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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Somatic Embryogenesis in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum Glaucum (L) R.Br.) Using Light and Electron Microscopy|
|Authors||:||Santha. B., Seetharama N.|
ABSTRACT: The morphology and histology of somatic embryogenesis were examined using embryogenic calli derived from immature inflorescences of pearl millet using light and electron microscopic techniques. Young immature inflorescences, 30-35 days old (2.5 cm long) were cultured on LS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL-1 of 2, 4-D and 0.5 mgL-1 of kinetin. The primary callus initiated was non-embryogenic, loose, white but differentiated rapidly into pale yellow, nodular and friable embryogenic callus within 2 weeks. Histological studies revealed the formation of somatic embryos and their maturation. Initial stages of somatic embryo induction showed calli with internal segmenting divisions, which gave rise to discrete groups of cells. Continued divisions and organization in some discrete groups formed globular structures, presumably proembryoids, which showed a distinct epidermis. Further these structures developed to form somatic embryos with a well-organized bipolar structure showing embryonic axis, scutellum, coleoptile and coleorhiza. Multiple shoots (5-6) were produced from each embryo when transferred to MS regeneration medium supplemented with hormonal combinations, viz., BAP + IBA, 2.0 + 0.5 mg L-1 which further developed into complete plantlets.
Key words: Immature inflorescences, callusing, embryogenic cells, morphology, histology Abbreviations: MS - Murashige & Skoog, 2,4-D – 2, 4, dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, LS – Linsmaeir & Skoog, Kn – kinetin, BAP – 6-benzylaminopurine, IBA- Indole 3- butyric acid
 Vasil I.K, Developing cell and tissue culture systems for the improvement of cereal and grass crops, Journal of Plant Physiology 128, 1987, 193-218.
 S Bhaskaran, and R.H. Smith, Cell biology and molecular genetics: a review on regeneration in cereal tissue culture, Crop Science, 30,1990, 1328-1336.
 Vasil V, and I.K Vasil, Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from tissue cultures of Pennisetum americanum and Pennisetum americanum Pennisetum purpureum hybrid, Americal Journal of Botany, 68, 1981, 864-872.
 Pius J, L. George, S. Eapen, and P.S Rao, Enhanced plant regeneration in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) by ethylene inhibitors and cefatoxime, Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture, 32, 1993, 91.
 Botti C, and I.K.Vasil, Plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from parts of cultured mature embryos of Pennisetum americium (L.) K. Schum. Z, Pflanzenphysiology 111, 1983, 319-325.
 Mythili P.K, A. Madhavi, V.D. Reddy, N. Seetharama, Efficient regeneration of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) from shoot tip cultures, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 39, 2001, 1274-1279.
 Morrish F, V. Vasil, and I.K. Vasil, Developmental morphogenesis and genetic manipulation in tissue and cell cultures of the Gramineae, Advances in Genetics, 24, 1987, 431-499.
 Vasil V, and I.K Vasil, The ontogeny of somatic embryos of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum: in cultured immature embryos, Botanical Gazette, 143, 1982, 454-465.
 Botti C, and I.K.Vasil, The ontogeny of somatic embryos of Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum. II. In cultured immature inflorescences, Canadian Journal of Botany, 62, 1984, 1629-1634.
 Lu C, and I.K. Vasil, Histology of somatic embryogenesis in Panicum maximum jacq. (Guinea Grass), American Journal of Botany 72, 1985, 1908-1913.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Characterization of Arsenic contaminated Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) through RAPD Markers|
|Authors||:||Biswarup Mukherjee, Pritam Das, Tathagata Roy Chaudhuri, Tapash Dasgupta|
ABSTRACT: Rice being cultivated under anaerobic condition is vulnerable to arsenite, a mobile arsenic speciation Both arsenate and arsenite are highly toxic to human body. Experiments were conducted in Nonaghata (Nadia) and De-ganga (North 24 parganas) with 40 genotypes of rice in Boro season. A few varieties have been identified with low arsenic. Simultaneously some of them were characterized at molecular level by RAPD technique. It is worth to be seen how the low grain and high grain arsenic varieties behave in RAPD fingerprinting. Fourteen out of the 18 decamer random primers showed amplification of genomic DNA in all individuals. A total of 59 fragments were scored, of these fragments, 10 (16.94%) were common to all accessions, 49 (83.06%) were polymorphic and shared by at least eight accessions. It is interesting to mention that the genotypes Azucena and Lemont have already been identified as low grain arsenic genotypes and occupied a distinct different cluster for all primers at the molecular level also. More research is needed in arsenic research in crop plants in different agro climatic situation to have a meaningful and stable conclusion so that the farmers and also the people of West Bengal do not suffer from arsenic hazards at least from the consumption of rice.
Key Words: Arsenic, Genetic diversity, RAPD, Rice
 Christen, K. 2001. The arsenic threat worsens. Environmental science and technology 35: 286A- 291A.
 Chowdhury, U.K., Biswas, B.K., Chowdhury, T.R., Samanta, G., Mandal, B.K., Basu, G.C., Chanda, C.R., Lodh, D., Saha, K.C., Mukherjee, S.K., Roy, S., Kabir, S., Quamruzzaman, Q., Chakraborti, D., 2000. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Environ. Health Perspect. 108, 393–397.
 Cohen, S. M., L. L. Arnold, M. Eldan, A. S. Lewis, and B. D. Beck. 2006. Methylated arsenicals: The implications of metabolism and carcinogenicity studies in rodents to human risk assessment. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 36:99–133.
 Dasgupta T, Hossain SA, Meharg AA, Price AH. 2004. An arsenate tolerance gene on chromosome 6 of rice. New Phytologist 163, 45–49.
 Gareth J. Norton1, Meher Nigar1, Paul N. Williams1, Tapash Dasgupta, Andrew A. Meharg1 and Adam H. Price. 2008. Rice–arsenate interactions in hydroponics: a three-gene model for tolerance Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 59, No. 8, pp. 2277–2284,
 Duxbury, J. M.; Panaullah, G. Remediation of Arsenic for Agriculture Sustainability, Food Security and Health in Bangladesh;FAO Water Working Paper; FAO: Rome, 2007; p 28.
 Fazal, M.A., Kawachi, T., Ichio, E., 2001. Validity of the latest research findings on causes of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. Water Int.26, 380–389.
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ABSTRACT: The field experiment on ginger was carried out at the Derived savanna zone of Obubra which lies within latitude 06051 and 060 101 North and longitude 080 211 and 080 251 of the Cross River State University of Technology experimental farm during the 2006 and 2007 cropping season to evaluate the response of ginger with different levels of nitrogen (N) (0,100, 200, 300 and 400kg/ha) and potassium (K) (0, 150, 100, 150 and 200kg/ha). It is revealed that combined application of N and K was found more pronounced than the single effect of N and K. It is also noticed that the effect of nitrogen was more distinct than K. The combined effect of N and K had significantly increased the yield and other yield contributing characters of ginger. It was also observed that N300 and K150 kg/ha significantly augmented the ginger yield and other yield parameters. However, the highest plant height (69.3 cm and 63.7cm), maximum number of leaves (20.5 and 18.8), leaf area (39.7cm3 and 36.3cm3) and total number of shoot (5.5 and 7.3) were recorded at N400 K100 kg/ha and were significantly different over NoKo. Similarly, rhizome yield was also significantly influenced by combined application of N and K up to N300 K150 kg/ha. With highest yield (8.1 t/ha and 8.0 t/ha) and the two years mean yield of 8.0 t/ha were recorded during the trials.
Key words: Effect of N and K, ginger quality and yield.
. Okwuowulu, P. A. and Ene, L. S. O. Exploited Plant: The Edible Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe). In: Proceeding of the first National ginger workshop. Oct. 17-21, 1988, Umudike, Nigeria. Pp 59-62.
. Aliyu, L. and S. T. O. Lagoke. Profitability of Chemical Weed Control in ginger (ZingiberOfficinale Roscoe) Production in Northern Nigeria. (Crop Protection Elsevier Science Ltd, 2000).
. Whiley, A. W. Ginger growing in Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 100, 1974,551-557.
. Cochram, W. G. and Cox, G. M. Experimental Design. (John Wiley and Sons Inc. NY ,1975). Pp 612.
. Randhawa, K. S. and Nandpori, K. S. Response of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to N, P, and K. fertilizer.
. Lee, M. T., Asher, C. J. and Whiley, A. W. Nitrogen nutrition of ginger (Zingiber Officinale). Effects of nitrogen supply on growth and development. Field crops research 4 ,1981,55 – 68.
. Musa, U. B. The effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on the growth and yield of ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe). Unpublished M/Sc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 1986. 74 pages.
. Orkwor, G. C. Arene O. B; Okonkwo, J. C. and Oparah, U. L. A. Studies on the agronomic practices in ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe), Production in the Northern Guinea Savannah and the Rainforest zones of Nigeria In: Proceeding of the first National Ginger Workshop Oct. 17-21, 1988, Umudike, Nigeria. Pp 43 – 50.
. Melifonwu, A, A. and Orkwor G. C. Weed Management in edible ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Production from Minisetts. In : Proceeding of the first National Ginger Workshop Oct. 17 -21, 1988, Umudike, Nigeria. Pp 51-58.
. Chukwu, G. O. and Emehute, J. K. U. Effect of NPK fertilizers and Cuttivar on edible ginger growth and yield at Umudlike, Nigeria. J. Sustain Agric. Environ. 3(1), 2001, 193-198.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Influence of Different Soil Management Practices On Soil Properties and Its Implication on Soil Productivity|
|Authors||:||Mbah, C. N., E. E. Attoe, U. F. Nwagu|
ABSTRACT: Soil management involves a lot of operation and practice. We studied the influence of different land management (use) practices; Golf course, (GC), Forest land (FL), Continuous Cropping (CL)) on soil properties. Soil samples were collected at 0-20cm, 20-40cm and 40-60cm depths from the different land use systems and analysed for exchangeable bases, total N%, Om%, Available P (ppm), bulk density (bd), total porosity (tp%) and hydraulic conductivity (hc). Results of the study showed higher values of exchangeable bases in top 0-20cm compared to the values obtained in 20-40cm and 40-60cm.Similarly, tp% decreased with depth while bd and hc increased with depth in the different management systems,. Results showed higher mean values of Om% in FL compared to GC and CL. Results of the study also showed little variability (1%) to medium variability (48%) in all parameters studied. Continuous cultivation was observed to deplete soil nutrient which could result to reduced soil productivity.
Keywords: Management Practice, Soil Properties, Soil Productivity and Variability
. Lal, R. (1982). Tillage Research in the tropics. Soil Tillage Research. 2:305 -309.
. Evanylo G. And McGuin R. (2000).Agricultural management practices and soil quality. Measuring, assessing and comparing laboratory and field test Klt indicators of soil quality attributes. Virginia co-operative Extension pub. No 452-460.
. Johnson W. F. Jr and Wolf A. (1995). Nitrogen transformation in soils amended with poultry litter under aerobic conditions followed by anerobic periods. P27 – 34 in steel K (eds0. Animal wastes and the land – water interface. CRC press Boca Raton, Florida.
. Adams P. C., Daneil, T. C. D. R., Edwards, D. J. Dote and Scott H. D. (1994). Poultry litter and manure contribution to nitrate leaching through Vadose Zone. Soil Science Amer. Journal 58:1206 – 1211.
. FDALR (1985) Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Anambra State, Nigeria. Soil Report, FDALR,1985
. Stockdate, A. E., N. H. La,pkin., Hovi., R. Keatinge., E. K. M. Lennartson, D. W. Macdonald., S. Padel., P. H. Tattorsall., M.S. Wolfe and Watson, C. A. (2001). Agronomic and environmental implications of organic farming systems. Adv. Agron 70:261-237.
. National Research Council (1989). Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press. Washington DC.
. Gysi, E.A . (2001) Improvements in Aggregation and Infiltration of Characteristics of a Krasnozem under Maize with direct and stubble retention. Australian Journal of Soil Resoures.28: 577-590.
. Blake G. R. And Hartge K. H. (1986). Bulk density: methods of soil analysis. Part 1: physical and mineralogical methods. Ed A. Klute pp 365-375. American society of Agronomy, Madison, Wl. USA.
. Bremmer M. (1965). Total Nitrogen. Methods of soil Analysis. Part II. Agronomy 9. Ed. C A. Black. Pp 1149-1198. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison. Wl.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effects of Chemical Constituents on Insect Pest Population in West African Okra, Abelmoschus|
|Authors||:||Adewusi, O. F., Oshipitan A. A.|
ABSTRACT: A study was carried out on the effects of chemical constituents on insect pest attack on genotypes in West African Okra, Abelmoschus caillei. The growth and yield response of the genotypes to pest infestation was determined. The biochemical analysis was carried out using the seeds of the genotypes to determine the bioactive ingredients content. Field experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The result indicated that three of the genotypes, (CEN 010, , NGAE-96-0123 and NGAE -96- 0067) attracted less number of insects, recorded lower percentage of leaf damage (27.19%, 27.41% and 31.73%) and percentage pod damage ( 22.06%, 35.68% and 40.46%) and recorded higher level of harmful bioactive ingredients which conferred resistance to insect attack compared to the susceptible ones. The result of correlation analysis carried out between seed yield and the other traits show that a significant and positive exists between number of fruits per plant and number of damaged pods; number of insect feeding holes and number of Podagrica spp.; number of damaged pods and number of Dysdercus superstitiosus. A negative correlation also exists between number of damaged leaves, number of Dysdercus superstitiosus, number of insect feeding holes,number of Podagrica spp. and seed yield. From the study, it can be concluded that antixenosis was the basis of resistance to insect attack. Three of the genotypes (NGAE- 96-0067, NGAE-96-123 and CEN 010) used in this study are therefore recommended to farmers because of their economic value inspite of insect attack.
Key word: Abelmoschus caillei, chemical constituents, insect population, Dysdercus superstitiosus, Podagrica spp., Genotypes.
. Ariyo O.J. 1993. Genetic diversity in West African Okra, Abelmoschus callei (A. Chev) Stevels multivariate analysis of morphological and agronomic characteristic. Genetic Res. And crop Evol. 40:25-32.
. Awasthi, M.D. 2001. Pesticide residues infruit and vegetables. In: Parvatha Reddy, P., A. Verghese and N.K. Krishna Kumar(eds.), Integrated Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, pp: 263-78. Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, Indisa.
. Chaudhary, H.R and Deedhack, L.N. 1989. Incidence of insects attack on okra and the avoidable losses by them. Annals of aridzone 28:305- 307.
. Epino, P.B. and Rejesus, B.M. 1983. Physico- chemical properties of mungbean, Vigna radiata (wilkzec)L. Philippine Entomologist. 6:607-620
. FAO. 1972. Food Composition Table for use in Africa sited from H.D. Tindall. Vegetables in the Tropics Macmillan Press Ltd. Hong Kong Pp 335.
. Farlex, 2004. Integrated Pest Management. http:// encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com (Accessed November 11, 2004 ).
. Harris, J. and Dent, D. 1999. Priorities in Bio- pesticide R and D in Developing Countries.http:// www. Biopesticide.org/ Reports/ Priorities- BP. Htm (Accessed December 8, 2003).
. Hill, D.S. and Waller, J. 1994. Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops. Cambridge University Press, London. pp. 101-134.
. Kumar, N.K. and Moorthy, P.N. 2001. Integrated Pest Management of insects damaging solanaceous vegetables. In: Parvatha Reddy, P., A. Verghese and N.K. Krishna K
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ABSTRACT: Shoot tip of Aloe indica L. variety was chosen as explants which disinfected with 2% NaOCl and washing thoroughly with sterile water. The shoot tip explants were placed on MS medium supplemented with Benzyladenin, Kinetin with various concentrations were 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L and 2 mg/L and Benzyladenin along in combination with Napthaleneacetic acid the concentration were 0.5mg/L + 0.5mg/L, 1mg/L + 0.5mg/L, 1.5mg/L + 0.5 mg/L and 2mg/L + 0.5mg/L. After 8 weeks, the best proliferation of average number of shoot per explants was 7.8 for the medium containing of 2 mg/l Benzyladenine with 0.5 mg/l Naphthaleneacetic acid and the lowest average number of shoot per explants was 0.9 for the medium containing of 0.5 mg/L Benzyladenine. For rooting, MS media supplemented with Napthaleneacetic acid, Indole-3-butyric acid acid and Indole-3-acetic acid with various concentration were 0.1 mg/L, 0.5mg/L, 1mg/L and 1.5 mg/L respectively were used. Highest average number of root per explants was 5.2 produced in 0.5 mg/L Napthaleneacetic acid concentration. On the other hand, the lowest average number of root per explants was zero with 0.1 mg/L Indole-3-acetic acid concentrations. Finally, the best shooting and rooting medium was identify MS medium in combination with 2mg/L Benzyladenin with 0.5 mg/L Napthaleneacetic acid and 0.5mg/L Napthaleneacetic acid respectively. Thus, this study could be ideal for rapid micropropagation of elite plants of Aloe indica L. By this protocol in future the cost of Aloe indica production will be decreased which will lead the decrease of aloe product prices.
Keywords: Aloe indica; charcoal; in vitro culture; micropropagation; MS medium; shoot tip.
 I.E. Dandhof, "Remarkable Aloe", Omnimedicus Press, Grand Prairie, 1987,Texas, 100-112.
 P. Atherton, "Aloe vera: Magic or Medicine", Nurs. Stand. 12, 41-52, 1998.
 Jeffrey Bland, Effect of Orally Consumed Aloe Juice on Gastrointestinal Function in Normal Humans, Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine, Palo Alto, Cal., Preventive Medicine, 22, 256-280, 1985.
 F. Borrelli, A.A. Izzo, The Plant Kingdom as a Source of Anti Ulcer Remedies , Phytother. Res.,14, 581-591, 2000.
 J.E. Crew, Aloes in the Treatment of Burns and Scalds, Minnesota Med, 22, 538-539.1939.
 L.M. Cera, J.P. Heggers, M.C. Robson and W.J. Hagstrom, The Therapeutical Efficacy of Aloe vera Cream (Dermaid Aloe) in Thermal Injuries: Two Case Reports, Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 16, 786-772,1988.
 R.H. Davis, Isolation of a Stimulatory System in an Aloe vera Extract, J. Amer. Podiatric Med. Assoc., 81(9), 234-256, 1991.
 W.D. Lane, In vitro propagation of Spirea bumalda and Prunus cistena from shoot apics, Can., J. Plant Sci., 59, 1025-1029,1979.
 H.J. Meyer, and J.V. Staden, Rapid in vitro propagation of Aloe barbadensis Mill., Plant cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 26,167-171, 1991.
 P. Bridge, The production of strawberry plants by in vitro micropropagation, J.Hortic. Sci., 49, 209-211, 1974.
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ABSTRACT: One hundred and six recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from JL 24 ICG 11337 of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were evaluated for late leaf spot (LLS), yield and its component traits to study for the various genetic parameters viz., magnitude of genotypic, phenotypic variation, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean. Highly significant variation was observed for late leaf spot, yield and other component traits. The RIL population showed high range of expression transcending the limits of parental values for some important traits like mature pods / plant, total pods / plant, mature seeds / plant, 100- seed weight, haulm weight / plant and pod yield / plant. High values of PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean in respect of LLS score at 75 , LLS score at 90 DAS, 100- seed weight and haulm weight / plant. It was observed that selection for these traits would be useful in the genetic improvement of these traits. Based on mean performance of RILs for group of traits superior lines were selected for LLS tolerance with early maturity, yield and its component traits.
Key words: Groundnut, Recombinant inbred lines, Variability, Heritability, Late Leaf Spot and pod yield / plant.
. Aquino, V.M., Shokes, F.M, Gorbet, D.W and Nutter, F.W. 1995. Late leaf spot progression on peanut as affected by
components of partial resistance. Plant Disease, 79: 74–78.
. Chapin, J.W., Thomas, J.S., Isleib, T.G., Shokes, F.M., Branch, W.D. and Tillman, B.L. 2010. Field evaluation of virginia-type
peanut cultivars for resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus, late leaf spot and stem rot. Peanut Science, 37: 63–69.
. Dwivedi, S.L., Nigam. S.N., Subrahmanyam, P., Jambunathan, Nagabhushanam, G.V.S., Reddy, P.M., Raghunath, K. and
McDonald, D. 1993. Effect of foliar diseases control by Chlorothalonil on pod yield and quality characteristics of confectionery
groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Journal of the Science Food and Agriculture, 63: 265–271.
. FAOSTAT. 2012. Statistical data on crops, groundnut, area, production and productivity of Indi
. Fisher, R. A. and Yates, F. 1967. Statistical Table for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research, Oliver and Byod, Publishers,
Edinburgh, pp. 18-13.
. Gorbet, D.W., Shokes, F.M. and Jackson, L.F. 1982. Control of peanut leaf spot with a combination of resistance and fungicide
treatment. Peanut Science. 9: 87–90.
. Grichar, W.J., Besler, B.A. and Jaks, A.J. 1998. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar response to leaf spot disease development
under four disease management programs. Peanut Science, 25: 35-39.
. Janila, P., Venuprasad, R., Abhishek, R., Aruna, R., Kanaka Reddy, R., Waliyar, F. and Nigam, S.N. 2012. Genetic analysis
of resistance to late leaf spot in interspecific groundnuts. Euphytica (Unpublished).
. Jogloy, S., Wynne, J. C and Beute, M. K. 1987. Inheritance of late leaf spot resistance and agronomic traits in peanut. Peanut
Science, 14: 86-90.
. John, K., Krishna, K., Vasanthi, T.M., R. P. Ramaiah, M. Venkateswarlu, O. And Naidu, P. H. 2006. Variability studies in
groundnut germplasm. Legume Research. 29 (3): 219-220.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Production of Triploid Clariobranchus in Indoor Hatchery|
|Authors||:||Nwachi Oster Francis, Ekokotu Paterson Adogbeji|
ABSTRACT:A study was carried out to determine the effect of cold shock on hybrid Clariobranchus on the process of producing triploid. One Heterobranchus bidorsalis male broodstock of weight 2kg and age 36 months was selected to cross with one Clarias gariepinus female broodstock of weight 1.5kg and age 12-15months. The female was injected above the lateral line with hormone (ovaprim) at rate of 0.5ml/kg after a latency period of 12 hours.Fish with eggs freely oozing out on slight touch were stripped into a dry bowl, the eggs were fertilized and divided into two parts in duplicates (A1, A2, B1, B2) and incubated. Triploidy was induced by subjecting the fertilized female eggs to a temperature of 5oc for 3(three) to 4(four) minutes. A total of 100 fries was stock in each water rearing receptacle and initial weight of diploid is (0.0019±0.001) stocked in B1 and B2 and triploid treatments (0.0019±0.001) stocked in A1 and A2, fries was counted to monitor their daily survival and growth rate on weekly basis for eight weeks. The final weights of diploid were (0.756±0.161) and triploid (1.62±0.080) and their percentage of survival rate were 48% for triploid and 70% for diploid. The change in length for triploid (3n) was from 0.68cm to 5.12cm and the diploid fish from 0.54cm to 5.00cm.The growth rate was monitored and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to record the change in weight and length of fish. The triploid strain performs better in growth than diploid strain.
Keywords: Triploid, Diploid, Strain, Broodstock and hormone
. Aluko, P.O, Woru, D, and Aremu, A. (1997). Preliminary studies on initiation of uniform size breeding line in Heterobranchus- Clarias gynogens. National Institute of Freshwater Fisheries Research, New Bussa, NIFFR Annual Report, 1997, pp.53-56.
. Aluko, P.O. (1995). Growth characteristics of first, 2nd and backcross generations of the hybrid between Heterobranchus longifilis and Clarias anguillaris. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research Annual Report, New Bussa, Nigeria, pp.74-78.
. Aluko, P.O. (1996). Variation in dorsal and adipose fin length of the F1, F2 and backcross hybrid involving parental Heterobranchus longifilis and Clarias anguilaris. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research Annual Report, New Bussa, Nigeria, pp. 64-73.
. Colombo et al 1995, handbook on Chromosome manipulation on freshwater fishes pp.24-38.
. Dada, AA. And O. Olanrewaju, 1996. comprerative growth and survival of the catfish; Clarias sp, Heterobranchus spp. And their hybrid fry under out door Nursery Management System, National Institution for Freshwater Fisheries Research Annual Report, New Bussa, Nigeria, pp: 115-122
. Eyo, (2002): Cytognetic variation in clarias species. Retrieved December 10 2010 from http.//www.zoo-unn.org/volumes-1/13 Eyoje.pp
. Fagbemro, O.A (1992): Optional Dietary protein level of Heterobranchus Bidorsalis fingerings fed Compound Diets. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture Barmidegh 44(3), 87-92.
. Idogo-Umeh, G. (2003). Freshwater fishes of Nigeria: Taxonomy Ecological Notes, Diet and Utilization, Idodo Umeh publisher, Benin, Nigeria, ISBN-13:9789788052012, pages 232.
. Jambo N.A and Alfred Ockiya J.F. . Effect of dietary and protein levels on the growth performance of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerling from Niger Delta. African journal of Biotechnology 7 pp. 2483-2485.
. Madu, C.T, Mohammed, S. Issa- J and Ita, E.O., (1993). Further studies on the growth morphormetric and meristic characteristics of Clarias anguillaris: Het
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Clinicopathological changes induced by heat stress, their resolution by minerals and vitamin C supplementation in quails|
|Authors||:||Khurshaid Anwar, Asim Aslam|
ABSTRACT: The effects of water supplements i.e. sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), potassium chloride (KCl) and ascorbic acid were evaluated on feed intake, weight gain, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), serum potassium, serum bicarbonate level and on blood parameters in broiler Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature (340C, 8hr/d, 0900-1700hr). The quail chicks (n=300; 14 days old) kept at 340C (heat-stressed) were divided into five groups (B, C, D, E, F) of 60 chicks each. Group B with no water supplementations, group C supplemented with (250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/liter of water), group D (125mg of potassium chloride/liter of water), group E (75mg sodium bicarbonate/liter of water), group F (250 mg of L-ascorbic acid +75mg/liter sodium bicarbonate/liter of water, whereas group A chicks (n=60) kept at 220C were fed the basal diet (TN group). Heat-stressed quails of group B, lead to significant decrease (P <0.05) in weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, erythrocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte proportions with increase in H/L ratio from 0.55 to 0.62 whereas the proportions of eosinophil and hematocrit values were not as much significantly affected. Groups (C, D, E and F) supplemented with Vit C, KCl and NaHCO3 respectively at the level of 250 mg/L, 125gm/L and 75mg per liter of drinking water alone and in combination had significantly increased (P<0.05) serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, erythrocytes, with improved weight gain and FCR. The results of the present study showed that supplementing a combination of vit. C and sodium bicarbonate in drinking water offered a good management practice to reduce heat stress-related decreases in broiler Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).
Keywords: Heat stress, water supplements, vitamin C, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, quail, H/L ratio
 Donkoh, A. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting perfor- mance and physiological response of broiler chickens. Int. J. Biometeorol. 33, 1989, 259–265.
 Siegel, H. S. Sangiah and J.E. Breazile. Chronic heat stress and respiratory alkalosis: occurrence and Stress, strains and resistance. Br. Poult. Sci. 36, 1995, 3–22.
 Lombin, L.H. National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. Its activities and opportunities to veterinary professionals" Paper presented at the 44th Annual congress of the Nigerian veterinary medical association. (Effurun, Delta state. Nigeria. 2007, October 22nd-26th)
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Interactive Effects Of Rhizobium And Virus Inocula On Symptomatology And Nodulation In Cowpea.|
|Authors||:||Oyatokun, O. S., Okogun, J. A., Shoyinka, S. A.|
ABSTRACT: A study was carried out to evaluate the interactive effects of rhizobium and virus inocula on three cowpea cultivars: Ife brown, Owode and IT90K-277-2 on sterilized soils in the greenhouse. The cultivars were inoculated with two strains of rhizobium, R25B and IRj2180A, and two strains of virus, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and cowpea yellow mosaic virus (CYMV), 7 days after planting (DAP) regarded as early inoculation and 21 DAP as late inoculation. The trial was a factorial experiment fitted into split-split plot design. Viral inoculation significantly reduced the numbers of nodules and nodule weight, biomass production and grain yields of all the three cowpea cultivars. Maximum reductions were obtained with the viral infections where rhizobium inoculants were absent. Time of inoculation also had a significant impact on the effect of the inoculums strains. Early inoculation provided a significant result than late. The interaction of rhizobium and virus inoculums strains indicated that the severity of infection by the viral strain was not in any way depressed by the presence of rhizobium inoculums strains. There were no variations in varietal reactions. Cultivar IT90K-277-2 possessed a superior genotype while Ife brown cultivar exhibited the least performance in terms of most parameters measured.
Keywords: biomass, cowpea, inoculation, nodulation, rhizobium, virus.
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ABSTRACT: Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes for all the characters studied except plant height, days to maturity, length of the fruit, diameter of the fruit, node at which mosaic disease appears and days at first mosaic symptoms appears. Highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation observed for node at which mosaic disease appears, days at first mosaic symptom appears and number of branches per plant. The GCV and PCV values for most of the characters were found to be very distant to each other, indicated that characters much influenced by environmental factors. The heritability estimates in broad sense were high for number of branches per plant, days to maturity, length of the fruit, days to 50% flowering and node at which mosaic disease appears, while low heritability estimates were observed for number of fruits per plant and node at which first flower appears. The genetic advance as percentage of mean was high for node at which mosaic disease appear, days at first mosaic symptom appear and number of branches per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for number of branches per plant and days to maturity indicating that they are governed by additive genes and could be effectively improved through selection.
Key words: Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, okra
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Genotype × Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis in Mungbean|
|Authors||:||Disharee Nath, Tapash Dasgupta|
ABSTRACT: Mungbean is an important grain legume widely grown in India. Thirty genotypes of mungbean developed through mutation breeding from three parents namely B1, B105 and SML32 were evaluated on seven environments of West Bengal, India. Stability parameters were computed to know genotype x environment interaction and genotypic performance for yield per plant and its components. Wide range of variation was observed for seed yield and components across environments. Genotypes were grown best in sandy-loam textured soil coupled with low pH (5.7), indicating acidity and moderate water holding capacity, accompanied with higher proportion of available nitrogen percentage, moderate P2O5 and organic C. The analysis of variance showed highly significant variance for genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction. The significance of genotype x environment interaction accentuated the implication of stability analysis in crop improvement programme. The analysis of variance exhibited comparatively higher magnitudes of linear components than the non linear components and thus the characters were predictable in nature. Identification of stable genotypes over environments was done by stability analysis following model of Eberhart and Russell. Sustainability index was also estimated for searching the stable genotypes. In most of the cases, the stability for yield components was concomitant with stability for seed yield per plant. Four mutant genotypes namely CUM1, CUM4, CUM10 and CUM13 registered average stability coupled with high mean performance for seed yield per plant and components consistently, based on regression parameters and sustainability index.
Keywords: Genotype x environment interaction, Mungbean, Stability, Sustainability index
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