106: 363-373.
. Kumar, M. and Dudi, B.S. 2011. Study of correlation for yield and quality characters in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 2(3): 453-460.
. Kumar, R and Thakur, M.C. 2007. Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation coefficient and path analysis in tomato. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science, 36(3 & 4): 370-373.
. Kumar, R., Niraj Kumar, Jagadeesh Singh and Rai, G.K. 2006. Studies on yield and quality traits in tomato. Vegetable Science, 33(2): 126-132.
. Mayavel, A., Balakrishnamurthy, G. and Natarajan, S. 2005. Correlation and path analysis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). South Indian Horticulture, 53(1-6): 253-257.
. Prashanth, S.J., Jaiprakashnarayan, R.P., Mulge, R. and Madalageri, M.B. 2008. Correlation and path analysis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The Asian Journal of Horticulture, 3(2): 403-408.
. Singh, A.K. 2009. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance studies in tomato under cold arid region of Ladakh. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 66 (3): 400-403
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Impact of Time of Sowing, Spacing and Seed Rate on Potential Seed Production and Fodder Quality of Cowpea [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp|
|Authors||:||Dr. Rima Taipodia, A. T. Nabam|
ABSTRACT: To study the Impact Of Time Of Sowing, Spacing And Seed Rate On Potential Seed Production And Fodder Quality Of Cowpea, the field trial was conducted in kharif 2011 on medium deep black clay soil under rainfed condition at Directorate of Animal Husb. & Vety. Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh, Nirjuli. The treatments comprised combination of three times of sowing (June second fortnight, July first fortnight and July second fortnight), two-row spacing (30 cm and 45 cm) and three seed rates (20, 25 and 30 kg ha-1). With three replications, in split-split plot design, the trial was laid out. Compared to July first fortnight and July second fortnight sowing, significantly higher seed yield, haulm yield and harvest index (923 kg ha-1, 4440 kg ha-1 and 0.30 respectively) were recorded in cowpea sown in June second fortnight. Significantly, higher growth parameters at harvest viz., leaf area index (2.19), fresh weight (370.22 g plant-1), total dry matter (63.32 g plant-1) and dry matter accumulation in leaves, stem and reproductive parts were also recorded in June second fortnight sowing. Time of sowing did not significantly influence the proximate quality parameters of seed and haulm and the seed quality parameters. Compared to 45 cm, significantly higher growth and yield attributes, seed yield (741 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (4196 kg ha-1) was recorded in row spacing of 30 cm. The proximate quality of seed and haulm and also seed quality were not influenced significantly by the row spacing. Growth, yield, proximate quality of seed and haulm and seed quality of cowpea were not significantly influenced by the Seed rate. in fodder cowpea with June second fortnight sowing with 30 cm row spacing at 30 kg ha-1 seed rate for seed yield (1054 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (4968 kg ha-1), significantly higher interaction was recorded.
Key Words: fodder; yield; growth parameters, quality parameters.
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ABSTRACT: A 4 year old female Friesian and Jersey cross breed dairy cattle weighing 300 kg was managed semi-intensively. The case was presented to the Ambulatory unit of the Large Animal Ward, University Veterinary Hospital (UVH), Universiti Putra Malaysia. There was an epiphora of the affected right eye which had increased corneal opacity with episcleral congestion. There was loss of menace reflex of the left eye which indicates loss of sight of the right eye however; there were presence of palpebral reflex on both lateral and medial aspect of the eye. Swab sample of affected right eye was taken using a sterile swab for bacterial culture, isolation and identification. The culture is a mixed growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pantoa aglomerans, and Staphylococcus intermedius. However, there were no growth of Moraxella bovis or Mycoplasma bovis as these two organisms are the commonly isolated organism in cases of IBK. The therapy was effective and show significant improvement within 30 days of treatment. There were no epiphora observed with reduced corneal opacity and formation of scar tissue in the center of the eye which indicate healing process. Menace and palpebral reflex tests proves positive results for both of the test.
Keywords: Stage III infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, corneal ulcer, dairy cattle
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ABSTRACT: Mastitis is a widespread disease of the dairy goats associated with alterations in the physical, chemical, pathological and bacteriological quality of milk and glandular tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Sahel Goats in Nigeria. Twenty six Sahel goats with clinical mastitis and ten normal goats taken as the control group were used for the study. Blood samples were collected via the jugular vein for hematological and biochemical analysis. A significant increase (p<0.05) in neutrophil count and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in lymphocyte and eosinophil counts were observed in the goats with clinical mastitis. However, changes observed in the total red blood cell count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentrations were within the normal reference values. Serum levels of Na+, Cl- and HCO3-- were significantly lower (p<0.05) in Sahel goats with clinical mastitis compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in total protein, albumin, globulin and serum K+ concentrations in the Sahel goats with clinical mastitis compared to the control group. The alterations observed in the hematological and biochemical parameters in the Sahel goats with clinical mastitis could be due to altered quality of milk as a result of the physical, pathological, bacteriological and glandular changes.
Key words: Clinical mastitis, Hematological, Serum biochemical, Sahel goat
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ABSTRACT: Eight Friesian-Sahiwal cattle aged between 8 months and 1 ½ years old of both sexes weighing between 100 and 170 kg were infected. The cattle were managed semi intensively. Two weeks before presentation to the University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia, two calves died out of 10. The 8 remaining cattle were presented with chief clinical signs of pale mucous membrane, jaundice, and increased respiratory rate, and were diagnosed with Babesiosis. Diagnostic work up was carried out by taking venipuncture blood sample from the cattle and sent to the Clinical Pathology Laboratory for complete blood count (CBC) and biochemistry. Blood sample was also sent to Parasitology Laboratory for blood protozoa evaluation. Ticks were also collected and sent to Parasitology Laboratory for the identification of parasites. Berenil® 5% (Diminazene Aceturate) injection was administered intramuscularly and Ivermectin pour on was applied topically against the blood parasites and for both endo and ecto parasites. The most significant features of the disease are the persistent and consistent lymphocytosis and monocytosis that proves suggestive of the disease from the blood picture and the disease is also associated with muscle degenerations and severe pains and these are additional signs to be observed during the diagnosis of Babesiosis.
Keyword: Cattle, Babesiosis, Jaundice, 5 % Diminazene Aceturate, Ivermectin
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Prevalence of Worm Infection in Yankasa sheep and West African dwarf goats in Lafia Town and Environs, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||D. I. Hassan, S.T. Mbap, S. A. Naibi|
ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in Lafia town, districts and wards over a 12 months period (May, 2010 – April, 2011) to investigate the prevalence of helminthosis/ eimeria infection in Yankasa sheep and West African dwarf goats. A total of 864 faecal samples comprising 432 each of Yankasa sheep and West African dwarf goats were evaluated. Worm prevalence was higher among Yankasa sheep than West African dwarf goats. Prevalence according to age groups among Yankasa sheep were, above 12 months (34.7%), 6 – 12months (28.7%) and less than 6 months (2.1%) while West African dwarf goats above 12 months had the highest prevalence of 39.4%, 6 – 12months (20.8%) and less than 6 months (2.3%). The highest prevalence of 21.29% in Yankasa sheep was obtained in the late rains followed by 15.97, 14.81and 13.43% during early rains, early and late dry seasons respectively. For West African dwarf goats the highest prevalence was 17.12%, during late rains followed by 16.73, 16.20 and 12.73% during early rains, early and late dry seasons respectively. Furthermore sheep were more burdened than goats. Female sheep and goats had higher degree of infection during the rainy season while male counterparts showed higher degree of infection during the dry season. In the study area therefore, preferential rearing of Yankasa sheep should be exploited and greater attention should be paid to West African dwarf goats, older sheep and goats and, rainy season in worm/ eimeria control.
Key words: Prevalence, Worm, Yankasa sheep, West African dwarf goats, Lafia
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ABSTRACT: This comparative study was conducted within a selected coastal empoldered area (as saline area) and other selected non-saline districts of Bangladesh, during the period 2011-12 with a view to comparing the profitability and technical efficiency of T. Aman rice growers. The study revealed that T. Aman rice production was found profitable in both of saline and non-saline but the realistic favor the views that economic return is quite in non-saline areas. The returns per taka investment in both study areas were 1.75 and 1.82, respectively. The estimated result showed that the average level of technical efficiencies of the sample farmers were about 70.70% and 87.50% for the saline and non-saline farms, respectively implying that given the existing technology and level of inputs, the output could be increased by 29% and 12%, respectively. Farmer's education and training had positive significant effect on T. Aman rice production. The age of the sampled farmers' had significant positive impact on farming efficiency in the non-saline farms but it was negative on the saline area. The salinity had significant impact on the farming efficiency of T. Aman rice farmers'. The farmers of the non-saline areas were technically more efficient than the saline area which resulted higher net return from T. Aman rice farming. Keywords- Saline & non-saline areas, T. Aman rice, profitability and technical efficiency
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of Crop Residue Potential for Power Generation for Indian State Punjab|
|Authors||:||Jaswinder Singh, Lakhwinder Singh, Gurpreet Singh|
ABSTRACT: The problem of disposal of agro residue in the beneficial way along with the problem of agro residue pollution is very serious problem of Indian state Punjab, so to address the problem along with the alternative methods of its disposal has been considered in this research paper. It has been investigated that around 14462.85 Thousand Ton year-1 is generated from various crops and it is further investigated that 917.57 MW power can be generated through crop residue. Categorisation of crop residue has been done to further investigate the problem practically. It is found that in districts Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Kapurthala, Jalandhar, SBS Nagar, Hoshiarpur, Rupnagar, SAS Nagar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Faridkot, Shri Muktsar Sahib, Moga, Bathinda, Mansa, Sangrur, Barnala, Patiala and Fatehgarh Sahib has energy potential approximately 59.55 MW, 40.96 MW, 41.26 MW, 34.99 MW, 50 MW, 25.36 MW, 53.93 MW, 20.44 MW, 13.43 MW, 85.50 MW, 85.58 MW, 31.72 MW, 39.55 MW, 42.43 MW, 42.58 MW, 30.74 MW, 90.37 MW, 35.36 MW, 67.54 MW and 26.28 MW respectively.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Comparitive phytochemical Analysis and Resilience Pattern Exhibited by thyme and tea tree oil against Selected Poultry Isolates|
|Authors||:||Seema Nimbarte, Archana Kulkarni|
ABSTRACT: The volatile oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme), of the family Myrtaceae and Lamiaceae respectively, were asessed for antibacterial activity against different avian pathogens isolated from infected chickens which involved Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S.epidermidis, S. carnosus and Salmonella gallinarum. The antimicrobial activity of both the oils was assessed by using disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as well as minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) method. Thyme oil exhibited higher activity than tea tree oil against all the pathogens. Mean inhibition zones, MIC and MBC values of bacterial strains varied from 19 and 34 mm, 0.03%- 0.15% to 0.07 – 0.3% respectively. GC-MS analysis of essential oil of thyme showed the presence of 13 components. The major components were carvacrol, thymol, terpinene-4-ol, α- Terpinene, carvacrol methyl ether. Tea tree oil showed the presence of 16 components upon GC-MS analysis. The major compounds were Limonene, γ –Terpinene, α- Terpinene, Cineol and α- Terpinolene. Since aromatic and medicinal plants produce a wide variety of volatile terpenes, hydrocarbons (aliphatic and cyclic) and their corresponding oxygenated isoprenoid derivatives and analogues, the bactericidal effect observed in this study may be attributed to these components. Therefore, these oils could be a source of pharmaceutical materials required for the preparation of new therapeutic and antimicrobial agents.
Key words: Melaleuca alternifolia, Thymus vulgaris, avian pathogens, antimicrobial activity, MIC, MBC.
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