- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||In vitro Micropropagation of Selected Bougainvillea sp. through callus induction|
|Authors||:||Mosleh M. S. Duhoky, Layla S. M. Al-Mizory|
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to develop a protocol for rapid callus induction and subsequent shoot regeneration in Bougainvillea (B. ×buttiana, B. spectabilis and B. glabra). The best results of callus induction response (92.86%) in whole area of node explant was observed on WPM medium of B. × buttiana compared with B. × buttiana when cultured on MS medium gave (85.71). The lowest callus induction response (71.00%) was observed on WPM medium from B. glabra followed by MS medium (71.43%) callus was formed from B. glabra. While the maximum number of shoot induced from callus, maximum shoots length and highest number of leaves per culture were obtained on WPM was 12.14 shoots/ culture, 2.14 cm and 20.71 leaves/ culture respectively from B.× buttiana after 6 weeks of culture inoculation compared with all characterized for B.× buttiana when cultured on MS medium was give number of shoot induced from callus, maximum shoots length and highest number of leaves per culture (11.43shoot induced/ callus, 17.14 cm, 1.96number of leaves/ culture) respectively.
Key words: In vitro, Bougainvillea, callus induction, different media, WPM and MS medium.
 Hartman, H. T. and D.I. Kester (1989). Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices. 4th Edition. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi
 Céline S, N. Luc, B.Thierry, C. Hélène, J. Marie-Pierre, D. Marlène, S. Göran, Z. Michel and B. Catherine (2006). Proteomic Analysis of Different Mutant Genotypes of Arabidopsis Led to the Identification of 11 Proteins Correlating with Adventitious Root Development. Plant Physiol. 140: 349-36.
3] De Klerk, G. J.; W. MVan Der Krieken, J.C.De Jong (1999). The formation of adventitious roots; new concepts, new possibilities. In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 35: 189-199
 Javed, M. A., S. Hassan, S. Nazir(1996). In vitro propagation of Bougaivilleaspectabilas through shoot apex culture. Pak. J. Bot., 28 (2): 207- 211.
 Khan, M. A.; M. Ghamdi and M. Jahjh (1985). In Vitro Propagation of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Pakistan J. of Agri. Sci., 22: 177-180.
 Lloyd, G. and B. Mccown (1981). Commercially-Feasible Micropropagation of Mountain Laurel, Kalmia latifolia, By Use of Shoot-Tip Culture. Combined Proceedings - International Plant Propagators' Society, 30:421-427.
 Murashige, T. and S. Skoog (1962). A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bioassays with Tobacco Tissue Cultures. Physiol. Plant., 15: 473–497.
 Duncan, D.B. (1955).''Multiple Range And Multiple F. Teses, ''Biom., 11:1-42 .
 Zamir, R.; S. T. Shah; N. Ali; G.S.S. Khattak and T. Muhammad (2004). Studies on In Vitro Surface Sterilization and Antioxidants on Guava Shoot Tips and Nodal Explants. Pak. J. Biotech., 1(2): 12-16.
 Buyukalaca and Mairrtuna (1996). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pepper in liquid media. Cell Tiss. And Org. Cult. 46:227-235.
- Full PDF
ABSTRACT: In order to study the effect of seed soaking on seed germination and growth of bitter gourd cultivars an experiment was conducted at Vegetable Research Farm Singri, Bhimber Azad Kashmir, during March, 2012. Three cultivars of bitter gourd Faisalabad Long, Jaunpuri and Palee were soaked in water for various soaking durations (4, 8, 12 and 16 hours) along with control to determine the optimal soaking duration and find out the best growing cultivar. The highest germination percentage (85.18%), number of branches plant-1 (8.64), fruits plant-1 (20.70) were obtained when the bitter gourd seeds soaked for 12 hours. Earlier emergence (6.28) and earlier flowering (39.40) were recorded in plants where seeds soaked for 16 hours. Cultivar Palee significantly enhanced the germination percentage (85.56%), days to flowering (39.55), numbers of branches plant-1 (8.86), fruits plant-1 (21.09). Seed soaking in water for 12 hours has the potential to improve germination, seedling growth of bitter gourd cultivars. It was concluded that the seed soaking of cultivar Palee for 12 hours showed best results regarding maximum germination and enhanced growth under the agro-climatic conditions of district Bhimber, Azad Kashmir. Pakistan.Keywords: Bitter gourd cultivars, soaking durations, germination, growth.
. Ajouri, A., S. Asgedom and M. Becker. 2004. Seed priming enhances germination and seedling growth of barley under conditions of P and Zn deficiency. J. Pl. Nutri. Soil Sci. 16(2): 630-636.
. Ali, E. and S. G. Kamel. 2009. Effects of seed priming on growth and yield of chickpea under saline soil. Recent Res. in Sci. & Tech. 1: 282-286.
. Barlow, E. W. R. and A. M. Haigh. 1987. Effect of seed priming on emergence, growth and yield of tomatoes in the field. Acta. Hort. pp. 200.
. Basra, S. M. A., Ehsanullah, E. A. Warraich, M. A. Cheema and I. Afzal. 2003. Effect of storage on growth and yield of primed canola (Brassica napus L.) seeds. Int. J. Agric. Bio. 117-120.
. Farooq, M., S. M. A. Basra, K. Hafeez, S. A. Asad and N. Ahmad. 2005. Use of commercial fertilizers as osmotic for rice priming. J. Agri. and Social Sci. 1: 172-175.
. Ghassemi-Golezani, K. and K. Esmaeilpour. 2008. The effect of salt priming on the performance of differentially matured cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds. Notulae Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj. 36(2): 67-70.
. Grover, J. K. and S. P. Yadav. 2004. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 93:123-132.
. Harris, D. 1996. The effects of manure, genotype, seed priming, depth and date of sowing on the emergence and early growth of Sorghum bicolar L. Moench in semi arid Botswana. Soil Tillage Res. 40: 73-88.
. Harris, D., R. S. Tripathi and A. Joshi. 2000. On-farm seed priming to improve crop establishment and yield in dry direct-seeded rice. Paper presented at the workshop on dry seeded rice Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.
. Kaur, S., A. K. Gupta and N. Kaur. 2005. Seed priming increases crop yield properly by modulating enzymes of sucrose metabolism in chickpea. J. Agro & Crop Sci. 191: 81-87.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Applications of Artificial Neural Network in Determining the Mechanical Properties of Melon Fruits|
Babawuya A., Z. D. Osunde, I. O. Sadiq, Eramus C. U.
ABSTRACT: The paper presents the application of artificial neural network (ANN) in predicting some mechanical properties of Melon fruits. There is no established numerical relation between the physical properties and the mechanical properties of melon fruits. The physical data were obtained experimentally for 120 melon fruits. A feedforward backward propagation (ff-BP) architecture was developed and used to estimate the mechanical properties of the Melon fruits from the measured physical properties. A Levenberg-Marquoardt (LM) optimization was used to train the 4-5-5-1 Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) network and root mean square error (RMSE) was used as performance criteria. The physical properties were trained using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox and the results compared with experimental values. It was observed that the ANN's predicted values and the experimental results agreed upto 95%. The network predicts a maximum shear force of 400.76N and a minimum 206.48N. and a best evaluation performance was reached after t epoch three (3).Key words: Load-deflection, Neurons, Melon Seed, Melon fruits, MLP network.
 Hayati M., Yousefi T., Ashjaee M., and Shirvang Y., Application of Artificial of Neural Network for Prediction of National Convection Heat Transfer from a Confined Horizontal Elliptical Tube. World Academy of Science, Engineering and technology, 28, 2007.
 Ismail A., Ashwin B. and Saurabh A., Artificial Intelligence inmechanicalengineering: A case study on vibration Analysis of cracked cantilever Beam. Proceedingsof National Conference on innovative in engineering and technology, (NACIPET-2012),
 Kwaya P.V.; Development of Melon Seed Extractor., Unpublished M.Eng. Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Minna., M. ENG, 2008.
 Obodeh O. and Ajuwa C. I. (2009), Evaluation of Artificial Neural Network Performance in Predicting Diesel Engine Nox emissions, European Journal of Scientific research, ISSN 1450-216X, Vol. 33, No 4., (2009), Pp 642- 653. www.inTechopen.com).
 Seyed H. S., Javad A. K. and Rahmatollah G. , Application of Artificial in the estimation of mechanical properties of materials, InTech publishers, University campus, slavka Krautzeka 83/A, Croatia,2001 (www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm)
 Svetlana I., milica J., Zorica D., Jelena P,. Slobodan D. P., Ljiljana S., and Biljana S. Artificial Neural Network in The Modelling and Optimization of Aspirin as MatrixSubstance., In AAPS PharmaSciTech, 4(1), 2003, Article 9. (www.pharmscitech.org).
 Turgay I., Selin S., Vebil Y. And Tarkan K. (2010), Application of artificial Neural Networks in the Prediction of Critical buckling loads of Helical Compression Spring, Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 56(6), (2010), 409-417.
- Full PDF
ABSTRACT: This research was conducted at the teaching and research farm of the Department of Crop Production and Landscape Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, from 2006 to 2012 cropping seasons to develop maize populations of increase protein, oil, amylose and amylopectin contents. Total of eight (8) maize varieties were used for the study and were grouped into two populations, A and B. Population A was coded A1, A2, A3 and A4 while population B was coded B1, B2, B3 and B4. These two populations were genetically variable based on the time of maturity, percentage protein, oil, amylose and amylopectin. The mean protein content of the parents was 8.74% while their progenies after second cycle had percentage protein content of 13.27%, showing an increase of 4.53% with mid parent heterosis of 52%. The oil content of the open-pollinated maize varieties was pushed towards increasing order from 6.19% for population A and 4.19% for population B of the original populations to 5.61% and 5.62% for populations A and B respectively of the first cycle populations. These were further pushed up to 8.08% and 8.46% of the second cycle populations A and B respectively. The mean amylose content of the original population was 24.25% and the mean amylose content of the progenies after the first cycle was 22.02%. The second cycle synthetics had mean amylose content of 19.72%, showing a decrease of 4.53%. The mid parent heterosis was -9.2%. The mean amylopectin content of the original population was 75.75% and the mean amylopectin content of the selected high amylopectin was 82.13%, showing an increase of 6.38% over the mean amylopectin content of the original population. The breeding programme seems to be very effective in improving both the high, medium and low protein, oil, amylose and amylopectin contents of the original maize populations to all high protein, oil and amylopectin contents, except amylose, after the second cycle. In all, this method offers definite promise. Further progress in improving chemical constituents as well as other characters is theoretically possible in future cycles.
Key words: Maize, Protein, Oil, Amylose and Amylopectin, Selection.
. K. Sai, E. Satyanarayana and P. Shanthi.. Evaluation of High Oil Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids for Agronomic, Yield, and Quality Parameters Agricultural Research Station (Maize) Amberpet, Hyderabad-500013.A.P., INDIA. In: Proceedings of the 8th Asian Regional Maize Workshop, Bangkok, Thailand. August: 2002, 5-8.
. L. Pollak, and M. Scott. Breeding for grain quality traits. USDA-ARS, Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA. Maydica: 2005, 50 : 247-257.
. J. Dudley and R. Lambert. 100 generations of selection for oil and protein in corn. Plant Breeding Reviews: 2004, 24:79-110.
. F. Below, J. Seebauer, M. Uribelarrea, M. Schneerman, and S. Moose. Physiological changes accompanying longterm selection for grain protein in maize. pp. 133-149. In: J. Janick (Ed.), Plant Breeding Reviews: 2004, Part 1: Long-term Selection: Maize. vol. 24. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
. Y. Han, G. Parsons and D. Alexander. Nutritive value of high oil corn for poultry. Poultry Science: 1987 66: 103 -111.
. T. Song. Welcome the new century of high oil corn. In: China Association of Agricultural Science Societies(ed) Prospects of Maize Genetics and Breeding for 21st century. China Agricultural Scientech Press, Beijing: 2000, P. 24-30.
. K. Adams and A. Jensen. High-fat maize in diets for pigs and sows. Animal Feed Science and Technology: 1987, 17:201-212.
. D. Atwell, E. Jaster, K. Moore and F. Fernando. Evaluation of high oil corn and corn for lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science: 1988, 71:2689-2698.
. M. Adams, S. Watkins, A. Waldroup, and P. Waldroup. Utilization of high oil diets for broiler chickens. J. Applied Poultry Res: 1994, 3: 146 – 165.
. C. Hopkins. Improvement in the chemical composition of corn kernel.. In: J. W. Dudley (ed) Seventy Generations of selection for oil and protein in maize. Crop Sci. Soc. of Am.: 1974, P. 1-32. Madison, Wis.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Ergo-Economical Analysis of Different Paddy Transplanting Operations in Eastern India|
|Authors||:||S. Pradhan, S. K. Mohanty|
ABSTRACT: Transplanting of paddy is very tedious job mostly done by female workers during Kharif season and by 2020 there would be 50 percent women against 42 percent at present. Manual hand transplanting consumes a lot of energy and time and full of fatigue, but the poor socio-economic condition of the farmers does not allow them to adopt power operated transplanter. Transplanting operation by different research centres have been developed as 2 row, 3 row, 4 row paddy transplanter. Keeping this in view fifteen female subjects were selected in the age group 18-45years in the central farm of OUAT. The mean value of age, weight, height, VO2 max and Body surface area were found to be 31.1 years, 51.7 Kg, 153 cm, 1.71 l/min and 1.52 m2 .Physiological parameters like Heart rate, Oxygen consumption rate and Relative cost of workload were measured in different transplanting operations. The mean value of working heart rate was observed to be maximum 137.4 beats/min in 4 row paddy transplanter followed by 130.8 beats/min in 3 row transplanter and 127.7 beats/min in 2 row transplanter and 113.4 beats/min in local transplanting . The Oxygen consumption rate and Relative cost of workload were observed to be maximum 1.10 l/min and 64.3 percent in 4 row transplanter followed by 1.02 l/min and 59.6 percent in 3 row transplanter followed by 0.9 l/min and 57.8 percent in 2 row transplanter and lowest in local practices,i.e.0.5 l/min and 33.4 percent. The field capacity was observed to be maximum 0.016 ha/h in 4 row transplanting followed by 0.014, 0.011, 0.009 ha/h in 3 row, 2 row and local method of transplanting. The cost of operation was observed to be Rs.2237 per ha in 4 row, Rs.2346 per ha in 3 row, Rs.2484 per ha in 2 row paddy transplanter and Rs.2550 per ha in local practice of transplanting. The 3 row paddy transplanter was observed to be the best among all manual operated paddy transplanters.
Key words: Transplanter, Working Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption Rate, Rest pause, Relative cost of workload.
 Singh G, Sharma T R. and Bockhop C W. 1985. Field performance evaluation of a manual rice transplanter. Journal of Agril. Engg. Research. Vol. 32, Issue 3, pp. 259-268.
 Goel A C. and Verma K S. 2000. Comparative study of directly seeding and transplanted rice. Indian J. Agril. Research, 34(3): 194-196.
 Patra A K. and Nayak B C. 2001. Grain yield of rice under different spacings. Indian Jr. of Agronomy, 46(3): 449-452.
 Obulamma U and Reddy R. 2002. Effect of spacing and seedling number on growth and yield of hybrid rice. Journal of Research, ANGRAU, 30(1): 76-78.
 Khan A S. and Gunkel, W W. 1988. Design and development of a 6-row Korean transplanter, Agril. Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA), 19(1): 27-34.
 Syedul, Md., Baque M A. and Ahmed D B. 2000. Modification test and evaluation of manually operated transplanter for low land paddy. Agril. Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA), 31(2): 33-37.
 Manjunatha M V., Masthana Reddy B G., Shashidhar S D. and Joshi V R. 2009. Studies on the performance of self-propelled rice transplanter and its effect on crop yield. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 22(2) :( 385-387).
 Ved Prakash Chaudhary and Varshney, B P. 2003. Performance evaluation of self-propelled rice transplanter under different puddle field conditions and sedimentation periods. Agril. Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA), 34: 23-33.
 Tripathi S K., Jena H K. and Panda P. K. 2004. Self-propelled rice transplanter for economizing labour, Indian Farming, 54: 23 - 25.
 Satapathy G C. and Mohanty S K. 2005. Collection and compilation of anthropometric and strength data of male and female agricultural workers of Odisha. Annual Report of AICRP on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture, 1-10. Orissa Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Perception of Smallholder Farmers towards the Kilimo Plus Subsidy Program in Nakuru North District, Kenya|
|Authors||:||Nixon Murathi Kiratu, Margaret Ngigi, Patience M. Mshenga|
ABSTRACT: The perception of farmers towards a technology influences the farmer's uptake of that technology. This study examines the perception of smallholder farmers towards a fertilizer and certified seed subsidy program. Data from fifty two respondents was collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using summation, median and mode. Results showed that the farmers perceived the subsidy program positively. The study recommends a further study on the factors that influenced the perception.
Key words: Perception, farmer, subsidy, fertilizer, certified seed.
 T. Malim and Birch A. Introductory Psychology. (Palgrave, Hound mills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10010. 1998. P. 261).
 MoA (Ministry of Agriculture). (National Accelerated Agricultural Inputs Access Program (NAAIAP). Program Design and Guidelines. FY 2010/11, 2010).
 M. Bernard, J.Hellin, R. A. Nyikal, and J. G. Mburu. Determinants for Use of Certified Maize Seed and the Relative Importance of Transaction Costs. 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48thconference, Cape Town, South Africa (No. 96423). African association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) and Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), 2010.
 African Union (AU).Abuja Declaration on Fertilizer for an African Green Revolution. Abuja. Nigeria, 2006.
 M. Odendo, H. Groote and O. M. Odongo. Assessment of Farmers' Preferences and Constraints to Maize Production in Moist Midaltitude Zone of Western Kenya.5thInternational Conference of the African Crop Science Society, Lagos, Nigeria October 21-26, 2001.
 C. T. J. Lin and J. W. Milon. Attribute and safety perceptions in a double-hurdle model of shellfish consumption. Am. J. Agric. Econ., 75 (1993), 724-729.
 J. M. D'Antoni, A.K. Mishra, R. Powell, and S. Martin. (2012). Farmers' Perception of Precision Technology: The Case of Autosteer Adoption by Cotton Farmers. Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Birmingham, AL, February 4-7, 2012.
 J. Sinja, J. Karugia, I. Baltenweck, M. Waithaka, M. D. Miano, R. Nyikal and D. Romney. Farmer Perception of Technology and its Impact on Technology Uptake: The Case of Fodder Legume in Central Kenya Highlands. African Association of Agricultural Economists. Shaping the Future of African Agriculture for Development: The Role of Social Scientists. Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium, Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004.
 N. Minot. Smart fertilizer subsidies in sub-Saharan Africa: new wine or just new bottles? Panel on Smart Input Subsidies and Sustainable Development, Washington, DC, IFPRI, 2009.
 J. M. Gandonou, C. R. Dillon, M. Kanakasabi, and S. Shearer. Precision Agriculture, Whole Field Farming, and Irrigation Practices: A Production Risk Analysis. Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting. Mobile, AL, 2002.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Communication Strategies and Attitude: Interactive Concepts in Adult Literacy Teaching|
|Authors||:||E. Oluwakemi Augustus|
ABSTRACT: This paper examined two important concepts: communication or instructional strategies and attitude of adult learners in a successful adult literacy teaching/learning situation. A 3x2x2 quasi-experimental, pre-test, post-test control group design was employed. The subjects for the study were three hundred and four (304) intermediate class adult learners purposively selected from sixteen (16) adult literacy centres in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 Alpha level. The instruments used for the study were (a) A recorded cassette containing teachings on the selected concepts. (b) Learners' Achievement Test (LAT) in civic literacy education (c) Learners' Attitude towards Civic Literacy Education Questionnaire (LATCLEQ).
Key words: Communication strategies, Literacy teaching and Attitude.
. Adelore, O.O. (2000). Language learning attitudes among selected ethnic groups in Adult literacy programmes in Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan.
. Aderinoye, R.A. (1997). Literacy education in Nigeria. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
. Augustus, E.O., Okediran, A. and Adeniran, M. (2003). Some correlates of language learning attitude among college students. Journal of English Language Teaching Today (ELTT). Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 7-11.
. Fasold, R. (1984). The sociolinguistic of society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. . Okafor, N.P. (1998). Eliminating communication barriers in adult teaching/learning process. A paper presented at the 20th National Conference of Nigeria Association for Educational Media and Technology (NAEMT) at University of Lagos between 2nd – 5th November. . Okediran, A. (1988). An experimental study of different approaches to teaching reading to adult learners. An unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Seed-Borne Fungi of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
and their Impact on Oil Quality
|Authors||:||El-Wakil, D. A.|
ABSTRACT:The deteriorating in sunflower oil due to seed-borne fungi is of a great importance. In the present study ten seed-borne fungi were isolated from abnormal sunflower seeds collected from different locations in Egypt i.e. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata ,Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F . semitectum, Penicillum digitatum, Stemphylium sp., and Trichoderma spp. A noticeable variation was recorded in sunflower oil samples such as chemical properties i.e. saponification number, fatty acid value, iodine number, peroxide value also, physical properties i.e. moisture content ,gravity, odor absorbent, absorbance (470nm) and oil colour ,these differences are due to the secondary metabolites produced by storage fungi. Some of the tested fungi gave a remarkable differences in both of absorbance and odor i.e. with F. semitectum and Stemphylium sp. treatments.
Key words: Sunflower seed-borne fungi, oil deterioration, chemical and physical properties, biochemical changes of oil samples.
 Shahda W.T., Tarabeih A.M., Michail S.H., Hemeda A.A.H.( 1991). Fungi associated with sunflower seeds in Egypt with reference to chemical control measure. J. King Saud Univ. Agric. Sci. 3:287–299.
 Anonymous. (2007). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Pakistan Agric. Res.Council. Islamabad,Pakistan.
 Afzal, R.; Mughal, S. M.; Munir, M.; Sultana, K.; Qureshi, R.; Arshad, M. and Laghari, A.K. (2010).Mycoflora associated with seeds of different sunflower cultivars and its management. Pak. J.Bot., 42(1): 435-445.
 Godika S., Agrawal K., Sing T., (1996). Fungi associated with seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in Rajasthan and their phytopathological effects. J. Phytol. Res. 9: 61–63.
 Ramesh, ch. And Avitha, K. M. (2005).Presence of external and internal seed-mycoflora on sunflower seeds .J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol. 35(2):362-364.
 Mathur SB, Olga Kongsdul .(2003). Common Laboratory seed healthy testing methods for detecting Fungi, Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries Thorvaldsensvey57, DK- 1871. Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. pp. 399.
 Booth, C. (1971). "The Genus Fusarium". Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England, 237p.
 Abdel-Mallek, A.Y., S.S.M. El-Maraghy and H.A.H. Hasan. (1994). Mycotoxin- producing potentialities of some isolates of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium from corn grains and sunflower seeds. Assiut J. Agric. Sci., 25(2): 133-141.
 Prasad, T. and B. K. Singh. (1983). Effect of relative humidity on oil properties of fungal infested sunflower seeds. Bio. Bull., India. 5:85-88.
 Neergaard, P. (1977). Seed pathology, Vol. I and II. The Macmillan Press, London, UK. Pp. 1-1187.
- Full PDF
ABSTRACT: This study focused on the application of Remote Sensing & Geographic Information System in Development of Crop Information System (CIS) for sustainable rice production in Jamalpur block which is located (23°04′N,87°59'E & 23°07′N,87°98′E) in Burdwan district of West Bengal, India. There rice fields were identified through Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. Aus, Aman and Boro, this three types of paddy (rice) distribution were shown using Landsat TM satellite data. The secondary data were collected from the Assistant Director's office of Agriculture, Jamalpur block. The cultivated area of different types of rice is calculated from each Gram Panchayet. The both data of rice area one which has been calculated by Remote Sensing method and another one which has been collected from ADA office are compared. Field data is used to generate the variation curve of different types of rice production in the block. It is also shown the gradually changing of rice cultivated area in this block. Finally, it is observed that all the geographic queries carried out in this research are as a result of the available dataset. So that, the decision making bodies can access to information on rice growth and management in the study area.
Key words: Remote Sensing, Spatial distribution, Rice Information System.
. FAO (1999), Crop information System, Remote Sensing for Decision-Makers Series, No. 18, Satellite imagery for a Crop Information System, www.ftp.fao.org/doccis/pdf.
. Csornai, G., dr. Dalia, O., Farkasfaly, J., Nádor, G., 1990. Crop Inventory Studies Using Landsat Data on Large Area in Hungary, Applications of Remote Sensing Agriculture, Butterworths, pp. 159-165.
. Remote Sensing Applications, National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Agriculture (Page 1- 20), Sesha Sai MVR, Ramana KV & Hebbar R.
. Monitoring Of planting paddy rice with complex cropping pattern in the tropical humid climate region using landsat data by S. Uchida, Development Research Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)
. Uchida, S., 2007. Monitoring of paddy rice planting with complex cropping pattern using satellite remote sensing data –A case of West Java,Indonesia-, 28th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Kuala Lumpur, TS 1.1.
. The Wikipedia-encyclopedia information of Jamalpur area, Burdwan.
. Crop Monitoring by Remote Sensing. G. Csornai, Cs. Wirnhardt, Zs. Suba, P. Somogyi, G. Nádor, L. Martinovich, L. Tikász, A. Kocsis, Gy. Zelei, M. Lelke.
- Full PDF
|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Thermostability of chlorophylls in some native species of xerophytes|
|Authors||:||K. A. Farghali, Abeer A. El-Aidarous|
ABSTRACT: This study was carried out on eight wild species inhabited the tributaries of wadi Al Noman, at Holey Mecca in the western Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The plant samples were collected at different locations, where laboratory analyses were included: the water content, chlorophyll content and its stability (CSI), , Mg ions, water soluble sugars and soluble proteins. The results showed that, the chlorophyll a content was higher than the chlorophyll b in the studied species. The maximum value of chlorophylls existed in C. colocyanthis and R. viscarius, whereas C. russeliana had low content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The chlorophyll a/b ratio was balanced by the chlorophyll stability to heat. The CSI of chlorophyll a was compensated by CSI of chlorophyll b and vice versa. The maximum values of total chlorophyll stability (a + b) was found in annuals C. colocynthis and D. innoxia, whereas C. russeliana had low CSI. The different chlorophyll parameters were mainly affected by the interaction between wadi and species, and the species factor played the subsidiary role on the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio in most floristic groups, except in case of chlorophyll a of dominant species the wadi factor was subsidiary. There was no significant effect of single factor on CSI of different groups. The correlation of Mg ions, soluble sugars and soluble proteins with total chlorophyll content and CSI were discussed.
Key words: Chlorophyll, thermostability, wild species, water content, Mg ions, soluble proteins, soluble sugars.
. Akinci I.E., Akinci S., Yilmaz K. 2010. Response of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to lead toxicity: growth, element uptake, chlorophyll and water content. Afr. J. Agric. Res.;5:416–423.
. Aro, E. M., Virgin, I. and Andersson, B. 1993. Photoinhibition of photo system II:. Inactivation, protein damage and turnover. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1143(2): 113-134.
. Boulos, L. 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005. Flora of Egypt Checklist. Cairo :Al Hadara Publishing.
. Chen, H., Li, W., An, S. and Gao, T. 2004. Characterization of PSII photochemistry and thermostability in salt treated Rumex leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology , 161(3): 257-2264. . Collenette, S. 1985. An Illustrated Guide to the Flowers of Saudi Arabia. London: Scorpion.
. Curran, P. J., Dungan, J. L. and Gholz, H. L. 1990. Exploring the relationship between reflectance red edge and chlorophyll content in slash pine. Tree Physiology, 7(1-2-3-4): 33–48.
. Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rabers, P. A. and Smith, F. 1956. Colorimetric method for the determination of sugars and related substance. Analytical Chemistry, 28(3): 350-356.
. El-Sharkawi, H. M. and Springuel, I. 1977. Germination of some crop plant seeds under reduced water potential. Seed Science and Technology, 5(4):677-688.
. Farghali, K. A. 1998. Chlorophyll content and its stability in native species inhabiting the Egyptian Desert. Journal of Arid Environments, 40(2): 163-175.
. Farghali, K. A. 1998. Diurnal variations of chlorophyll and dry matter content of Senna occidentalis in response to zinc and soil moisture. Biologia Plantarum, 40: 419-424.