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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Composting Of Different Organic Wastes with Earthworm Species on C: N Ratio|
|Authors||:||R. S. Chaudhari, W. P. Badole, Smita R. Chaudhari|
ABSTRACT:A vermicomposting study was conducted with different organic waste like wheat straw, cotton stubble waste and leaf litter by using five species of earthworms i.e. Eisenia foetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatus, Lampito mauritii and one local. Lowest C:N ratio was recorded in cotton waste inoculated with Eisenia foetida over all other combinations except cotton waste inoculated with Lampito mauritii and leaf litter inoculated with Eisenia foetida and Lampito mauritii.
Key words: Earthworm, C:N ratio.
[. Adhikari, T. M., Manna, C. and Biswas, A. K. Organic matter improves soil health an overview. Indian Farming (November), 1997, 11-14.
. Arumugam, G. K., Ganeshan, S., Kandesam, R. , Balasubramani, R. and Burusa, P. R., Municipal solid waste management through anaecic earthworm Lampito mauritii and their role in mircobial modification, 2004, http://www.eco.web.com.
. Daudt, C. E., Dutra, L. C., Penna, N. G. and Fogaca, A. de O. Composting and vermicomposting in grape pomace. Vermicompostagem e compostagem do bagaco de uvas. Higiene Alimenator , 2004, 18 (118) : 31 - 37.
. Jackson, M. L. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. 1973.
. Jambhekar, H. A. Use of earthworm as a potential source to decompose organic waste. Proceeding of the national seminar on organic farming. 1992, p.p. 52.
. Kale R. D. and Bano, K., Culturing of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for cast production. J. Soil Bio. Eco., 1987, 7 (2) : 98 - 104.
. Kale R. D. and Krishnamoorthy, R.V. Litter preference in the earthworm Lampito mauritii. Proc. Indian Acod. Sci. (Anim. Sci.), 1981, 40 (1) : 123 - 128.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Soil Profile Characteristics As Affected By Land Use Systems In The Southeastern Adamawa State, Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Gailyson Y. Jamala, David O. Oke|
ABSTRACT:The success of soil management to maintain soil quality depends on an understanding of how soils respond to agricultural use and practices over time. As a result, the important soil quality indicators were assessed under different land use systems to provide base line data for future research in Southeastern Adamawa State, Nigeria. The different land use systems were the cultivated land, natural fallow land, Gmelina plantation, pasture and the undisturbed natural forest land. One soil profile was opened in each land use system for field descriptions and laboratory studies in 2012/2013. The soil physical properties such as structure, colour, particle size distribution and soil depth characteristics showed notable variations due to different land use system, particularly in the surface horizons.
. Aitken, R.L., T. Dickson, K.J. Hailes and P.W. Moody. 1999. Response of field grown maize to applied magnesium in acidic soils in northeastern Australian. J. Agri. Res 50: 191-198
. Baker, M.R., C. nys, and J.F. Picard. 1997. The effect of liming and gypsum applications on a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stand at Larcroix-Scaille (French ardennes) .I. Site characteristics, soil chemistry and aerial biomass. Plant Soil 150: 99-108. 7
. Baligar, V.C., G. V.E. Pitta, E.E.G. Gamma, R.E. Schafter, A.F. Filho and R.B. Clark. 1997. Soil
. Blamey, F.C., Z. Ostate, K. Boczynski and G.L. Kerven. 1997. Ligand effects on aluminum sorption by calcium pectate. Plant Soil 192:269-275.
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ABSTRACT: Field experiment was conducted to compare between the wheat grains produced from plants sprayed by 1% solution of irradiated Na- alginate )ISA) stored in refrigerator for 30 months with those planted recently on vitality, quality and resistance to injury by Rhyzopertha dominica invasion. It was observed that untreated stored grains T1 decreased germination percentage about 15% comparing by newly planted control (T) and the depress in the stored treated grains were 7, 2 & 3% in 80 (T2), 120 (T3), and 160 (T4) kGy, respectively.
 Abd El-Rehim, H. A. Characterization and possible agricultural application of polyacrylamide sodium alginate crosslinked hydrogels prepared by ionizing radiation. Journal of Applied Polymers Science (2006) 102 (6)6088.
 Abd El-Rehim H A, El-Sawy N M, Farag I A, Elbarbary A M. Synergistic effect of combining ionizing radiation and oxidizing agents on controlling degradation of Na-alginate for enhancing growth performance and increasing productivity of Zea maize plants. Carbohydrate Polymer. (2011) 86 1439-1444.  Abou El-Ghar, G E S, Khalil M E, Eid TM. some biochemical effects of plant extracts in the black cutworm, Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.) (Lep, Noctuidae). Journal of Applied Entomology (1996) 8, 482-477.
 Afatab T, Khan MMA, Idrees M, Naeem M, Hashmi MN. Varshney L. Enhancing the growth, photosynthetic capacity and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. by irradiated sodium alginate. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. (2011) 80, 833-836.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Loss of Diversification of fish species in Meerut region: A Threat to natural fauna|
|Authors||:||Shobhna, Manu varma, Seema Jain & Hridaya Shanker Singh|
ABSTRACT:The freshwater aquatic biodiversity is depleting alarmingly due to introduction of exotic species, diseases, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation and other anthropogenic activities. Loss of biodiversity is severe in freshwater ecosystem which represents a meager of 0.1 percent of earth's water wealth, yet they harbor 40 percent of the fish species so far recorded. Nearly 20 percent of the world's freshwater fish fauna is already extinct or is on the urge of extinction. The potential risks not only affect the biodiversity but also the socioeconomic aspects of the human community that depend on aquatic ecosystems for their sustenance. The paper reviews the loss of diversification of Fish species and their current availability status in the market.
Key words: Diversity, Freshwater ecosystem, Threat.
 Mittermeier R.A, Mast R.B, Del Prado C.P and Mittermeier C.G. 1997. Megadiversity: Earth's Biologically Wealthiest Nations In R. A. Mittermeier, P. Robles Gil & C.G. Mittermeier. (Eds.),. pp. 282-297. Monterrey, Mexico: CEMEX.
 Brooks D. R and Hoberg E. P. 2006. Systematics and emerging infectious: From management to solution. Journal of Parasitology. 92: 426-429.  Price P. W. 1980. Evolutionary Biology of Parasites. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.  R. Poulin and S. Morand. 2004. Parasite Biodiversity, Smithsonian Institution Books, Washington D.C., ISBN 1 58834 170 4 pp. 216.  Gardner S Lyell and Campbell M L. 1992., "Parasites As Probes for Biodiversity" Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology.Paper 26.
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ABSTRACT: The thermal processing of canned food is the most important step in the canning procedure. Retort operating procedures must ensure that uniform processing temperature is achieved and maintained throughout the locations of the canned containers during the process. In this study, temperature distribution tests have been used as a means of verifying the temperature uniformity around the containers. These studies were carried out in two Egyptian canning plants in horizontal water-immersion and water-spray retorts under fully loaded operating conditions. Time-temperature data gathered were used as a guidance tool in improving temperature distribution and in optimizing the process schedule.
Key words: Temperature Distribution, Canning, Optimization, Retorts, Thermal Processing.
 Bock J, Retorts for canning. (Chicago Technical Center, Metal Division, Research and Development, Continental Can Company; 1969).
 Weddig LM, Balestrini CG, Shafer BD, Canned Foods: Principles of Thermal Process Control, Acidification and Container Closure Evaluation. (GMA Science and Education Foundation; 2007).
 Kimball R, Heyliger T, Verifying the operation of steam retorts. Food technology, 44(12), 1990, 100–103.
 Clark JP, Thermal and nonthermal processing. Food technology, 56(12), 2002, 63.
 Food, Administration D, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermatically Sealed Containers. 1979.
 Siriwattanayotin S, Yoovidhya T, Meepadung T, Ruenglertpanyakul W, Simulation of sterilization of canned liquid food using sucrose degradation as an indicator. Journal of Food Engineering, 73(4), 2006, 307–312.
 Goncalves E, Minim L, Coimbra J, Minim V, Modeling sterilization process of canned foods using artificial neural networks. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 44(12), 2005, 1269–1276.
 Farid M, Abdul Ghani A, A new computational technique for the estimation of sterilization time in canned food. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 43(4), 2004, 523–531.
 Choi S-H, Cheigh C-I, Chung M-S, Optimization of processing conditions for the sterilization of retorted short-rib patties using the response surface methodology. Meat science, 94(1), 2013, 95–104.
 Teixeira A, Tucker G, On-line retort control in thermal sterilization of canned foods. Food Control, 8(1), 1997, 13–20.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage and processing on the carotenoids, vitamins and minerals of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaves. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the contents of the carotenoids in raw, stored and processed vegetables. The results indicated that T. occidentalis was rich in lutein (655.70μg/gdwt) and total β-carotene (230.82μg/gdwt). Thermal processing significantly (p>0.05) increased the contents of carotenoids. Beta-carotene isomerized during thermal processing. The storage conditions resulted in non-significant increase in the contents of the carotenoids. Preliminary nutritional data including the mineral elements (K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe) and vitamins content (Ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and niacin) indicated that T.occidentalis is a good source of iron (8-9 mg/100g edible portion), ascorbic acid (88 – 160 mg/100g edible portion) and vitamin K (115 – 125 mg/100g edible portion). Cooking decreased the contents of water soluble vitamins and minerals. The concentrations of lutein, β-carotene and certain micronutrients in T. occidentalis are much higher than typical contents in conventional edible leafy vegetables. The results of this study therefore provide evidence that fluted pumpkin leaf could be important contributor in reducing hidden hunger in populations that consume adequate amounts of this vegetable.
Key words: Micronutrients, pro-vitamin A, Telferia occidentalis, processing, storage,.
. M.O. Akorada. Ethno botany of Telfairia occidentalis Cucurbitaceae) among Igbo's of Nigeria. Economic Botany 44(1):1990,29-39. . W. Kmiecik, Z. Lisiewskam and C. Jaworska. Effect of Storage Conditions on the Technological value of dill (Anethium graveolens L). Folia Horticulturea, 13, 2001, 33-43 . M. Kimura and D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya. Carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 51, 2003,.2603-2607.
. L. Xue, and L. Yang. Deriving leaf chlorophyll content of green leafy vegetables from hyperspectral reflectance. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 64, 2009, 97 – 106.
. Y.T. Liu, C.O. Perera, and V.Suresh. 2007. Comparison of three chosen vegetables with others from South East Asia for their Lutein and zeaxanthin content. Food Chemistry, 101, 2007, 1533 – 1539.
. A. Wisniewska, and W.K. Subczynski.. Accumulation of macular xanthophylls in unsaturated membrane domains. Free Radical Biology & medicine. 40, 2006, 1820 – 1826
. IPGRI. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Conserving and increasing the use of Neglected and underutilized crop species (2001-2005). Retrieved October 15, 2005 from http://www.ipgri.cigar.org/institue/siteinfo.html . Northrop-Clewes, C. 2003. Report of the 21st International vitamin A consultative Group Meeting, Marralech, Morocco Sight & Life Newsletter, 3 – 5 February 1,2003, 10 – 34 . J.A. Howe and S.A. Tanumihardjo. Evaluation of analytical methods for carotenoid extraction from biofortified maize (Zea mays sp) Journal of. Agriculture and. Food Chemistry. 54, 2006, 7992 – 7994  D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya and M. Kimura. Harvest plus handbook for carotenoid analysis. Harvest-plus: Washington, D. C., and Cali, Columbia, 2004.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||The Combined Effect of Water-logging and Salinity on Crops Yield|
|Authors||:||Walaa Y. El-Nashar|
ABSTRACT: Water-logging and salinization continue to cause economic losses in many areas of the world, though farmers and scientists have been aware of these problems and potential technical solutions for thousands of years. In this research a model is suggested to study the effect of water-logging on the net profit from the crops farm yield. The duration of water-logging according to different irrigation systems, crop type and soil type by calculating water consumptive use for each crop using Blaney-Criddle method and calculating the amount of deep percolation that causes water table rising, the effect of salinity on crops yield only, the combined effect of water-logging and salinity on crops yield. This research includes application of this model in El-Salhia, Egypt to estimate maximum profits according combined effect of water-logging and salinity on the crops yield.
Key words: Water-logging, Consumptive Use, Salinity, Crop Yield, Egypt.
 Barrett L, Leighton P, Mcpharlin I., Setter T and Greenway H. "Methods to experimentally control water-logging and measure soil oxygen in field trials" Australian Journal of Soil Research, 1986; 24(4): 477 – 483.
 Wichelns D. "Analysis an economic model of water-logging and salinization in arid Regions" Ecological Economics, 1999; 30:475 - 491
 Kotob T., Watanabe T., Ogino Y., and Tanji K " Soil salinization in the Nile Delta and related policy issues in Egypt" Agricultural Water Management, March 2000; 43(2): 239–261.
 McFarlane D. and Williamson D. "An overview of water logging and salinity in southwestern Australia as related to the ‗Ucarro' experimental catchment" Agricultural Water Management 53, 2002; 5–29
 Pereira L., Oweis T. and Zairi A." Irrigation management under water scarcity" Irrigation management under water scarcity, December 2002, 57(3): 175–206.
 Hatton T., Bartle G., Silberstein R., Salama R., Hodgson G., Ward P., Lambert P. and Williamson D. "Predicting and controlling water logging and groundwater flow in sloping duplex soils in western Australia" Agricultural Water Management, 2002; 53: 57–81
 Silberstein R., Bartle G., Salama R., Hatton T., Reggiani P., Hodgson G., and Williamson D., and Lambert P. " Mechanisms and control of water logging and groundwater flow in the ‗Ucarro' sub-catchment" Agricultural Water Management, 2002; 53:227–257.
 Barrett-Lennard E. "The interaction between water-logging and salinity in higher plants: causes, consequences and implications" Plant and Soil, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003; 253: 35–54.
 Turner N." Sustainable production of crops and pastures under drought in a Mediterranean environment" Ann. appl. Biol. Printed in UK, 2004; 144:139-147.
 Cornelious B., Chen P., Chen Y., Leon N., Shannon J. and Wang D. "Identification of QTLs underlying water-logging tolerance in soybean" Molecular Breeding, 2005; 16: 103–112.
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ABSTRACT: Field surveys were conducted in 3 major grapevine growing districts in Tamil Nadu viz., Coimbatore, Theni and Dindugal. The downy mildew infection on leaves was the highest (PDI 76.92 in Cumbum of Theni district. In the survey on the incidence of powdery mildew showed that the highest incidence of PDI on leaves, inflorescence and fruits in Cumbum of Theni with records of 65.49, 63.56, 61.23 percent. The pathogenecity test revealed that the downy mildew isolate D-TC1 of Theni district was found to be more virulent with highest PDI of (42.35). The powdery mildew isolate of Cumbum (P-TC1) of Theni district was found to be more virulent by recording the maximum PDI of (36.94). Among the different fungicide tested against spore germination of P.viticola, Azoxystrobin 8.3%w/w + Mancozeb 68.75 at 0.36 per cent recorded 89.26 % inhibition . The fungicide Azoxystrobin 8.3% + Mancozeb 68.75 in all three concentrations, was found to be superior in inhibiting the spore germination of U. necator by recording 90.27%, 89.91%, 80.70% respectively in 0.36, 0.30 and 0.24 % concentrations.
Key words: Grapevine – pathogenecity - Spore germination – Azoxystrobin – Mancozeb.
. Indian Horticulture Database-2011.
. CMI.1988. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Fourth Edition. Common wealth Mycological Institute Publication, London, Map 221.
. Rao, K.C. 1991. Management of grapevine powdery mildew with sterol inhibiting fungicides. Pestology, 15:43-45.
. Ravikumar, M.R. 2007. Bio-efficacy of Ridomil gold 68 WG (Metalaxyl – M + Mancozeb 4 + 64 WG) in the management of downy mildew of grape in northern Karnataka caused by Plasmopora viticola (Berk and Curt) Berl. Det. Pestology, 31: 21-23.
. Bartlett, D.W., John, M., Clough Chris, R., Godfrey,A., Jeremy, R., Godwin, G., Alison, A., Hall., Steve, P. Heaney and Steve J. Maund. 2001. International Research Centre discuss the biology, ecology and resistance management of the strobilurins, especially picoxystrobin, the latest member of the class from Syngenta at Jealott's Hill. Pesticide Outlook, 4: 143-148.
. Berg, G. L. 1988. Farm chemicals handbook. Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Co. pp. 45-49.
. Jamadar, M. and Desai, S.A. 1997. Bioefficacy of dimethomorph against downy mildew of grapevine. Adv. Agric. Res . India, 4: 81-85.
. Vimala, R. 2005. Studies on Powdery Mildew of Bhendi Caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum DC) Ph.D. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ., Madurai, India, p. 120.
. CSFT. 1943. Committee on Standardization of Fungicidal Tests. The slide germination method of evaluating protectant fungicide. American Phytopathological Society, New York/ p. 860.
. Varalakshmi, S., Raguchander, T., Kuttalam, S. and Samiyappan, R. 1999. Bioefficacy and persistence of hexaconazole against powdery mildew of grapes. Pestology, 23: 22-26.