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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Economic Viability of Milk Producing Units with intervention of Marketing Strategy in Rural Areas of Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Authors||:||Dr. Bhartendu Kumar Chaturvedi|
ABSTRACT: This research is an attempt to explore a step ahead with the previous research. It will also redefine the definition of sustainability which is based on the viability of a unit over the time horizon. The objective of this paper is to determine the economic viability associated issues and impact of marketing strategy namely one (Complete control over the chain of production to marketing), two (Joint arrangement in marketing) and three (Wholesaler and retailer system of marketing) on economic viability of dairy farming. The data has been raised on the basis of a schedule prepared for the purpose from a cross section of the region using snow- ball technique. Analysis of data is based on an Econometric model. The finding of this research paper is that milk producing units in the region are economically viable. But this economic viability is influenced by marketing strategy Therefore, it concluded that the milk producing units opting marketing type one ((Complete control over the chain of production to marketing),) & the milk producing units opting marketing type two ((Joint arrangement in marketing)) in the region are Economically unviable but if the milk producing units opting marketing type three ((Wholesaler and retailer system of marketing),) in the region are Economically viable.
Key words: Dairy farming Economic Viability, Marketing strategy, Sustainability.
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ABSTRACT: Evaluation of semen quality is very important before selection of breeding cocks used for artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to characterize the semen parameters of 4 lines of cocks followed by comparison of such parameters among lines. A total of 60 semen samples were collected from 3 Sasso, 3 Synthetic and 3 White Rock and 3 Assel RIR cock at 3 days interval. Semen was collected by abdominal massage method. Semen parameters with respect to ejaculate volume, mass activity, sperm motility, sperm concentration, proportion of live spermatozoa and proportion of spermatozoa with normal morphology were examined. The semen parameters did not differ significantly among individual cocks of Sasso line. However, sperm concentration varied significantly among individual cocks of Synthetic, White Rock and Assel RIR lines. The ejaculate volume, mass activity, sperm motility, sperm concentration, proportion of live spermatozoa and proportion of spermatozoa with normal morphology varied from 410.0 ± 0.0 to 810.0 ± 0.0 μl, 3.8 ± 0.1 to 4.0 ± 0.0 +, 71.1 ± 1.1 to 83.3 ± 1.2%, 7.5 ± 0.1 to 9.6 ± 0.2 x 109/ml, 82.2 ± 1.3 to 87.3 ± 1.1% and 87.2 ± 0.8 to 90.1 ± 0.7%, respectively. However, only the variations in ejaculate volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration and proportion of live spermatozoa were significant among lines of cocks (P<0.05). It is concluded that semen quality of different lines of cocks were within normal range although variations in some parameters of semen may exist among lines.Keywords: artificial insemination, chicken Lines, concentration, morphology, motility
 M. Hossain, Veterinary service in Bangladesh: More attention towards regulatory service, in BVA seminar on state veterinary services in Bangladesh (Present status and future perspective), 2012, 27-32.
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 G.S. Bah, S.U.R. Chaughari, J.D. Al-Amin,Semen characteristics of local breeder cocks in the Sahel region of Nigeria. Revued'elevageet de medecineveterinaire des pays tropicaux, 54, 2001, 153-158.
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ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel in the healing of skin wound.This experiment was carried out to exploit the therapeutic effects of PRP gel on healing process. A total of 72 surgical wounds were madein 12 goatsbearing weight 15-20 kg with the age 1-3 years. Goats were divided into four groups with three animals in each group. Wounds of four groups were treated with homogenous PRP gel, heterogenousPRP gel, sulphonilamide powder and tincture benzoinCo. or benzoin seal (control). The wounds were 3 cm length and 0.5 cm depth sutured with cross mattress using nylon. Follow-up observation was recorded from day 1 to day 30 postoperatively. Some morphological characters such as swelling area of wound, elevation of sutured line from the skin surface, width of sutured area and contraction length between 7 to 15 days were recorded to determine the healing process of the wounds. Besides morphological study, histopathological studies were also performed on day 1, day 2, day 3, day 5 and day 15 to evaluate the healing process.HomogenousPRP gel showed admirable results in the healing of the wounds produced in goat. All wounds treated with homogenous PRP gel showed no inflammation with dry sutured area and complete healing with massive hair follicular growth within 15-21 days. On histopathological study, demonstrated epithelial tissues with a normal morphology. The dermis showed flabby connective tissue with organized interconnecting collagen fibers running parallel to each other and new hair follicular growth inhealed area within 15 days, when wounds were treated with homogenousPRPgel.This study could help to consider natural biomaterial product specially PRP gel homogenous for a good healing of skin wounds with minimum complications. Further studies are necessary for the molecular investigation of healing process and proper establishment of commercially available of PRP gel and easiest finding theway of it'sapplication.Key words: black Bengal goats, platelet rich plasma gel, skin wound, healing
 D.M. Su, J.H. Zhao and Z.Y. Huang, Application of artificial skin combined with external fixator in the treatment of severe open fractures of legs.zhongguogushang journal, 25(6),2012, 520-522.  B. Gonul, B. Kaplan, K. Bilgihan and M.T. Budak, Effects of epidermal growth factor in artificial tear on vitamin C levels of corneal wounded eye tissues.eye apraxia,15(2), 213-616, 2001.  C. Thompson and P Furhrman, Nutrients and wound healing : Still searching for the magic bullet. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 20,331-347, 2005.
 S. JamesandA. Mark,Retinoids and Wound Healing.Dermatologic Surgery,32(10), 1219–1230, 2006.
 E.Tsourdi,A.Barthel,H.Rietzsch,A.Reichel, andR.B. Stefan,Current Aspects in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Diabetes Mellitus.BioMed Research International, 2013, 385-388,2013  A. Dugrillonand H. Kluter, Current use of platelet concentrates for topical application in tissue repair.Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy; 29,67-70. 2002.  E. Anitua, I. Andia, B. Ardanza, P. Nurden and A.T. Nurden, Autologous platelets as source of proteins for healing and tissue regeneration.TheJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasi,10, 4–15, 2004.  J.C. Roldan, S. JepsenandJ. Miller, Bone formation in the presence of platelet-rich plasma vs. bone morphogenetic protein-7.Bone, 34, 80–90, 2004.  D. Nikolidakisand J.A. Jansen, The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in oral surgery: literature review. Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews,14(3), 249–258, 2008.
 A. Albanese,M.E. Licata, B.PolizziandG. Campisi, Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration.Immunity&Ageing,10,20-23. 2013.
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ABSTRACT: A trial was conducted to evaluate pure NSP enzyme combination derived from in vitro studies and commercially available phytase to corn-soybean meal based low energy diets singly and combination of both. The experiment was conducted by using completely randomized design on one hundred and fifty layer birds (40 weeks) of uniform body weight and production with five treatments, six replicates and five hens in each replicate for three laying periods with twenty eight days in each laying period. The performance was measured in terms of egg production, feed intake, weight changes, feed efficiency, egg quality, nutrient retention, and gut health. Egg production improved (P<0.05) with supplementation of phytase alone or in combination of phytase and NSP enzymes. No effect of supplementing NSP enzymes, phytase alone or in combination was observed on feed intake, FCR, egg quality traits and retentions of DM, OM and NFE. Significantly (P<0.05) higher retentions of CP, CF, EE, GE and phosphorus was observed with supplementation of NSP enzymes and similar trend was observed with both NSP and phytase to BD except for phosphorus indicating no associative effect of phytase and NSP enzymes on above nutrient retentions. Intestinal pH, viscosity and E. coli count significantly (P<0.05) reduced with supplementation of NSP enzymes and no further improvement was observed on these variables with supplementation of phytase with NSP enzymes. Gut histology revealed broad and disrupted villi with little goblet cell activity. No significant (P<0.05) effect on feed cost due to addition of phytase and/or NSP enzymes to BD was observed. The cost of feed to produce dozen eggs was comparable among SD, BD and BD supplemented with NSP enzymes and phytase.
Key words: Egg quality, Gut conditions, NSP enzymes, Nutrient retention, Phytase, Viscosity.
 Nelson, T. S., Shieh, T. R., Wodzinski, R. J and Ware, J. H. (1971). Effect of supplemental phytase on the utilization of phytate phosphorus by chicks. Journal of Nutrition., 101: 1289–1293.
 Broz, J., Oldale, P., Perrin-Voltz, A. H., Rychen, G., Schulze, J and Simoes-Nunes, C. (1994). Effects of supplemental phytase on performance and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens fed a low phosphorus diet without addition of inorganic phosphates. British Poultry Science., 35: 273–280.
 Silversides, F. G., Scott, T. A and Bedford, M. R. (2004) The effect of microbial species used for phytase expression on activity for broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. Poultry Science., 83: 985–989.
 Van Der Klis, J. D., Versteegh, H. A. J., Simons, P. C. M and Kies, A. K. (1997). The efficacy of phytase in corn-soybean meal based diets for laying hens. Poultry Science., 76: 1535-1542.
 Scott, T. A., Kampen, R and Silversides, F. G. (1999). The effect of phosphorus, phytase enzyme andcalcium on the performance of layers fed corn-based diets. Poultry Science., 78 : 1742–1749.
 Keshavarz, K. (2003). The effect of different levels of nonphytate phosphorus with and without phytase on the performance of four strains of laying hens. Poultry Science., 82: 71–91.
 Lim, H. S., Namkung, H and Paik, I. K. (2003). Effects of phytase supplementation on the performance, egg quality and phosphorus excretion of laying hens fed different levels of dietary calcium and nonphytate phosphorus. Poultry Science., 82: 92-99.
 Leske, K. L and Coon, C. N. (1999). A bioassay to determine the effect of phytase on phytate phosphorushydrolysis and total phosphorus retention of feed ingredients as determined with broilers and laying hens. Poultry Science., 78: 1151–1157.
 Ravindran, V., Selle, P. H and Bryden, W. L. (1999). Effects of phytase supplementation, individually and in combination with glycanase, on the nutritive value of wheat and barley. Poultry Science., 78: 1588-1595.
 Zyla, K., Wikiera, A., Koreleski, J., Wia˛Tkiewicz, S. S., Piironen, J and Ledoux, D. R. (2000). Comparison of the efficacies of a novel Aspergillus niger mycelium with separate and combined effectiveness of phytase, acid phosphatase and pectinase in dephosphorylation of wheat-based feeds fed to growing broilers. Poultry Science., 79: 1434–1443.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Scope of Poultry Waste Utilization|
|Authors||:||D. Thyagarajan, M. Barathi, R. Sakthivadivu|
ABSTRACT: Poultry farming wastes containing excreta, bedding material, waste feed, dead birds, broken eggs, feathers and offal could emerge into major environmental pollutants. Proven technology and disposal methods are necessary to mitigate their threat on the environment. The major wastes like poultry feathers, offal and litter have different field applications. Poultry feathers being rich sources of keratin proteins and amino acids, can be converted into valuable products such as feather meal, bio diesel, biodegradable plastic and fertilizer. Poultry offal contains certain nutrients and can be used as a dried poultry manure and fertilizer or as an organic raw material for methane production. The remaining waste could be disposed off possibly by incineration or by burial and controlled landfills. Poultry manure is also useful as fertilizer, methane and to produce electricity. This review discusses in detail about the scope for utilization of various poultry wastes. Poultry waste generation is enormous. However, cost effective technologies are yet to be identified to recycle the waste to useful products.
Key words: poultry waste, feather meal, offal, litter.
. Braber, K., 1995. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: a modern waste disposal option on the verge of breakthrough. Biomass Bioenergy 9, 365–376.
. Chinta S.K., S.M. Landage and Yadav Krati, 2013. Application of Chicken Feathers in Technical Textiles, IJIRSET, 2:4.
. Commission of the European Communities, 1999. Council Directive 1999/31/EC. Official Journal, No. L 182,1–9.
. Ekta Tiwary and Rani Gupta, 2012. Rapid conversion of chicken feather to feather meal using dimeric keratinase from Bacillus licheniformis ER-15, J Bioprocess Biotechniq 2:4.
. Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Desertificationwww.fao.org/desertification/default.asp? lang=en. Accessed April 23, 2008.
. Guillermo Coward-Kelly, Vincent S. Chang, Frank K. Agbogbo and Mark T. Holtzapple, 2006. Lime treatment of keratinous materials for the generation of highly digestible animal feed: 1. Chicken feathers, Bioresource Technol. 97(11): 1337-43.
. Jayakumar M., T. Sivakami, D. Ambika and N. Karmegam, 2011. Effect of turkey litter (Meleagris gallopavo L.) vermicompost on growth and yield characteristics of paddy, Oryza sativa (ADT-37), African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(68), 15295-15304.
. Jong-Myung Choi and Paul V. Nelson, 1996. Developing a Slow-release Nitrogen Fertilizer from Organic Sources: II. Using Poultry Feathers, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121(4):634–638.
. Kannapan Saravanan, Bharathi Dhurai, 2012. Exploration on amino acid content and morphological structure in chicken feather fiber, JTATM 7:3.
. Kelleher, B.P., J.J. Leahy, A.M. Henihan, T.F. O'Dwyer, D. Sutton and M.J. Leahy, 2002. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology, Bioresource technology 83, 27-36.
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ABSTRACT: Studies on Soil Test Crop Response based Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR - IPNS) were conducted adopting the Inductive cum Targeted yield model, on Vertic Ustropept of Tamil Nadu, Southern India during 2011 – 2013 in order to develop fertilizer prescriptions through IPNS for the desired yield targets of transgenic cotton under drip fertigation. The basis for making the fertilizer prescriptions viz. nutrient requirement (NR), contribution of nutrients from soil (Cs), fertilizer (Cf) and farmyard manure (Cfym) were computed using the field experimental data. Making use of these basic parameters, the fertilizer prescription equations (FPEs) were developed under NPK alone and under IPNS for the desired yield targets of cotton for a range of soil test values. The quantity of fertilizers contributed by the application of farmyard manure was assessed. The deviation recorded in the achievement of targets aimed was within the range of ± 10 per cent (90 – 110%) proving the validity of the FPEs. Thus the Inductive cum Targeted yield model used to develop fertilizer prescription equations provides a strong basis for soil fertility maintenance consistent with high productivity and efficient nutrient management in "Precision Farming" for sustainable and enduring Agriculture.
Key words: Fertilizer prescription equations, Inceptisol, STCR-IPNS, transgenic cotton, yield target.
 United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 2011. <http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Cotton/> (accessed 18.07.11).
 E.F. Bazen , J.A. Larson, R.K. Roberts, Economics of fertility management in cotton production in the United States, Dynam. Soil Dynam. Plant 1, 2007, 95–104.
 A.S.Tayade, M.V.Dhoble, Effect of transgenic cotton hybrid, nutrient and pest management on seed cotton yield, nutrient uptake and status of available nutrient in soil, Indian J. Fert., 6(8) 2010, 34- 40
 A.L. Bhandari, J.K. Ladha, H. Pathak, A.T. Padre, D. Dawae, R.K. Gupta, Yield and soil nutrient changes in a long-term rice–wheat rotation in India, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. , 58, 2002, 185–193.
 J.K. Ladha, D. Dawe, H. Pathak, A.T. Padre, R.L. Yadav, B. Singh, Y. Singh, P. Singh, A.L. Kundu, R. Sakal, N. Ram, A.P. Regni, S.K. Gami, A.L. Bhandari, R. Amin, C.R. Yadav, E.M. Bhattarai, S. Das, H.P. Aggarwal, R.K. Gupta, P.R. Hobbs, How extensive are yield declines in long-term rice–wheat experiments in Asia? Field Crops Res., 81, 2003, 159-180.
 M.C., Manna, A., Swarup, R.H., Wanjari, H.N., Ravankar, B., Mishra, M.N., Saha, Y.V., Singh, D.K.,Sahi, P.A.Sarap, Long-term effect of fertilizer and manure application on soil organic carbon storage, soil quality and yield sustainability under sub-humid and semi-arid tropical India, Field Crops Res., 93, 2005, 264–280.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of Non Steady Subsurface Drainage Equations for Heterogeneous Saline Soils: A Case Study|
|Authors||:||A. K. Pali|
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at investigating variability in drainable porosity and hydraulic conductivity of saline soils of Haryana state in India and evaluating various commonly used non steady subsurface drainage equations by incorporating the heterogeneity of the two soil drainage properties in them. The hydraulic heads corresponding to different drainage periods, predicted by these subsurface drainage equations were compared with the measured hydraulic heads for the same drainage periods. Amongst, Luthin and Worstell, Glover, Van Schilfgaarde, Modified Glover, and Integrated Hooghoudt equations, Van Schilfgaarde, Modified Glover, and Integrated Hooghoudt equations predicted the hydraulic heads quite close to the measured hydraulic heads. Luhhin and Worstellequation gave very lower hydraulic heads as compared to the measured ones and the deviation was from -5.32 to -64.35 per cent during 10 days of drainage period. Glover equation resulted in large positive per cent deviation (+4.25 to 30.64 per cent) in hydraulic heads in comparison to the measured hydraulic heads during 10 days drainage period. Hence, Van Schilfgaarde, Modified Glover, and Integrated Hooghoudt equations were considered to be appropriate equations for drainage design. Among these three equations, Modified Glover equation was the most superior followed by Integrated Hooghoudt equation and then Van Schilfgaarde equation.
Key words: Haryana; Hooghoudt; Glover; Van Schilfgaared, Luthin.
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. Taylor, G.S. (1960) Drainable porosity evaluation from outflow measurements and its use in drawdown equations. Soil. Science, 90:38-345
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