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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Seed developmental and maturation studies in davana (Artemisia pallens)|
|Authors||:||M. Jayanthi, A. Vijaya Kumar, K. Vanangamudi, K. Rajamani|
ABSTRACT: Davana (Artemisia pallens) ia an important high valued annual medicinal and aromatic herb of India belonging to the family Asteraceae. India has a monopoly in production and export trade of davana oil and India stands 3rd in essential oil production in the world. This study was conducted at Department of seed science and technology, TamilNadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to determine the seed developmental and maturation studies in davana. The bulk davana crop was raised in the field. Individual flower heads were tagged at the time of flower opening. The seeds were collected at 5 days intervals and subjected to the following seed quality assessment. The observation made on seed moisture content (%), 1000 seed weight (mg), germination %, seedling length (cm), dry matter production and vigour index. The results revealed that physiological maturity of davana seeds was attained on 35th day after anthesis, where in germination percentage (86), seedling length (2.3), vigour Index (198) and dry matter production (1.23mg) were higher. Keywords: Davana, seed development and maturation, germination %, seedling length, drymatter production, vigour index.
. Narayana,M.R., M.N.A.Khan and B.P.Dimri. Davana and its cultivation in India, Farm Bull., No.12, CIMAP,Lucknow,11: 1998 ,1-10.
. Pisana,R.C. Flavour and extract manufactures association of the united states report.11th International congress of essential oils, fragrances and flavours. New Delhi, India. 1989, pp.157.
. Al-Harbi,M.M., S.Qureshi, M.M.Ahmed, M.Riza, G.A. and A.H.Shah. Studies on the Anti-inflammatory antipyretic and analgestic activities of santanonin. The Jap J.Pharmacol. 64(3): 1994,135-139
. Austin, R.B. 1972. Effects of environment before harvesting on viability. In: Viability of seeds (ed. E.H. Roberts), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 114-149.
. Bewley, J.D. and M. Black. 1994. Physiology and biochemistry of seeds in relation to germination. Vol. 2. Springer - Verlag. Berlin. pp. 77-94.
. Delouche, J.C. 1973. Seed maturation. In: Seed production manual. NSC and Rock feller Foundation, pp. 162-165.
. ISTA. International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Sci. & Technol., Supplement Rules, 27: 1999, 25-30.
. Abdul-Baki, A.A. and J.D. Anderson. Vigour determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 1973,630-633.
. Panse, V.G. and P.V. Sukhatme. Statistical methods for Agricultural workers. ICAR, Publication, New Delhi: 1985, 327-340.
. Malarkodi, K. and P. Srimathi. 2007. Seed physiological maturity. Int. J. Plt. Sci., 2(1): 222 – 230.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Organic cotton – A new perspective|
|Authors||:||Sharmila Nagraj, Sharada Devi|
ABSTRACT: The organic cotton textiles are being used widely all around the globe. With the ban of lot of dye varieties and processes natural dyes and age old dyeing processes are coming back. In every part of the globe there were processes around textile spinning, dyeing, weaving and finishing which were followed meticulously with consciousness. In the last few decades due to massive technological advancement and in making everything in 100s and 1000s of pieces every country around the globe has lost lot of its unique treasures which could not stand up to the metal mechanics. Today lots of communities, cities and countries are in the mode of co-creating the old realms. Slow processes are coming back in textiles and apparel. Products with consciousness, environmental tags, and sustainable designs are being made. Water, yarn and fabrics are tested with poly interference photography, GDV and EIS ,pre and post detoxification process. Significant changes were observed in the values in organic cotton, naturally dyed materials, after the detoxification process of water, yarn and fabric. Methods used for detoxification had a positive impact on the fabric which will be passed on to the wearer for improvements in long term physical, physiological and emotional state.
Keywords: Consciousness, Detoxification, Natural dyes, Organic cotton, Energy fields
 Attrill, M.J., Gresty, K.A., Hill, R.A., and Barton, R.A. (2008). Red shirt colour is associated with long-term team success in English football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26: 577-582.
 Bechtold, T., A. Turcanu, E. Ganglberger and S. Geissler. 2003. Natural dyes in modern textile dyehouses - How to combine experiences of two centuries to meet the demands of the future? Journal of Cleaner Production. 11(5): 499-509.
 Carruthers Helen, Julie Morris, Nicholas Tarrier and Peter Whorwell, J. 2010. The Manchester Color Wheel: development of a novel way of identifying color choice and its validation in healthy, anxious and depressed individuals. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 10:12
 Sharron Lennon, J and Leslie Burns, D.2000. Diversity of Research in Textiles, Clothing, and Human Behavior: The Relationship between What We Know and How We Know. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. September 2000. 18 (4) 213-226
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Extent of adoption of the recommended Sweet Pepper production technology by the Sweet Pepper producers|
|Authors||:||Mr. Tushar Panigrahi, Dr. Y. K. Singh, Dr. Sandhya Choudhary|
ABSTRACT: Sweet Pepper/Bell Pepper (Capsicum annum) is one of the most favored species of chilli and widely used universal spice, named as wonder spice. Different varieties of it are cultivated for varied uses like vegetable, pickles, spice and condiments. Sweet pepper, the gifted plant of nature is generally regarded as the king of cultivated crops has 80 per cent consumption in food purpose and others is using in industry. In india, the farmers grow hybrid sweet pepper and deshi sweet pepper. At present an area of 98 thousand hectare is occupied by hybrid sweet pepper, which constitutes 86 per cent of total sweet pepper area. India contributes 17.9 per cent of the total production. Out of total pesticide usage, Sweet pepper crop alone consumes 2.6 per cent. Adoption pattern of the recommended cultivation practices of the sweet pepper growers. The Study has been conducted in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh Out of thirteen blocks the TILDA block has been selected randomly with 750 respondents. For the study of adoption behavior nineteen recommended practices of Sweet Pepper production technology were selected and found complete adoption in maximum practices.
Key Words- Sweet Pepper, Adoption Behavior
. Bhople, R.S., Shinde, P.S. and S.S. Dhule, (2001). Knowledge and adoption Bio - control Pest Management in Sweet Pepper. Maha. J. of Extn. Edun. XX (18-21)
. Sharshar, H.A. and Mansour, M.A. and S.A. Shady, (1998). Farmers knowledge and implementation levels concerning new technical practices of Sweet Pepper crops, and proper extension methods in reclaimed lands of kafr EI-Sheikh govern orate. Alexandria journal of agri. Research. 43 (3): 1-26.
. Sriram, N. and R. Annamalai, (2001). Extension education strategies orconverting non–Sweet Pepper growers into Sweet Pepper growers in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agri. ournal, 88 (10-12): 596-602
. Yaldz, G.; Ozguven, M. (2011). Adaptation of different ornamental pepper ( Capsicum Sp. Webster, L. R.; Peppin, J. F.; Murphy, F. T.; Lu, B.; Tobias, J. K.; Vanhove, G. F. (2011). Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of NGX-4010, capsaicin 8% patch, in an open-label study of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 93(2): 187-197
. Wetwitayaklung, P.; Phaechamud, T.; Penpun, W.; Thawatchai, P. (2011). Antioxidant activities and phenolic content of Solamun and Capsicum sp. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2(2): 146-154.) species and lines in Cukurova conditions. Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 21(1): 1-11.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Barriers Faced By Cassava Farmers in Adapting To Climate Change in Oron Agricultural Zone of Akwa Ibom State|
|Authors||:||Ifeanyi-Obi, C. C., Issa, F. O.|
ABSTRACT: This study examined barriers faced by cassava farmers in adapting to climate change in Oron agricultural zone of AkwaIbom State. Multi-stage sampling was used to select eighty respondents for the study. Data was collected with the use of interview schedule. Barriers to adaptation were captured using a 4 point Likert-type scale, while the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics namely; mean, percentage, frequency count. Varimax rotated factor analysis was used to analyse the barriers faced by the cassava farmers in adapting to climate change . The findings show that 30% of the respondents were between the ages of 31 and 40 years. Majority of the respondents were male (67.5%), married (86.3%), literate (90%) with an average farming experience of 25 years. The result of the factor analysis identified eight major barriers faced by the cassava farmers in adapting to climate change namely; Land and labour constraints, non-accessibility/availability of farm inputs, non-availability/high cost of farm facilities, farming practices and traditional belief, information constraints, poor agricultural extension service delivery, income constraint and government non chalant attitude towards climate change issues. The study recommended that Agricultural development programme should make room for extension agents to visit farmer and disseminate proven measures to overcome barriers faced by these farmers in adapting to climate change.
Keywords: Climate change, cassava, cassava farmers, Barriers
. Adger, W. N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D. and Hulme, M. (2003). Adaptation to Climate Change in the Developing World. Progress in Development Studies No. 3.
. Agwu, E. A. and Anyanwu, A. C. (1996).Socio-Cultural And Environmental Constraints In Implementing The Nalda Program In South Eastern Nigeria. A case study of Abia and Enugu State. Journal of agriculture and education 2: 68 - 72
. Bradshaw, B., Dolan H. and Smith B. (2004).Farm-level adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change: Crop Diversification in the Canadian Prairies. Climatic Change Vol. 67.
. Deressa, T. (2008) Analysis of perception and adaptation to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. An unpublished Ph .D. thesis, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy for Africa (CEEPA), University of Pretoria, South Africa
. Ekong, E. E. (2005): Introduction to Rural Sociology. Published by Concept Publications Press Limited.Ishomolu, Lagos.
. Grigg, D. (1995). An Introduction to Agricultural Geography. Routledge: London. P217.
. Henry, G. and Westby, A. (2001). "Global cassava starch markets current situation and outlook" in Cassava's Potential in Asia in the 21st Century: Present Situation and Future Research and Development Need. Proceedings of the Sixth Regional Workshop, held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Feb. 21-25, 2000. Howeler, R.H., S.L Tan, eds., Centro International de Agriculture Tropical (CIAT), Cassava Office for Asia: CO. p. 593-614.
. Hershey, C., Henry, G., Best, R., Kawano, K., Howeler, R., and Iglesias, C. (2001). "Cassava in Asia: Expanding the Competitive Edge in Diversified Market" In A Review of Cassava in Asia with Country Case Study on Thailand and Vietnam. Proceedings of the Validation Forum on the Global Cassava Development. FAO: Rome. 92 p.
. Igben, M. S. (1988). Farmers capability profile in: M. S. Igben (ed). The Nigeria Farmer And Agricultural Institution. An Assessment of NISER Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp. 657 - 92
. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001): Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press
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ABSTRACT: In the process of development of cold and heat tolerant rice varieties was done in field conditions. The current work is the extension of the same. In the current paper an extensive Insilico based research was carried out on the Mutational analysis and hot spot prediction of the protein CDPK3, Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases of Oriza Sativa. The work involves the retrieval of the protein sequence from the NCBI primary data base and identification of the Functional domains. Several sequences of the same protein from the other related plant species were collected and the phylogenetic study and the conservation prediction were performed. Tools like Protparam and SOPMA have been applied to analyze the Physico chemical parameters and the Structure prediction of the protein was carried out. The regions of disorder present in the protein sequence were identified using several tools including DISEMBL, GLOBPLOT, RONN etc. Based upon the results of RONN the major sites prone for mutations are identified. The effect of possible substitution mutations on the selected target site was analyzed. I mutant tool was employed to check the effect of all the substitution mutations on the stability of the protein sequence, PolyPhen was used to evaluate the effect of mutations on Functionality and the tolerance level is calculated using SIFT. The work concludes to provide the complete protein annotation of Cold tolerance protein CDPK with a focus on the mutation hot spot prediction.
Keywords: Protein Annotation, Insilico Characterization, Mutation hotspots, CDPK, Cold tolerance
. OsCDPK13, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from rice, is induced by cold and gibberellin in rice leaf sheath, Abbasi. F et. Al, Plant Mol Biol. 2004 Jul; 55(4):541-52. PMID: 15604699
. Over-expression of a single Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase confers both cold and salt/drought tolerance on rice plants , Yusuke Saijo et al, Plant Journal- vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 319-327, 2000
. Expression of the rice CDPK-7 in sorghum: molecular and phenotypic analyses, Tejinder Kumar Mall et al, Plant Molecular Biology, March 2011, Volume 75, Issue 4-5, pp 467-479
. The CDPK super family of protein kinases, Alice C. Harmon et.al, New phytologist – Vol . 151, No 1, July 2001
. Primary database NCBI available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
. NCBI-BLAST: Altschul S.F., Gish W., Miller W., Myers E.W. and Lipman D.J. (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol. 215: 403-410.
. Larkin M.A., Blackshields G., Brown N.P., Chenna R., McGettigan P.A., McWilliam H., Valentin F., Wallace I.M., Wilm A., Lopez R., Thompson J.D., Gibson T.J. and Higgins D.G. (2007) ClustalW and ClustalX version 2. Bioinformatics 23(21): 2947-2948.
. BOXSHADE tool for MSA, from SDSC BIOLOGY WORK BENCH . SMART: online tool for domain analysis: Schultz et al. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 5857-5864, Letunic et al. (2012) Nucleic Acids Res , doi:10.1093/nar/gkr931
. Gasteiger E., Hoogland C., Gattiker A., Duvaud S., Wilkins M.R., Appel R.D., Bairoch A.; Protein Identification and Analysis Tools on th
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ABSTRACT: Morphological characterization of 470 rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions including five checks collected from different regions country were assessed using 19 quantitative characters traits. Accessions were evaluated in a field experiment in an augmented experimental design. The aim of the research was to study variations and to select lines that could be used as potential parents in future breeding programs. A principal components plot and distance between genotypes in different cluster groups were used to group the accessions. The rice genotypesgrouped into divergent cluster 12 and 18 are expected to give promising and desirable recombinants in the segregating generations. Also, traits contributing maximum to genetic divergence viz. Seed vigor followed by Fertile Grains/ Panicle, Fertile Grains/ Panicle and panicle length may be utilized in selecting genetically diverse parents.
Key words: genetic divergence, cold tolerance, rice, inter cluster distance
. Siezo M 1966 Crop science in rice. FUj publishing Company Limited, Tokyo, japan
. Arunachalam, V., 1981. Genetic distance in plant breeding. Indian I. Gen. & PI. Breed., 41: 226-236.
. Roy, A. andD.V.S. Panwar, 1993. Genetic divergence mnce. Oryza, 30: 197-201.
. Pradhan, K. and A. Ray, 1990. Genetic divergence in rice. Oryza, 27: 415- 418.
. Federer, W.T., 1961. Augmented designs with one-way elimination of heterogeneity. Biometrics, 20: 540-552.
. IRRI, 1980. Minimum list of descriptors and descriptor-states for rice Oryza sativa L. manual. IRRI., pp: 20.
. Ram, J., D. V. S. Panwar. 1970. Intra specific divergence in rice. Indian J. Genet. 30, P. 1-10.
. Mahajan, R. K., J. R Rao, Y. R. B. Sharma, A. Ghosh. 1981. Genetic divergence in rice. Crop Improvement. 8:2, P. 85-89
. Rahman,M.,B. Acharya, S. N. Sukla, K. Pande. 1997. Genetic divergence in low land rice genotypes. Oryza, 34: 3, P. 209-212
. Murthy, B. R, V. Arunachalam. 1966. The nature of genetic divergence in relation to breeding system in some crop plants. Indian J. Genet. 26, P.188-198.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of lime on yield contributing characters of Wheat in Barind tract of Bangladesh|
|Authors||:||Md. Kamaruzzaman, Sikdar Mohammad Marnes Rasel, Md. Nurul Islam|
ABSTRACT: There were six lime treatments viz.T1: Control, T2 : 0.5 t lime ha-1 , T3 : 1.0 t lime ha-1, T4 : 1.5 t lime ha-1, T5 : 2.0 t lime ha-1, and T6 : 2.5 t lime ha-1. Dolochun(CaCO3) was used as the liming material. The design of the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD )with three replications. Every plot received 140.0 kg N, 25.0 kg P, 106.0 kg K, 3.06 kg S, 3.6 kg Zn and 0.6 kg B ha-1 from urea, TSP, MoP, gypsum, zinc sulphate (monohydrate) and boric acid, respectively. Available K, P, Ca and Mg were significantly increased due to application of lime which was mainly associated with increased wheat yields. The different characters of wheat viz. plant height, tillers plant-1, spike length, grains sipke-1 and grain yield were significantly increased by the application of lime. The application of 0.5 t lime ha-1 significantly increased most of the growth parameters of wheat compared to that without any lime application. The application of lime had significant effect on the grain yield of wheat. The highest grain yield was found in T4 (4.73 t ha-1), which was statistically identical with the grain yields obtained in T5 and T6 treatments but superior to those found in T1, T2, T3 treatments. Thus, the application of 1.50 t lime ha-1 is enough for satisfactory yield wheat.
Keywords: Wheat, Lime, Yield, Spike, Panicle, Grain
. Adams, F. 1981.Nutritional imbalance and constraints to plant growth on acid soil. J. Plant Nutrition, 4:81-87.
. BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council) 2005. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide-2005. Soil Pub. No. 45. Farmgate, Dhaka.
. BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). 2012. Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bur. Stat. Ministry of Planning. Govt. of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Dhaka.
. Basak,V.2010. Nutrient Dynamics and Chemical Properties of Acid soil under different liming conditions in Mungbean field followed by Transplanted aman. MS Thesis Student No. 0905046,HSTU, Dinajpur.
. Buoyoucos, G. J. 1927. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron. J. 54: 4661-4665.
. Charles A. Black, C.A.1992. Soil Fertility Evaluation and Control. Lewis Publishers, London, 647-718
. Clark, R. B., Zeto, S. K., Baligar V. C. and Richey K. D.. 1997. Growth traits and mineral concentrations of maize hybrids on unlimed and limed soil. J. of Plant Nutrition 20(12): 1795.
. Hausenbuiller, R.L. 1972. Soil Science: Principle and Practices. W.M.C. Brown Company, Pub. USA.
. Haynes, R. J. 1984. Lime and phosphorus in the soil plant system. Adv. Agron. 37: 249-315.
. Islam M. R., Islam, M. S., Jahiruddin, M. and Hoque, M. S. 1999. Effects of sulphur, zinc and boron on yield, yield components and nutrient uptake of wheat. Pakistan J. Sci. Ind. Res. 42: (8), 137-140.
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to chalk out socioeconomic characteristic, average per unit cost of production and average net return earned by the mazri producers. Mazri is a dwarf palm grows naturally in the dry tropical regions of Pakistan. Mates, ropes, banns, ornamental products, different commodities for mosques, baskets, brooms, trays, hand fans, grain bins, cordage, cupboards and decoration pieces etc. are prepared from the foliage of this plant. Balochistan is the biggest producer of Mazri in Pakistan with an average annual production of 27,265 tonnes. About 65,000 people are directly are indirectly involved in the processing of mazri leaves, among which 78% of them are women. The involvement of women was quite active in mazri manufacturing. Most of the collection and harvesting task was performed by women. The results showed that Rs 118/- is the daily labor charges of a women working on mat making, which is far below than working anywhere else. There is no regular market of mazri, therefore the community is not availing its deserving amount of their produce.
Key Words: Mazri (dwarf palm), foliage, net return and cost of production, Balochistan
 Champion, H.G, K. Steth & G.M. Khatatak 1965. Forest type of Pakistan. PFI Peshawar
 Latif A, S.Begum, M.Adnan, K. Hussain and M.Waseem (2005) "Challenges Faced to Mazri Palm (Nannorhops ritchieana): A Case Study of Jhandey, District Mardan, Pakistan," Ethnobotanical Leaflets: Vol. 2005: Iss. 1, Article 27. (Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2005/iss1/27 )  Iqbal, M. 1991. Non-timber forest products: their income-generation potential for rural women in North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). International Labor Organization and Government of NWFP. Peshawar.
 Iqbal, M. 1993. International trade in non-wood forest products. An overview. FAO. Rome
 Export Promotion Bureau (EPB). 2001-02. Exporting Commodities of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment, Local Govt. and Rural Development, Islamabad.  Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan, 1999. Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Govt. of Pakistan. Islamabad.  Agriculture Statistics of Balochistan, 2000-01. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative. Govt. of Balochistan.  Abbas, Q. 2002. Ethnobotanical Studies of Kurram Agency through Rural Community Participation. Ethnobotany Project, WWF-Pakistan, Peshawar.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Comparative Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Food|
|Authors||:||Dr. E. Thippeswamy|
ABSTRACT: Increased use of chemicals, under intensive cultivation has disturbed the harmony existing among soil, plants and animals and human health. The extensive use of chemicals and antibiotics in inorganic food production technology has compelled the health conscious people to explore and support organic farming. The study reveals the fact that the food produced using organic methods taste better and contains a better balance of vitamins and minerals than inorganically grown food. The eating of organic food considerably reduces the heart attacks, strokes, cancer, bowel cancer, and many other diseases. Hence, importance of organic farming has increased due to its environmental friendly methods and growing consumer awareness of food safety. The role of the Government is critical in motivating the farmers switching over from inorganic farming system to organic farming system where organic farming is economically viable in the country. Besides, the government has to take appropriate measures like the separate market for organic products; announcement of support price, creation of demand by more awareness programmes, subsidy for organic inputs producers, subsidies for encouraging organic farmers; certification of farms and increase in investment on research and development activities in organic farming practices.
Key words: Organic Farming System, Inorganic Farming System, eco system, sustainability, food security, certification
. Baker, B., Benbrook, C., Groth III E., and Benbrook K., (2002), "Pesticide Residues in Conventional IPM-Growth and Organic Foods: Insights from Three Data Set", Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol.19 (5), May, Pp: 427-446.
. Beharrell, B., and MacFie, J.H., (1991), "Consumer Attitudes to Organic Food", Br. Food J., 93:25-30.
. Blobaum, R., (1983), "Barriers to Conversion to Organic Farming Practices in the Midwestern United States", In Lockeretz, W., Edt., Environmentally Sound Agriculture, Praeger, New York, Pp:263-278.
. Crutchfield, S.R. and Roberts, T., (2000), "Food Safety Efforts Accelerate in the 1990‟s," Food Review, 23:44-49.
. Faidon Magkos Fotini Arvaniti and Antonis Zampelas, (2006), "Organic Food: Buying More Safety or Just Peace of Mind? A Critical Review of the Literature", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46, pp.23-56.
. Harper, G.C., and Makatoumi, A., (2002), "Consumers Perceptions of organic Food Production and Farm Animal Welfare". Br. Food J., Vol.104, pp: 287-299.
. Hogstad, S., Risvik, E., and Steinsholt, K., (1997), "Sensory Quality and Chemical Composition of Carrot a Multivariate Study", Acta Agriculturae Scandinavia Section B., Soil and Plant Science, Vol.47(4), Pp: 253-264.
. Kortbech-Olesen, R., (2000), "Export Opportunities of Organic Food from Developing Countries: In World Organics", Agra Europe (London) Ltd., London, UK., 9-10, May.
. Kramer, D., (1984), "Problems Facing Canadian Farmers Using Organic Methods", In Pesticide Policy: The Environmental Imperative, Edited by Schrecker, T., and Vles, R., Friends of the Earth, Ottawa, Pp129-162.
. Kuchler, F., Chandran, R., and Ralston, K., (1996), "The Linkage between Pesticide Use and Pesticide Residues", American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Vol. (11), pp:161-167.
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ABSTRACT: The present research work was undertaken to choose the most effective sugar concentration in in vitro microtuberization from cultured shoot tips and to select the best substrates for minituber production from ex vitro transferred plantlets. Percentage of survivability of microtuber producing plants increased with the increase of sucrose concentration. Best survival rate and average diameter of tuber per plant was found at 10% sucrose. Minituber production on direct field showed best performance. It was observed that after 30 days, maximum shoot length per plant (188.87 mm) was found on the direct field whereas the lowest shoot length per plant (66.81 mm) was on coconut dust. Lowest weight of tuber per plant was also recorded on the substrates containing coconut dust. The highest weight of tuber was found in direct field. In case of, average diameter of tuber per plant, 25% soil + 75% coconut dust showed minimum result and on the other hand, in direct field, large size of tubers were found
Key words: Microtuberization, Minituber, In vitro, Ex vitro, Potato
. Abbott A.J., and A.R. Belcher, 1986. Potato tuber formation in vitro. In: LA Withers, PG Alderson (eds), Plant Tissue Culture and its Agricultural Applications. Butterworths, London, pp.113-122.
. Anonymous, 2000. Potato Seed Certification Standards. Oregon State University, Carvallis, USA.
. Keller, E.R.J., A. Senula, S. Leunufna, and M. Grübe. 2006. Slow growth storage and cryopreservation - tools to facilitate germplasm maintenance of vegetatively propagated crops in living plant collections. International Journal of Refrigeration 29:411-417.
. Khuri, S. and Moorby, J., 1995. Investigations into the roles of sucrose in potato cv. Estima microtuber production in vitro. Annals of Botany 75: 295-303.
. Leifert, C., Pryce, S., Lumsden, P.J. and Waites, W.M., 1992. Effect of medium acidity on growth and rooting of different plant species growing in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 30: 171-179.
. Perl A., D. Aviv, L. Willmitzer, and E. Galun, 1991. In vitro tuberization in transgenic potatoes harboring B-glucuronidase linked to a patatin promoter: Effect of sucrose levels and photoperiods. Plant Science 73:87-95.
. Pruski, K., Astatkie, T., Duplessis, P., Lewis, T., Nowak, J. and Struik, P.C. 2003. Use of jasmonate for conditioning of potato plantlets and microtubers in greenhouse production of minitubers. American Journal of Potato Research 80: 183-193.
. Roşu R., Chiru N., Rolot J.L., 2004, Researches on genotype influence on potato microtuberization, Anale, INCDCSZ, Vol. XXXI, Tipografia Phoenix Brasov, 120-129.
. Simko I. 1994, Sucrose application causes hormonal changes associated with potato tuber induction. J Plant Growth Reg 13:73-77.
. Struik PC, and SG Wiersema, 1999. Production of pre-basic seed. In: Seed Potato Technology. Wageningen Pers. pp. 173-216.