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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Efficacy of Herbicides and Cultural Manegement on Weed Control in Gram (Cicer Arietinum).|
|Authors||:||Bhutada P. O., Bhale V. M.|
ABSTRACT: A field experiment was conducted during winter season 2010-2011 at farm of Agronomy Department, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, to study the effect of herbicides and cultural weed management on weed control in Gram (Cicer arietinum). Pendimethaline 1 kg ha-1+1H at 40 DAS recorded least weed count ,weed dry weight and highest yield in chemical treatment. But cultural weed control treatment 2H at 15 and 40 DAS + HW at 30DAS recorded highest grain yield and B:C ratio.
. Singh, R.V., Sharma, A. K. and Tomar, R.K.S. 2003. Weed control in chickpea ( cicer arietinum) under late sown condition. Indian J. of Agronomy 48 (2): 114-116.
. Balyan, R.S., Malik, R. K., Vedwan, R.P.S. and Bhan V.M. 1987. Chemical weed control in chickpea ( cicer arietinum). Tropical Pest Manegement,33 (1):16-18.
. Hosseini, N. M. 1998. Comparison of several herbicides for control of chickpea weeds. Iranian J. of Plant Pathology,33:3/4, 73.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The role of the different concentrations of GA3 on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L.)|
|Authors||:||Dr. Shabaq Muhamad Nafea Al-Hawezy|
ABSTRACT: Seed germination of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica L.) using concentration and soaking duration of Gibberellin acid (GA3) treatments was studied at the lathhouse of Agriculture Research Centre / Ainkawa / Erbil for the period from 15th May to 14th September 2010. Seed treated with GA3 (150, 200 and 250) mg.L-1 in addition to comparison treatment (zero mg.L-1) at three different soaking time (12, 24 and 36) hour to production strong seedling within a short period. The study relied on Complete Randomized Design (C.R.D) as a factorial experiment, 20 seeds were used in each treatment, each trial replicated three times that mean 36 trials. Average results were obtained in each trial based on less difference and 5 % approximate ratio was given (least significant differences). According to the results found in this study, the quick and uniform, germination of loquat seeds and growth of seedlings indicate high vigor of seeds. GA3 had a significant effect on germination rate as compared to control. GA3 at 250mg.L-1 gave best response (71.19, 86.80 and 98.75) % at 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks, but as the concentration increased above 250 mg.L-1 the germination rate decreased rapidly but shoots and root length of seedling and vigor index increased during300 mg.L-1. Soaking period did not affect significantly on loquat seed germination ratio at 1st and 3rd weeks while in 2nd Week after germination the ratio increased significantly with increasing soaking period. Different effects of combined GA3 concentration and soaking period on the loquat seed germination rate and seedling growth parameters. More significant effect interactions were obtained in 250 mg.L-1 GA3 with different period times.
Key words: GA3, loquat, period, Seed, soaking
. Abdul-baki, A. and J.D. Anderson. 1973. Vigor determination in Soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 13: 630-633.
. Duke, J. A., and E. S. Ayensu. 1985. Medicinal plants of China. Algonac, MI: Reference Publications.
. WEIKAT IM, and LYRENE PM. 1988. Response of high bush blueberry seed germination to gibberellin A3 and 6N- benzyladenine. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 3391–3393.
. Dzayi, F. H. Rahman. 2010. Effect of GA3 and Soaking time on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth Lemon (Citrus limon L.) High Diploma.Thesis coll.Agric, univ. of Salahaddin – Erbil.
. El-Dengawy, E. F. A. 1997. Physiological and biochemical studies on seeds dormancy and germination process in deciduous fruit trees. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
. El-Dengawy, E. F. A. 2005. Promotion of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth of loquat (Eriobotrya
japonica, Lindl) by moist-chilling and GA3 applications. Sciatia Horticulturae 105: 331–342.
. El-Khoreiby, A. M. K., and T. A. Salem. 1985. Effect of stratification and GA3 on seed germination and subsequent seedling rowth of apricot and peach. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt 36: 299–309.
. Hartmann, H. T., D. E. Kester, and F. T. Davies Jr. 1990. Plant Propagation Principles and Practices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall.
. International Seed Testing Association, International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules 1996.
. Karam,Ns, and AL-Salem Mm 2001. Breaking dormancy in Arbutus and rachna L. seeds by stratification and gibberellic acid. Seed Science and Technology29:51–56.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Manipulation of "Surfer-8" Program as an Aid for Analysis of Cereal Crop Competition Experiments|
|Authors||:||Sami Mohemmed Amin Maarof|
ABSTRACT: It is difficult to establish any agronomic practice programs for wheat (Triticum durum L.) production in Kurdistan region because of unpredictable variation in rainfall. Both of seeding rate and seeding depths are important aspects of management since they can be controlled practically. This study was conducted for two basic purposes 1st to determine the combinations of seeding rates, and depths to achieve optimum yield potential under local conditions, 2nd to test the possibility of manipulating Surfer-8 program as an aid of data analysis. A field experiment was conducted under rainfall and complementary irrigation conditions at Ainkawa experimental station (36o15' N, 43 o 50'E) during the growing season, 2009-2010. Four seeding rates 4.5 g, 6.0 g ,7.5 g and 9 g of seeds m-2 with three planting depths of 2, 4 and 6 cm for durum wheat variety "Semito". Seeding depths and Seeding rates affected all the studied traits of tiller plant-1 flag leaf length, plant leaf, leaf area index, number of spikes m-2, number of grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight and yield. The highest grain yield obtained at the interaction of (4 cm depth × 7.5 g seeds m-2) .Surfer8-2002, and SAS -2002 programs were used efficiently in data presentation and determination of polynomial equations, correlation coefficient. We concluded that the optimal effect of seeding depth and Seeding rate on Semito wheat response does not stay on just a single result, but could have the same value through multiple combinations expressed by contour lines. The author calls to expand the usage of Surfer programs in biological studies as well as it is used already in the engineering.
Abbreviations; TKW one thousand grain weight. Response; any of the studied traits.
. Anter, Salim Humadi . 2010. Statistical Analysis in Scientific Research and SAS Program . University of Mousel. ( In Arabic). . Heather Loeppky and G. P. Lafond .1989. Seeding Depth in Relation to Plant Development, Winter Survival, and Yield of No-Till Winter Wheat. Agron Jornal 81 125.USA
. Hunt 1978. (C.F , Hasan Kilic, and Songul Gursoy. 2010. Effect of seeding rate on yield and yield components of durum wheat cultivars in cotton – wheat cropping system. Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5(15), pp.2078 – 2084, August, 2010. ISSN 1992 – 2248 © 2010 Academic journals.
. Khan Imran, Abbas Ullah Jan, Farhana Gul1, Kawsar Ali, Ghaffar Ali, Sajjad Ahmed and Naveed Ahmad 2011.WEEDS AS A MAJOR CONSTRAINT IN WHEAT PRODUCTION IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 17(4) 381-386, 2011.
. Marof .S.M. 2008.Competitive Interference Between Triticale and Wheat Under Two Different Environmental Conditions. Ph. D. dissertation. College of Agriculture. University of Salahaddin.
. Paul L. MASK.2008. Alabama Wheat Production Guide. Alabama cooperative extension. Barley drying.ANR-92.
. SAS Institute. 2002. SAS user guide Statistics, Cary, NC 27013, USA. SAS (r) Proprietary Software Version (TS P1) North Carolina State University, Site 0027585007.
. Surfare-8, 2002, Surfer-8 mapping system, Golden Software, Inc. Golden, Colorado 80401-1866. USA.
. Zadoks, J.C.,T.T Chang and C.F. Zonzak. (1974). A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Wee Res. 14 415 – 421.
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ABSTRACT: The study compared the performances of Deposit Money Bank, Bank of Agriculture and Microfinance Banks in the rural communities of Benue State Nigeria: 2010 – 2012. Data were collected from 180 respondents using multistage sampling technique. Structured questionnaire was administered on randomly selected respondents who were beneficiaries of agricultural credits from these banks. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results obtained revealed a significant level of outreach in terms of savings deposit mobilized and loan disbursed. Comparatively, the Deposit Money Bank was most successful in terms of savings mobilization (N11,825,000). The Bank of Agriculture was next (N3,471,000) and the Micro Finance Bank (N429,000). With respect to funding rural agriculture, Deposit Money Bank was highest (54.24%) followed by Bank of Agriculture (45.18%) and the least was Micro Finance Bank (0.58%). The study recommended that increased financial resources should be made available by the State and Donor Agencies to the Rural Banking Institutions to reactivate them especially during their negative cash flow stages. The Rural Banking Institutions should also embark on aggressive mobilization of savings and recovering of their loans to enable them become self-sustainable.
Keywords: Agricultural Development, Benue State, Nigeria, Rural Banking Institutions, Small Scale Farmers.
 Olatunbode, A.A. (1990). "Financing Nigerian Agriculture: Challenges of the 1990s. Journal of the Nigerian Agricultural and Co-operative Bank Ltd. 2(3): 80- 85.
 Odoemenem, I.U. (1992). Funding Agriculture through Cooperative. The case of Anambra
 State Village Adoption Scheme (ASVAS). Nigeria. Journal of International Agriculture, 31 (1) :. 25-35.
 Olashore. O. (1979) "Rural Banking; Strategies and Policies of Government and the Central Bank of Nigeria". Bullion. July, Pp. 48-54,110.
 Vogel, R.C. (1981). "Rural Financial Market Performance. Implications of Low Delinquency Rate." American J. of Agric Econs. Vol. 63 No. 1, Pp 58-72.
 Mokinnon.R. (1973). Money and Capital in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution Washington. D.C. 248 Pp.
 Ojo. A.T. and Adewunmi W. (1982). Banking and Finance in Nigeria. Graham Burn, Bedfordshire. P. 277.
 Anyanwu, J.C, Oaikhenan H., Oyefusi A., Dimowo F.A (1997). The Structure of the Nigerian Economy (1960-1997). (1st Edition). Joanee Educational Publishers Ltd. Awka, Nigeria. Pp. 169-170.
 Barau, A.D. (1991). "Resource Poor Farmers in Nigerian Agriculture: How not to help
 them". In :(Olukosi, J.O. Ogungbile; and B.A. Kalu (eds). A Publication of the Nigerian National Farming Systems Research Network. Pp. 6.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effects Of Poultry Manure On Growth And Yield Of Improved Maize In Asaba Area of Delta State, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Enujeke, E. C.|
ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of poultry Manure on growth and yield of improved maize (Suwan -1-SR) in Asaba area of Delta State. The experiments were carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Four rates of poultry manure were applied –O tha-1, 10 tha-1, 20 tha-1 and 30 tha-1. Data collected from the 4th to the 8th week after sowing were plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area. At the end of the 16th week, grain weight and number of grains/cob of maize were evaluated. The results obtained indicated that plants that received 30 tha-1 of poultry manure were superior at 8 weeks after sowing in 2008 and 2009, with mean height of 209.3 cm, mean number of leaves of 13.1, mean leaf area of 682.6 cm2, mean grain weight at 16 weeks after sowing of 2.14 tha-1 and mean number of grains/cob of 518.4 in 2008 and 2009. Based on the findings of the study, 30 tha-1 of poultry manure was recommended to farmers as most appropriate rate of application to enhance growth and yield of maize in Asaba area of Delta State.
Keywords: Rates of Poultry Manure, Maize Growth and Yield Asaba, Nigeria
. Adepetu, J.A (1997). Soil and Nigeria food security. Inaugural Lecture series 119, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria p.19.
. Agbato, S.O. (2003). Principles and Practices of crop production. Odumatt press publisher, Oyo, pp. 57-62
. Amujoyegbe, B.A., Opabode, J.T and Olayinka, A (2007). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L Moench). African Journal of Biotechnical 6 (16):1869 – 1873.
. Brady, C. and Weils, R.R. (1999). Nature and properties of Soil Twelfth Edition, Prentice Hall, New Delhi pp 74 –114.
. Bremmer, J. M. and C. S. Mulvaney (1982): Total nitrogen In: Page A. L. Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Agron 9, Madison. W.I. p. 149-157.
. DIPA (2006). Handbook of Agriculture: facts and figures for farmers, students and all interested in farming. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p. 435.
. Dutt, S. (2005). A Handbook of Agriculture. ABD Publishers, India. Pp 116-118.
. Egbuchua, C. N. (2007) Pedological characterization and fertility evaluation of some wetlands soils in Delta State. Ph.D Thesis (unpublished). Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
. Egerszegi, E. (1990). Effect of sewage sludge and compost applied to the soil on some physical and chemical properties. Journal of Environmental Quality Vol. 15:122-127.
. Enujeke E.C. (2013). Nutrient content (% dry matter) of maize as affected by different levels of fertilizers in Asaba area of Delta State. Sustainable Agriculture Research 2(3):76-85 Canadian Center of Science and Education, Canada.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Genetic Variability Studies in F1 Generation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.)|
|Authors||:||Adhi Shankar, R. V. S. K. Reddy, M. Sujatha, M. Pratap|
ABSTRACT: Twenty four hybrids along with their 11 parents (8 lines and 3 testers) were subjected to study the genetic variability indicated that genetic material in the present investigation possessed variability which provides sufficient basis for selection by breeder. High estimates of PCV and GCV were obtained for plant height, number of fruits per cluster, average fruit weight, yield per plant, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid and lycopene indicated a good deal of variability in those characters signifying the effectiveness of selection of desirable types for improvement. High heritability assisted with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, average fruit weight, number of locules per fruit, pericarp thickness, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene and shelf life. Hence, simple selection based on phenotypic performance of these traits would be more effective.
Key words: Genetic variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, F1 generation, Tomato
 J. B. Jones, The field, green house and house garden, Tomato plant culture (CRC Press, LLC 2000, Boca Raton, Florida, 1999) p. 199.
 NHB 2011. Indian Horticulture Database, http://nhb.gov.in/area-pro/database-2011.pdf
 CR. W. Allard, Principles of Plant Breeding (John Willey and Sons. Inc. London, 1960) pp. 83- 108.
 H. F. Robinson, R. E. Comstock and P. H. Harvey, Estimates of heritability and degree of dominance in corn, Agronomy Journal, 41, 1949, 253-259.
 H. W. Johnson, H. F. Robinson and R. E. Comstock, Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in soyabean, Agronomy journal. 47(7), 1955, 314-318.
 V. G. Panse and P. V. Sukhatme, Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers (ICAR, New Delhi, 1967)
 D. S. Falconer, Introduction to quantitative genetics (Oliver and Boyd, London, 1982) pp 340.
 S. Sivasubramanian and P. Madhavamenon, Combining ability in rice. Madras Agricultural journal, 60, 1973, 419-421.
 G W. Burton, Quantitative inheritance in grass. Proceedings of 6th International Grasslands Congress. 1, 1952, 277-283.
 A. K. Singh, Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance studies in tomato under cold drip region of Ladakh. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 66(3), 2009, 400-403.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||DUS Characterization for Farmer varieties of rice|
|Authors||:||L. V. Subba Rao, G. Shiva Prasad, M. Chiranjivi, U. Chaitanya, R. Surendhar|
ABSTRACT: For the establishment of the distinctness among Sixty-five landraces of rice, forty three characters were used. Characterization of Sixty-five landraces of rice was done using forty three agro-morphological traits following Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability test (DUS) during kharif season of 2011 at the DRR farm, ICRISAT campus. Out of Sixty-five varieties studied, thirty-two were found to be distinctive on the basis of twenty two essential and twenty four additional characters. This study will be useful for breeders, researchers and farmers to identify and choose the restoration and conservation of beneficial genes for crop improvement and also to seek protection under Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer's Rights Act.
Key words: DUS test, Rice farmer varieties, Characterization, PPV & FR Act
. Singh Y. and U.S. Singh. 2008. Genetic diversity analysis in aromatic rice germplasm using agro- morphological traits. J. Pl. Genet. Resour. 21(1): 32-37.
. Siddiq E. A. 2002. Exploiting means to adapt GM rice. The Hindu Survey of Indian Agriculture. Kasturi and Sons Ltd., Chennai pp. 47-52.
. Roy JK, De RN, Ghorai DP and Panda A. 1985. Collection and Evaluation of Genetic Resources of Rice in India. Phyrtobreedon 1:1-9.
. Song, Q.J., C.V. Quigley, R.L. Nelson, T.E. Carter, H.R. Boerma, J.L. Strachan and P.B. Crega. 1999. A selected set of trinucleotide simple sequence repeat markers for soybean cultivar identification. Plant Var. Seeds, 12: 207 – 220.
. Patra BC. 2000. Collection and characterization of rice genetic resources from Keonjhar district of Orissa. Oryza 34:324-326.
. Dutefield G. 2001. Intellactual Property Right, Trade and Biodiversity: The case of seed and plant varieties. In: Background Study Material for Training on IPR and WTO to NARS Scientists, Vol. I. ICAR, New Delhi.
. Shobha Rani N, Shobha Rao LV, Viraktamath BC, Mishra B. 2004. National Guidelines for the Conduct of Tests for Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability. Directorate of Rice Research:6-13.
. Anonymous. 2001. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Right Act (No. 53 of 2001). Dept. of Agriculture and Cooperation. Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. Of India, krishi Bhawan, new Delhi.
. Raut VM. 2003. Qualitative genetics of Soyabean-a review. Soybean Research 1:1-28.
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ABSTRACT: Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of raw diatomaceous earth (DE) against R. dominica on Maize: Zea mays (L.), sorghum: Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Moench) and wheat: Triticum aestivum (L). The tests were conducted under ambient laboratory conditions (26-34°C and 27-51% r. h.). Thirty adult insects were bioassayed on 50 g grain sample treated with the DE at five dose rates: 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm. Adult mortality, progeny production and percentage of insect-damaged kernels (IDK) were assessed. On all grain tested mortality increased with higher dose rate and longer exposure period. After 14 days exposure to the highest dose rate, adult mortality was 98.0±0.8, 93.2±1.8 and 99.3±0.75% on maize, sorghum and wheat, respectively. Progeny production was considerably suppressed on treated grains in comparison with the untreated respective controls but significantly influenced by grain type. Similarly, the percentage of IDK decreased with increase in dose rate. At 1500 ppm IDK in maize, sorghum and wheat were 1.2±0.5, 2.8±0.5 and 2.2±0.8 % as compared to 54.1±8.6, 45.1±1.8 and 84.1±1.75% in the untreated control, respectively. To provide effective control of R. dominica using the raw DE, dose rates higher than 1500 ppm are required. Keywords: raw DE, R. dominica, adult mortality, progeny production, grain damage
 C. Potter, The biology and distribution of Rhyzopertha dominica (FAB.) Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 83, 1935, 449 – 482.  R.T. Agrobast,. Beetles: Coleoptera. In J.R Gorham (ed.), Ecology and management of food industry pests (Association of Official Analytical Chemists,1991) 131-176.
 P.W. Flinn, D.W. Hagstrum, C. Reed and T.W. Phillips, Simulation model of Rhyzopertha dominica population dynamics in concrete grain bins. Journal of Stored Products Research, 40, 2004, 39-45.
 E.A. Vardeman, F.H. Arthur, J.R Nechols and J.F. Campbell, Effect of temperature, exposure period and depth of diatomaceous earth on distribution, mortality, and reproduction of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99, 2006, 1017–1024.
 C.G. Athanassiou, N.G. Kavallieratos and C.M Meletsis, Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations, applied alone or in combination against three stored-product beetles on wheat and maize. Journal of Stored Products Research, 43, 2007, 330-334.
 F.H. Arthur and J.E., Throne, Efficacy of diatomaceous earth to control internal infestation of rice weevil and maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96, 2003, 510–518.
 Bh. Subramanyam and D.W. Hagstrum, Resistance measurement and management. In Bh. Subramanyam and D.W. Hagstrum (eds.), Integrated management of insects in stored products (Marcel Dekker, New York 1996) 33-389.
 D.A. Collins and D.A. Cook,. Laboratory studies evaluating the efficacy of diatomaceous earth, on treated surfaces, against stored-product insect and mite pests, Journal of Stored Products Research, 42, 2006, 51-60.  Z. Korunic. Diatomaceous earths, a group of natural insecticides, Journal of Stored Products Research, 34, 1998, 87-97.
 Bh. Subramanyam and R. Roesli,. Inert dusts. In Bh. Subramanyam and D.W. Hagstrum (eds.), Alternatives to pesticides in stored-product IPM, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2000), 321-380.
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ABSTRACT: Relationship between the mechanical properties of Vitex doniana, a lesser known wood species was investigated towards determining its potentials for utilization. Four trees obtained from the free area of Olokemeji Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria were sampled at butt (50cm above the ground) and at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of merchantable height (MH) The samples were also partitioned into corewood, middlewood and outerwood. Impact Bending (IMB), Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Maximum Compressive Strength Parallel to Grain (MCS//) were determined. Relationship between the mechanical properties was determined using regression equation. Results showed that Mean IMB, MOR, MOE and MCSS// were 0.69m, 85.4 N/mm2 , 6380N/mm2 and 40.8N/mm2 respectively. The best relationship existed between IMB and MCS// (R2 = 0.75) followed by between MOR and MOE (R2 =0.71) while the least relationship (R2 = 0.43) existed between MOR and MCS//.
Keywords: Axial variation, Mechanical properties, relationship, radial variation, Vitex doniana.
 Desch, H.E.; revised by Dinwoodie, J.M. 1996. Timber, structure, properties, conversion, and use. 7th ed. London: MacMillan Press, Ltd.
 Cote,Jr,W.A and Kollman F.F.P (1968). Principle of wood science and technology, Pub. Springer Verlag Berlin. 592 pp.
 Panshin, A.J. and C. De Zeeuw 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology Vol. 1 Fourth Edition Mc Graw- Hill Book Company 704 pp.
 Shupe, E.T.; E.T. Choong and Yang, C.H. 1995. The effects of cultural treatments on the chemical composition of plantation grown loblolly pine plantations. Wood and fibre science 28 (2) 268- 275
 British Standard Institution (1989) : BS 373 Methods of Testing Clear Small Specimen of Timber.British Standard Institution, London. 20pp
 Dinwoodie, J.W.(1981). Timber, its nature and behaviour. Van Nestrand, Reinhold, New York, 156pp
 Shukla, N.A., S.S. Rajput and L. Mohan ( 1988) : Some Studies on Variations of strength properties from pith to periphery in Eucalyptus hybrid. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science 19 (1) 39- 46.
 Sauter, U.H. (1995) : Variation of Technological Wood Properties of Douglas fir as an expression of different growth condition. XX IUFRO World Congress Proceeding, Tempere, Finland. 512pp.
 Lausberg, M.J.F., D.J. Cown, D.J. McConchie and J.H. Skipwith (1995) : Variation in some wood properties of Pseudotsuga menziensii provenances grown in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 25 (2) 147- 163
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ABSTRACT: ODL students suffer from a lot of stress because of the many competing responsibilities they have to shoulder. With limited support from tutors, the university administration like in the conventional system and the rigors of balancing work, married life and studying, ODL students have to increasingly rely on coping mechanisms to deal with these stressful events. As a result they have to develop these coping strategies as buffers A qualitative study was done using various concepts from coping models and theories. A lot has been written about coping mechanisms used by students in the western world to manage stressful situations they found themselves in during their academic life. What coping mechanisms do students do ODL students in Zimbabwe at Harare Region of the ZOU use? Data was collected from twenty purposively selected students from different faculties in the Harare Region of the Zimbabwe Open University. An analysis of the findings identified the coping mechanisms used by students and what the students expect the institution to do to assist in alleviating their stress.
Keywords: (Coping mechanisms , coping models Open distance learning, stressful event)
 A .Van Dorp ,T. Monteros , Challenges for Open and Distance Learning in Post 2010.e learning ed No 18,February 2010.issn1887-1542, 2010.
 L .Baider, C Cooper and A.K.De Nour, Cancer and the Family, (Chichester: John Wiley 1996).  P.D'Cruz, Family Care in Stressful Situations, Journal on Support Systems, 2002
 R Chimedza, New Students' Orientation Handbook (Harare: Zimbabwe Open University, undated).
5] S.Folkman and R.S.Lazarus, An Analysis of Coping in a Middle-aged Community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 1988 p 210 -240.
 R.Muersing, Measures and concepts of coping and social support, (New York: Macmillan 1996)
 R.Puhl and K.D.Brownell, Ways of coping with obesity stigma: Review and conceptual analysis Journal of Psychology 4, 2003, 53-78
 R.Buettner, A Report in Coping Mechanisms Used by Rural Administrators 1990 pp (1-20)
 R.S.Lazarus and S.Folkman, Stress Appraisal and Coping, (NewYork: Springer Publishing, 1988)
 S.Taylor, Coping with Stress, (New York: Macmillan 1986).