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ABSTRACT: Combining ability analysis was carried out for fruit yield and its components in okra in a 8 x 8 full diallel cross. Both general a combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances were highly significant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene actions. The proportion of variance due to GCA/SCA was found to be less than unity for all the characters except for fruit length indicating predominance of non-additive gene action in determining these traits except fruit length which is determined by additive gene action. The highest gca effect for fruit yield per hectare recorded in Arka Anamika followed by Arka Abhay. The highest significant positive sca effect was observed in the cross Arka Anamika x DBh-43 followed by DBh-47 x Arka Anamika and DBh-47 x DBh-30. Based on the total score values it is observed that among the parents Arka Anmika had higher gca scores and is a good combiner followed by Arka abhay and DBh-43. Among hybrids, Arka Anamika x DBh-43 had highest sca score and is a good combiner followed by Arka Anamika x DBh-37 and DBh-30 x DBh-55 hybrids.
Keywords: Combining ability, Gene action, Diallel, Fruit yield, Okra
 N. Ahmed, M.A. Hakim and G.H. Zargar, Combining ability studies in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.). Veg. Sci., 24, 1997,95-98.
 D.R. Chaudhary, Jagmohankumar, Vidyasagar and S.K. Sharma, Line x Tester analysis of combining ability in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.). South Indian Hort., 39 (6), 1991, 337-340.
 K.D. Dahake and N.D. Bangar, Combining ability analysis in okra. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 31 (1), 2006, 039-041.
 B.S. Dhankar and S.K. Dhankar, Heterosis and combining ability studies for some economic characters in okra. Haryana J. Hort. Sci., 30 (3&4), 2002, 230-232.
 B. Griffing, Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing system. Australian J. Biol. Sci., 9, 1956, 463-493.
 V.K. Poshiya and P.T. Shukla, Combining ability in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.). Gujarath Agric. Univ. J., 12 (12), 1986, 25-28.
 Sanjay Singh, B. Singh and A.K. Pal, Line x Tester analysis of combining ability in okra. Indian J. Hort. December, 2006, pp. 397-401.
 B.R. Sharma and Y.P. Mahajan, Line and tester analysis of combining ability and heterosis for some economic characters in okra. Scientia Hort., 9, 1978, 111-118.
 S. Sivagamasundhari, I. Irulappan, R. Arumugam, and S. Jayasankar, combining ability in bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). South Indian Hort., 40, 1992, 21-27.
 A.K. Shukla, N.C. Gautam, A.K. Tiwari and A. K. Chaturvedi, Heterosis and combining ability in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.). Veg. Sci., 16,1989, 191-196.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Investigation on the Efficacy of Salmonella Bivalent Vaccine|
|Authors||:||Lipi Rani Basak, Md. Mansurul Amin|
ABSTRACT: The work was performed to investigate the efficacy of Salmonella bivalent vaccine containing Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum prepared at the Livestock and Poultry Vaccine Research and Production Centre (LPVRPC) of the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU). Purity and safety test of the vaccine was carried out as per OIE (2008). For efficacy test, vaccination was performed in Shaver brown chicken of group A containing 10 birds while group B comprising of 10 birds was maintained as unvaccinated control. Birds were inoculated primarily via intramuscular route at 7 weeks of age with 0.5ml (4.7 ×107 CFU/ ml) of vaccine followed by a booster dose at 35 days of primary vaccination (DPV). At 21 DPV (3 weeks), mean PHA antibody titre of sera samples were recorded as 104.00±11.71 with S. gallinarum and 112.00±10.47 with S. pullorum antigen whereas sera samples obtained at 35 DPV (5weeks) showed mean PHA antibody titre of 96.00±12.09 and 80.00±10.47 respectively. At 2 weeks of booster vaccination such mean PHA antibody titres were 144.00±16.00 and 136.00±24.00. LD50 were determined to calculate the challenge dose. Prior to challenge given at 4 weeks of booster vaccination the mean PHA antibody titres were found to be 104.00±11.71 with both the experimental antigens while unvaccinated control group B had ≤4.0±0.00. It was observed that the birds vaccinated with the schedule of bivalent vaccination and exhibiting mean titres of 104.00±11.71 with either S. gallinarum or S. pullorum antigens withstood the challenge infection given IM with 1ml containing 8.6×1013 CFU/ ml and 8.9×1013 CFU/ ml of virulent experimental bacterial cultures respectively. The PHA titre of group A birds analyzed by student t-test to determine the protective capacity of vaccinated chickens against challenge exposure. It was demonstrated that experimental Salmonella bivalent vaccine conferred protection against challenge infection and was found to be safe.
Keywords: Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella pullorum, vaccine, immunogenicity, PHA titres.
. Begum F, 1992. Studies on the immune response in chickens with experimentally prepared Salmonella gallinarum vaccine. M. S. thesis. Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
. Carter G. R, 1979. Diagnostic Procedures in Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycoplasma. 3rd edition. Charles C. Thomas publisher, USA, 398-417.
. Chowdhury, K. A., Amin, M. M., Rahman, A. and Ali. M. R. 1985. Investigation of natural outbreaks of fowl typhoid. Bangladesh Veterinary Journal, 19: 49-56.
. Ferdous, J. 2008. Immunogenicity study of DLS prepared Salmonella gallinarum vaccine in comparison to commercially available one in layer chicken. M.S. Thesis submitted to the Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. pp.38- 39.
. Freeman, B. A. (1985). Burrows text book of microbiology. 22nd edn. W. B. Saunders company, Philadelphia, London, Toronto, Mexici city, Rio de Janeiro, Sydney, Tokyo, pp. 464- 472
. Gast, R. K. (1997). Salmonella infection in Disease of poultry by B.W Calnek, H. John Barnes, Charles W. Beard, Larry R. McDougald, Y. M. Saif, 10th edition, Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA, pp. 81-93.
. Gifford, D. H.; Shane, S. M.; Hugh, J. M. and Weigler, B. J. 1987. Evaluation of biosecurity in broiler breeder. Avian Disease. 31: 339-344.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Impact of Insect Resistant Cotton|
|Authors||:||Ambati Ravinder Raju|
ABSTRACT: Boll guard I & II were introduced in 2002 and 2006 by Mahyco Monsanto with Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee, Govt. of India. Indian cotton farmers adopted Bt hybrid cotton between 2002-2013 reaching 92% of the cotton area and 95% of the production, replacing conventional hybrids/ varieties of all the species in both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Bt hybrid cotton was presumed to produce record highest average productivities in India and other major cotton growing countries also in 2007 and 2012 with a decline after 2008 due to excess rains. Farmers invested Rs. 1500-1750/- Acre could prevent 24-28% cotton yield losses by consuming 2.3 times more fertilizers, 35% herbicides and 22% growth regulators. Although it was reported three times returns compared to non Bt cotton due to severe inflation pressure farmers profitability got reduced and went unrest in 2011. Seed producers, marketing companies, input dealers and female labourers were major beneficiaries. Bollworms sprays were reduced to zero but sucking pests sprays were almost doubled with low volume more costly insecticides. The pest management cost remain unchanged in this decade. In conclusion, Bt cotton won the confidence of farmers for its bollworm resistance except refugea regultion. Govt. efforts for price control stabilized margin for farmers but eroded due to escalating weed management and hand picking costs after 2008. Yield gap analysis found N, Zn, Mg and B were limiting optimum yields, besides post emergence herbicides, rain water conservation/ supplemental irrigations can break present productivity levels and reduce cost of production. Public sector research agencies should follow Public private partnership model adopted by Gujarat Agriculture University, Surat for conversion Bt Hybrid-6 and 8. They need to meet farmer's expectations by developing transgenic insect and herbicide resistant cotton varieties and prove in farmers fields. Breeders must meet consumer's expectations inorder to compete with polyester fibre to get sustainable demand. Bt hybrid cotton impact on economy, input output efficiencies, reducing cost of production, policies affecting farmers profits, R&D efforts and BMPs across globe were reviewed.
Keywords: Bt hybrid cotton, Cropping systems, Events, Impact, Insect resistant cotton, profitability
. CITI, Extra Long Staple Cotton Vision Statement 2006 www.simamills.com/docs/ls_ vision.pdf
. Vackayil J., Textile body calls for SPV to promote long staple cotton. The Financial Express. 2007, Monday, 17th. September.
. Mohanty, S. Cheng F., J. Chaudhary, Assessing the Competitiveness of Indian Cotton Production: A Policy Analysis Matrix Approach. Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) at Iowa State University, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) Publications 01/2002; website: www.card.iastate.edu
. Sharma, VP and H. Thaker, Fertilizer Subsidy in India: Who are the Beneficiaries? W.P. No. 2009-07-01 July 2009.
. Barik, A., Cotton statistics at glance. Directorate of Cotton Development, Mumbai and National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi. 2010.
. FAI, Fertilizer Policy Govt of India, Ministry of Fertilizers, 2013.http://fert.nic.in/page/fertilizer- policy
. AICCIP, Project Coordinator's Report AICCIP - 10 Oct 2011. Central Institute for Cotton aiccip.cicr.org.in/ CD_11_12/2_PC report. pdf
. Anonymous. Indian cotton production: Current scenario - The Indian Textile Journal 2012. articles/ FAdetails.asp? id=2737 Cached -www.indiantextilejournal.com/
. Choudhary, B. and Gaur, K. Bt cotton in India: A Country Profile. ISAAA Series of Biotech Crop Profiles, 2010. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY.
. Singh, N. B., Revolution in Indian cotton. Directorate of cotton development, Mumbai. 2009. pp 13-1
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Incidence of Equine Hoof Derangements in Malaysian Horse Population|
|Authors||:||Nurul Syuhada Zainal Abidin, Lawan Adamu, Bashir Ahmad|
ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to investigate the incidence of equine hoof derangements in Malaysian horse population. The horses' hooves were examined in five establishments in Selangor, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur. The hoof conditions and predisposing factors examined were the thrush, soft sole, seedy toe, hoof crack, hoof ring, chip hoof, displaced coronet, the management and nutritional status. These were recorded via observational and personal communication. 53 horses were selected randomly and categorized into clinically healthy, actively working and shod from different breeds and usage. Factors that were compared with the incidence of hoof derangements were breed, use of the horse, hoof pigmentation, management and nutrition. The incidence rate for chipped hoof was the highest recorded with 52 cases (53.52%). The lowest incidence rate recorded was sand crack where only a single case was recorded (0.96%). Other hoof derangements were grass crack (40 cases/I.R 41.74%), Thrush (41 cases/I.R 40.20%), hoof ring (40cases/I.R 39.00%) and horizontal crack (3 cases/I.R 3.37%). The relationship between hoof pigmentation, breed and use of horse with the incidence of hoof derangements showed no significant difference except for use of horses with the condition of thrush and chipped hoof. This implies that adequate management of the equine hoof can thwart and reduce hoof wall derangements in working and racing horses. Therefore, improved nutrition, regular trimming and shoeing can protect the menace of hoof wall derangements and improve the performance and raise magnificent breeds of horses.
Keywords: equine hoof derangements, incidence, horse population, Malaysia.
. Back, W. and H. Clayton, Equine locomotion. Ed: WB Saunders London, 2001: p. 135-166
. Reeves MJ, Yovich JV, and T. AS, Miscellaneous conditions of the equine foot. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract, 1989. 5: p. 236-237.
. Dabareiner RM, Moyer WA, and C. GK, Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse. In Ross MW, Dyson SJ, editors, Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2003.
. Ross, M.W. and S.J. Dyson, Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse. 2nd edition. Elsevier Saunders, US. , 2011: p. 45-1098.
. King, C. and R. Mansmann, Lameness. Recognizing and Treating. The Horse's most Common Ailment. Equine Research. Lyons Press, US, 2007: p. 208-704.
. Stashak, T.S., Adams' Lameness in Horses 5th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, US., 2002: p. 122-1118.
. Moyer, W., Hoof wall defects: Chronic hoof wall separations and hoof wall cracks. Vetеrinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 2003. 19: p. 463−477.
. Bigham, A. and T. AN, Field Study of Hoof Wall Problems in Unshod Working Horses. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2007. 10(3): p. 179-183.
. Vogel, C.J., An Illustrated Guide to Veterinary Care of the Horse. Manson Publishing, England, 1996: p. 154.
. Kaneps, Andris J., and T.A. Turner, Diseases of the foot. Equine sports medicine and surgery. Edinburgh, 2004: p. 260-289.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Rabbit Fed Urea Treated Cowpea Husk|
|Authors||:||M. Mohammed, Jamala, G. Y.|
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaned rabbit. Sixteen (16) breed weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6-8 weeks old with an average initial weight of 833g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with 4 rabbits per treatment. The experiment lasted for a period of six weeks. Two diets were formulated in which cowpea husk was included at 40% (untreated control), 40, 50 and 60% urea treated cowpea husk at 4% designed as diet 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The rabbits were weighed weekly to observe body weight changes, fresh water was supplied ad libitum and 100g of feed were offered to each rabbit daily. The results showed that daily feed intake, dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio and crude protein intake were significantly different (p<0.05), while the daily weight gain did not show much variation (p>0.05). Three mortalities were recorded during the experiment, one in treatment three and, two in treatment four. Mortality was highest in treatment four (60% inclusion level). It can be deduced from this study that supplementing rabbit diet with 4% urea used for the treatment at 40% level of inclusion is safe to the rabbit if properly and uniformly added. Further research is necessary at higher treated levels of urea to reduce the toxic effect.
Keywords: Nutrition, Rabbits, Performance, Urea, Cowpea Husk
. A.O.A.C (1980). Association of official Analytical Chemist Official methods of analysis 13thedition Washington DC
. Abow- Ashour, A.M and Barakat, M.A. (1986). Effect of Diet and Fibre levels on Digestibility.
. Performance and caecal microbial activity in growing rabbits. Word Review of Animal Production 22(4) 52-59
. Adebayo, A.A.and Tukur A.I. (1997). Adamawa State in Maps. Pub. Dept. of Geography, Federal University of Technology Yola. In Co-operation with Paraclete Pub. Yola-Nigeria Pp 8 - 26
. Aduku a.o and Olukosi, D.o (1990). Rabbit Management in the Tropics, Living Faith Books Publishers Abuja FCT Pg 1 - 42
. Agege, S. C. (1994). Rabbits and food supplement for rabbits and sensory properties of meat from rabbits fed rumen ingesta Journal of Agric. Tech. Vol. (2)
. Blood, D.C. Radostitson, o.m. (1987). Diseases Caused by Chemical agents. A textbook of the Diseases of cattle, Sheep, pigs, Goats and Horses. Pp 1299-1300
. Doma, U.D. Adegbola,T.A. and Yakubu, I.M (1999). Utilization of cowpea shell and maize cob as source of diet for rabbits. Tropical Journals of animal Science 2 (1) 27
. EKpenyong, T.E. and Biokahy, J.O. (1986). Utilization of Offal meal as Replacement for Soya bean meal in diet of Rabbit. Journal of Department of Agric. Vol. 2, Federal Ministry of Agriculture Abuja
. Fielding, D. (1993). Rabbit, Macmillan Edu. Ltd., London and Basingstoke Pp 1-101
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of sowing date and crop spacing on growth, yield attributes and quality of sesame|
|Authors||:||K. Sivagamy. J. Rammohan|
ABSTRACT: Sesame is one of the oldest and most important oil seed crop. This study was carried out to determine the effects of different sowing dates and inter- and intra-row spacings on the growth and yield components on sesame. A Field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2006 (Masipattam) to evaluate the optimum time of sowing and spacing for realizing higher seed yield. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with six replications. The treatments consisted of two factors: (i) time of sowing (second fortnight of February and first fortnight of March) and (ii) crop geometries (30 x 30 cm, 45 x 15 cm, 30 x 10 cm and 15 x 10 cm).The results of the experiment field revealed that performance of test variety of KS 95010 was superior when sown early during the second fortnight of February (Masipattam) in the rectangular geometry of 45 x 15 cm under irrigated condition in the karaikal region.
Key words: Sesame, time of sowing, geometry, growth , yield and oil content
 Bisht, I.S, Mahajan Loknathan ,T.R and Agrawal, RC. 1998. Diversity in Indian sesame collection and stratification of germplasm accessions in different diversity groups. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 45: 325-335.
 Cagurgan ,M.I. 2006. Selection and morphological characterization of induced determinate mutants in sesame.Field Crops Res. 96: 19-24
 Sanjay Kumar, S. and Goel, P.D. 1994. A great ancient oilseed-sesamum. Farmer and Parliament, 12:6-7.  Chimanshette, T. G., Dhoble , M. V. and Balasubramaniyan, P. 1996. Influence of plant population and nitrogen on yield and nutri
ent response of sesame (Sesamum indicum). Indian J. Agron.,41(3): 448-450.
 Muthusankaranarayanan, A., Anandkumar ,S. and Pandian, B. J. 2001. Optimum time of sowing and nitrogen management for summer irrigated sesame. Sesame and safflower Newsletter, 16: 64 -67.
 Ghosh, D. C. and Patra,A.K.1994.Effect of plant density and fertility levels on productivity and economics of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Indian J. Agron., 39(1): 71-75.
 Mujaya, I. M. and Yerokun, O. A. 2003.Response of sesame to plant population and nitrogen fertilizer in north-central Zimbabwe. Sesame and Safflower Newsletter, No.18.
 Subrahmaniyan, K., Arulmozhi ,N and Kalaiselvan,P. 2001. Influence of plant density and NPK levels on the growth and yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum) genotypes. Agric. Sci. Digest, 21(3): 210-212
 Ramanathan, SP. and B. Chandrasekharan. 1998. Effect of clipping, plant geometry and fertilizer on summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Indian J. Agron., 43(2): 329-332.
 Govindarasou, R., P. Sivasubramanian and K. Manian. 1998. Analysis of seed yield and yield component in sesame at coastal Karaikal. J. Indian Soc. Coastal Agric. Res. 7(2): 95 – 97.
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ABSTRACT: Fowl tyhoid is host adapted to avian species and is considered to pose a minimal zoonotic risk throughout the world. This work is aimed at isolating Salmonella gallinarum from poultry droppings used for manure in Jos metropolis. One hundred and fifty samples of poultry droppings from fifty poultry houses in Vom, Kuru, Bukuru and Jos towns of Plateau State were sampled for the presence of Salmonella gallinarum using cultural, biochemical and biological properties to identify the isolates. Two isolates (1.3%) from two poultry farms were positive for Salmonella gallinarum. Other bacteria concurrently isolated included: Proteus species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus species, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas species and lactobacilli. The presence of Salmonella gallinarum calls for improved poultry farm hygiene and the use of effective broad spectrum antibiotics. Detection of Salmonella gallinarum in poultry droppings in this study poses health hazards to other uninfected birds especially those at free range.
Key words: Poultry droppings, Salmonella gallinarum, Jos, Nigeria
 Shivaprasad, H.L. (1997). Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid. In B.W. Calnek., H.J. Barnes., C.W. Beard., L.R. McDougald & Y.M. Saif (Eds.), Disease of Poultry 10th edition (pp. 82– 96). Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
 Okoj, L. (1993). Diseases as important factors affecting increased poultry production in Uganda. Der Tropenlandwin, Zeitschrift in dentropen and Subtropen Jahrgag, 94, S37-S44.
 Arbelot, B., Dayon, J.F. Mamis D. Gneye J.C. Tall, F and Samb H. (1997). Sero-survey of Dominant avian disease in Senagal; Mycoplasmosis, Fowl Typhoid and Pullorum disease, Newcastle, infectious bursal and infections bronchitis disease. Revue d' Elevage et de Medicine veterinarier des Pays tropicaus, 50, 197-203.
 Saidu, L., Abdu., P.A. Umoh, J.U and Abdulahi, U.S (1994). Disease of Nigerian indigenous chickens. Bulletin of Animals Health Production in Africa, 42, 19-23.
 Bouzoubaa K.,K.V. Nagarya, J. A. Newman, and B.S. pomeraj (1987). Use of membrane proteins from Salmonella gallinarum for prevention of fowl typhoid infection in chickens. Avian Dis. 31: 699-704 Cheesbrough, M.(2000). District Laboratory practice in Tropical Countries part 2 (pp. 132 – 142 )
 Wray, C., Davies, R.H and Corkish, J.D (1996). Enterobacteriaceae. In F.T.W. Jordan and M. Pattison (Eds). Poultry Diseases 4th edition (pp 9-43) London; Saunders company Ltd.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Response of Watermelon to Five Different Rates of Poultry Manure in Asaba Area of Delta State, Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Enujeke E. C.|
ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons in the Teaching and Research Farm of Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria to evaluate the response of watermelon to five different rates of poultry manure. The study was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Rates of poultry manure in tons per hectare were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, while the parameters investigated were vine length, number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, and fruit weight of watermelon. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results of the study showed that plants that received highest rate of poultry manure (20 tha-1) were superior in the parameters tested with vine length of 177.5 cm at 8 weeks, mean number of leaves of 3.71 mm, number of branches/plant of 5.77, and mean fruit weight of 1309.43 tha-1). Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that farmers in the study area apply 20 tha-1 of poultry manure for increased growth and yield of watermelon.
Keywords: Growth and yield of watermelon, rates of poultry manure, Asaba, Nigeria
. Adekiya, A.O. and Ojeniyi, S.O. (2002). Evaluation of tomato growth and soil properties under methods of seedling bed preparation in an Alfisol in the rainforest zone of southwest Nigeria. Bioresource Technol. 96: 509-516.
. Agbede, T.M., Ojeniyi, S.O. and Adeyemo, A.J. (2008). Effect of Poultry Manure on Soil physical and chemical properties, growth and grain yield of sorghum in Southwest, Nigeria, Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric. 2(1): 72-77.
. Aliyu, L. (2000). The effects of organic and mineral fertilizer on growth, yield and composition of pepper (Capsicum annum L). Biol. Agric. Hort. 18: 29–36.
. Bremmer, J. M. and C. S. Mulvaney (1982): Total nitrogen In: Page A. L. Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Agron 9, Madison. W.I. p. 149-157.
. Dauda, S.N., Ajayi, F.A. and Ndor E. (2008). Growth and Yield of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) as Affected by Poultry Manure Application. Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences.; 121–124. http://www.fspublishers.org (accessed 2009 November 10).
. DIPA (2006). Handbook of Agriculture: facts and figures for farmers, students and all interested in farming. Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p. 435.
. Egbuchua, C. N. (2007) Pedological characterization and fertility evaluation of some wetlands soils in Delta State. Ph.D Thesis (unpublished). Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
. Enujeke E.C., Ojeifo I.M, and Nnaji G.U (2013) Residual effects of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on maize grain weight and some soil properties in Asaba area of Delta State. International Journal of Advanced Biological Research 3(3):433-442. Society for Science and Nature, India.
. Enujeke, E.C. (2013). Effects Of Poultry Manure On Growth And Yield Of Improved Maize In Asaba Area of Delta State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). 4, (5): 24-30. International Organization of Scientific Research, India.
. Ewulo, B. S. Ojeniyi, S. O. and Akanni, D. A. (2008). Effect of poultry manure on selected soil physical and chemical properties, growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 3 (9), pp. 612-616,. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR (accessed 2009 November 10).
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ABSTRACT: Hail haor has played a crucial role in the natural fish production, maintenance of biodiversity and creation of employment in the north-east area of Bangladesh. In the recent years it is losing its reputation. Although climate change is the main reason for the adverse impact on its beauty and resources, other factors such as population increase, over exploitation of fish, and lack of knowledge about its economic importance, are also responsible. This study was undertaken to review activities of the existing co-management organizations in the Hail haor in the context of threats of climate change in the locality. The findings show that 57% of the respondents' main occupation is fishing. The respondent community people show a degree of concern, and perceive the manifestations of climate change as changes in temperature, rainfall and water flow. The two concerned Resource Management Organizations (RMO) are reasonably operational. The Borogangina RMO (score of 80.60) has been found to be better performing as compared to Dumuria (score 66). There remain some problems in the study area which pose a challenge to RMOs members. In this context government should restart the existing co-management system in the Hail haor for the sustainable development of the haor.
Keywords: Hail Haor, RMO, CMO, FGD
. Akter, A. 2011. People‟s Perception of environmntal pollution in Mokosh beel, Bangladesh. In: Fox J., Mustafa M.G., Quazi S.A., Miles W.B., Cunningham E.J. and Chassels M. (eds.) Rural livelihoods and protected landscapes: co-management in the wetlands and forests of Bangladesh, IPAC Project, Departments of Forests, Environment and Fisheries, Dhaka, pp.85-98.
. Bhusal, Y.R. 2009. Local peoples‟ perceptions on climate change, its impacts and adaptation measures in mid-mountain region of Nepal (A case study from Kaski district). Thesis Submitted to the Tribhubhan University for the B.Sc. in Forestry, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal.
. Borrini-Feyerabend, M., Pimbert, M.T., Faarvar, A., Kothari and Renard, Y. 2004. Sharing power: learning by doing in co-management on natural resources throughout the world, IIED and IUCN/ CEESP, Cenesta publication., Tehran, Iran.
. Dev, B. K. 2011. Co-management participation, livelihood, and status among fishers in Baikka beel, Bangladesh‟. In: Fox J., Mustafa M.G., Quazi S.A., Miles W.B., Cunningham E.J., and Chassels M. (eds.) Rural livelihoods and protected landscapes: co-management in the wetlands and forests of Bangladesh, IPAC Project, Department of Forests, Environment and Fisheries, Dhaka, pp.66-84.
. Kazal, M. M. H. 2010. Food security strategies of the people living in Haor areas: status and prospects, American International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
. Khan, M. A. R. 2003. Performance of LLP and STW under farmer managed irrigation systems in Netrokona district of Bangladesh, M.Sc. Thesis submitted for Agr., Econ., Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of long-term vegetation trends for northeastern of Iraq: Mosul, Kirkuk and Salah al-Din|
|Authors||:||Ahmad S. Muhaimeed, Al-HednySuhad M.|
ABSTRACT: Climate change is the major global challenge facing water resources managers. In this study, the climate change in term of rainfall fluctuation in the northeastern of Iraq (Mosul, Kirkuk and Salah al-Din) have been investigated using a set of data containing monthly precipitation for period from 1980 to 2010, and MODIS time series images for period from 2000 to 2010. MODIS data have been used to calculate NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). The highest NDVI values were 0.33 in 2001, 0.39 in 2003 and 0.20 in 2001 for Mosul, Kirkuk and Salah al-Din respectively, while the lowest NDVI values were 0.10 in, 0.19 and 0.13 in 2008 for three mentioned governorates respectively. The NDVI and rainfall was found to be highly correlated 0.83, 0.70 and 0.72 for Mosul, Kirkuk and Salah al-Din respectively. The negative trends in NDVI values mirror non-uniformity of rainfall patterns and moisture shortage during the growing season. The biomass status in 2010 highlighted that prolong of drought conditions in 2008 and 2009 caused losses in soil productivity (decline of soil quality) is cumulative. Results of this study verify needing to use this tools (NDVI), along with data from soil survey, fertility tests, and other monitoring data to identify areas with problem (where, when, and how problems arise) to formulate practical management decisions.
Keywords: NDVI, Drought monitoring, remote sensing, Iraq agriculture.
. Al-Agidi, W.K.(1986). Pedology: Soil survey and classification. Mosul Univ. Press, Iraq.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Behaviour of laying curve in Babcock-380 brown commercial layers in Kelantan, Malaysia|
|Authors||:||M. R. Amin, S. A. Nawawi|
ABSTRACT: Commercial layers start laying at 18-20 weeks of age and continues until 72 weeks under cost-effective operation. Age of the hens, mortality rate, feed and environmental conditions determine the persistancy of production as reflected in the laying curve. In this experiment laying performance of 10000 hen-housed Babcock-380 brown commercial layers housed in Kelantan, Malaysia was assessed in mathematical model using hen-house and hen-day measurements. It revealed that hens reached at peak lay at 21 weeks of age and maintained a stability until 44 weeks. Birds egg laying performance gradually declined with progress in age till 80 weeks. Y= 35176.99 – 397.374 A + 5.065 F gave the best fitted regression line (adj R2 = 0.905) for hen-housed egg production per week (A=age of hens in week and F= Kg feed consumed/day). A 87.5% of the total variation in hen-housed egg production could be explained only by age of hens but when feed consumption was added in the model age and feed consumption together explained 90.5% variabilty. For every week advancement in hen's age (week) a decrease of 0.039 eggs/hen/day was predicted (adj R2 = 83.8%). In this 10000 hen-housed flock mortality/culling averaged at 14.82/week.
Key words: Babcock-380, hen-house egg production, hen-day egg production,mathematical model, laying curve
. Amin, M.R. 2012. Incipient production efficiency of Babcock-380 layers in a control house in Kelantan. J bioentrepreneurship 2: 22-27.
. Amin, M.R. and Hamidi, E.N. 2013. Effect of phytase supplementation on the performance of Babcock-380 layers. J tropical resource and sustainable science 1(1):36-41.
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. Singh, R, Cheng, K. M. and Silversides, F.G 2009. Production performance and egg quality of four strains of laying hens kept in conventional cages and floor pens. Poultry science 88:256-264.
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. Silversides, F.G., Singh, R., Cheng, K.M. and Korver, D.R
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ABSTRACT:In Indonesia lime is a widely consumed and economically significant crop. Lime would be harvest when development of fruit is optimum but still have greenish peel color ( Murata, 1997 ; Thompson, 2003). Customers tend to prefer lime fruit that is green instead of yellow (Thompson, 2003). The main problem of lime is yellowing. The most visible is loss of peel greenness that usually cause by Chlorophyll degradation (Drazkiewice, 1994; Srilaong et al., 2011). The prevention of the degradation of chlorophyll can be done by way of delay maturity, such as by using a hot water treatment, KmnO4, and waxing. The result showed that delay ripening treatments could maintain physical and chemical quality of lime fruit during storage compared with control. The treatments also could prolong the shelf life of fruit up to 20 days after treatment, compared with control which only reaches 15 days. HWT 40o;2mnt;6 mafi s the best treatment in every parameters, include chlorophyll content 1.94 mg/l, weight loss 2.30 %, vitamin C 59 mg/100ml, total acidity 0.76 %, and juice content 19 ml. Time harvest 6 months after flowering has the ability to maintain physical and chemical quality of fruit when compared with 5 months after flowering
Keywords: Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), delay ripening
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Intrauterine Infusion of Lugol's Iodine Improves the Reproductive Traits of Postpartum Infected Dairy Cows|
|Authors||:||Faisal Omer Ahmed, Adil Salim Elsheikh|
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of infusion of 1% Lugolʼs iodine into infected uteri of postpartum (PP) dairy cows on uterine involution (UI), appearance of the first dominant follicle (DF), recrudescence of the first oestrus (FO), days open (DO), rate of service per conception and calving interval (CI). Forty dairy cows that were diagnosed with severe uterine bacterial infection during early PP were divided randomly into two equal groups: A (n = 20 cows) and B (n = 20 cows). Group A was intra-uterine infused with 1% Lugol's iodine on day 5 PP. Group B was left untreated, to serve as a control. The result showed that infusion of 1% Lugol's iodine significantly (P<0.001) reduced, the time to complete UI by 16 days, appearance of the first DF by 2.7 days, resumption of FO by 91 days, DO by 160 day, rate of service by 3.4 and CI by 151 days, compared to the untreated control group. It is concluded that intra-uterine infusion of 1% Lugolʼs iodine improves the reproductive traits of cows with severe uterine bacterial infection.
Key words: Lugol's iodine, postpartum, reproductive traits, cow
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