IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 11 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Wage Differentials and Industrial Disputes in Nigerian Hospitals
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Agba, A. M. Ogaboh , Ushie, E. M.
: 10.9790/487X-1150112      logo

Abstract: The study examined medical and Para-medical staff perception of the impact of wage differential on industrial disputes in Nigerian hospitals. A sample of 1109 respondents were purposively selected from Primary, Secondary and Tertiary hospitals in South-South Geo-political Zone of Nigeria (SSGZN). Information was elicited from respondents via structured questionnaire. Elicited data was analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) and multiple regression analysis. Results indicated that wage differentials in terms of basic salary, hazard and fringe benefit allowance significantly influenced industrial disputes in Nigerian hospitals. The study further revealed that socio-demographic predictors such as sex, age, category of staff, educational qualification and rank could also influence the incidence of industrial disputes in Nigerian hospitals. We recommended among others policy reform options and the upward review of medical and para-medical staff wages in Nigeria.

Keywords: Wage differentials, industrial disputes, wage determination and wage discrimination.

[1]. Agba, A. M. O., Ikoh, M. U., Ushie, E. M. & Agba, M .S. (2008). Bureaucratic Corruption in Nigeria: The Need for Institutional Reforms. Journal of International Politics and Development Studies. 4 (1&2), 187-204.
[2]. Agba, A. M. O. (2007). External Factors in Industrial Crisis. A study of Higher Institutions in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis of the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
[3]. Agba, A. M. O. & Agba, M. S. (2008). Socio-economic and Political Implications of industrial Crisis in Nigerian Higher Institutions of Learning. Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 11 (2), 44-48.
[4]. Agba, A. M. O., Ushie, E. M. & Agba, M. S. (2009). External factors in Industrial Crisis in Nigeria Civil Service. Nigerian Journal of Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 3(3), 75-94.
[5]. Agba, A. M. O., Ikoh, M. Ushie, E. M. & Bassey, A. O. (2010). Telecommunications Revolution: Implications on Criminality and Family Crisis in the South-South States of Nigeria. International Journal of Computer and Information Science, 3 (1), 42-51.
[6]. Agba, A. M. O., & Ushie, E. M. (2010). Motivational Incentives and Staff Turnover in the Hospitality Industry in Cross River State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 10 (8), 18-28.
[7]. Agba, A. M. O., Ushie, E. M., Agba, M. S. & Nkpoyen, F. (2010). Privatization, Job Security and Performance Efficiency of Privatized Enterprises in Nigeria. Researchers World- Journal of Arts Science and Commerce, 1(1), 95-102.
[8]. ASUU National Executive Council (2005). ASUU's Response to the Federal Ministry of Education Press Release/Advertorial. Daily Sun, 38-39
[9]. Attah, F. M. (2010). Calabar Carnival Festal and Socio-Economic Development of Cross River State, Nigeria 2000-2008. Unpublished PhD Thesis of the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
[10]. Bassey, C. O. (2002). Political Parties and Conflict Resolution in Nigeria: Towards an Analysis of Basic Trend and Pattern in the South-South Zone. Nigerian Journal of Social and Development Issues, 2 (20), 79-96.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Entrepreneur as a Career Choice: Interrelationship between Risk Taking, Competitive Aggressiveness, Proactiveness, Innovativeness, and Autonomy
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Bustanul Arifin Noer, Muhammad Syafi'ie Idrus, Djumilah Hadiwijoyo, Budisantoso Wirjodirdjo
: 10.9790/487X-1152128      logo

Abstract: It is commonly believed that entrepreneurs are one of the main pillars of nation economic growth or development due to their ability to create jobs. Entrepreneur as a career choice has known since ancient time along with career as non-entrepreneur. Research on entrepreneurship is increasingly performed in last period along with the decrease in employment opportunities. This research aims to analyze the personal characteristics that influence university graduates to choose entrepreneur as their career option. Based on previous research, five factors were identified, i.e: risk taking, competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness, innovativeness, and autonomy. Data were collected from 76 respondents. Data were then analyzed using descriptive analysis, cross tabulation, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant analysis, and logistic regression to test how those factors relate to career choice as an entrepreneur. The analysis shows that only three factors significantly influenced the choice of entrepreneur as career choice, i.e. proactiveness, risk taking, and competitive aggressiveness. While the other two factors – innovativeness and autonomy – were found to be basic characteristics required for both an entrepreneur and non-entrepreneur.

Key words: career choice, entrepreneur, non-entrepreneur, risk taking, competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness, innovativeness, autonomy

[1] Aloulou, W., Entrepreneurial Orientation Diagnosis in SMEs: Some Conceptual and Methodological Dimensions. Entrepreneurship Research in Europe; Specificities and Prospectives, INPG-ESISAR Valence (France), September 19 – 22 (2002).
[2] Antoncic, B. and Hisrich, R. D. (undated). An Empirical Investigation of Impacts of Corporate Entrepreneurship - Related Contingencies on Organizational Wealth Creation, University of Ljubljana and Case Western Reserve University.
[3] Antonites, A. J., An Action Learning Approach to Entrepreneurial Activity, Innovation, and Opportunity Finding. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. University of Pretoria. Johannesburg. South Africa (2003).
[4] Ardichvili, A., Cardoza, R., and Ray, S., A Theory of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Development, Journal of Business Venturing 18 (2003) 105 – 123.
[5] Baron, R. A., Cognitive Mechanisms in Entrepreneurship: Why and When Entrepreneurs Think Differently than Other People, Journal of Business Venturing 13 (1998) 275-294.
[6] Blackman, A., Hurd, T., and Timo, N. (undated), Entrepreneurs: More Honest than We Think, a Preliminary Investigation into the Characteristics and Values of Owner-Managers, Griffith University, Gold Coast. Australia.
[7] Brown, T. E. and Davidsson, P. (undated), Entrepreneurial Orientation versus Entrepreurial Management: Relating Miller/Covin & Slevin's Conceptualization to Stevenson's. Jönköping International Business School.
[8] Burke, A. E., FitzRoy, F. R., and Nolan, M. A., Self-Employment Wealth and Job Creation: The Roles of Gender, non-Pecuniary Motivation and Entrepreneurial Ability, Small Business Economics 19/3 (2002) 255-270.
[9] Carland, J. C., Carland, J. W., and Stewart, W. H., Risk Taking Propensity: an Attribute of Entrepreneurship?: a Comparative Analysis, Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 5/2 (1999).


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Analysis of Competitiveness of Pakistan's Agricultural Export Commodities
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Muhammad Rizwan-ul-Hassan
: 10.9790/487X-1152934      logo

Abstract: This paper analyzes the global competitiveness of Pakistan's agricultural exports, rice, fish and fish preparations, vegetables and fruits, meat and meat preparations, vis-a-vis major Asian competitors using the approach of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), during the period 2001-2010. The results indicate that rice exhibits very strong comparative advantage while increasing trend has been observed in all other commodities reflecting heavy potentials for export growth in global market. There is a need for Pakistan to strengthen the competitiveness in all these sectors.

Keywords: Agricultural commodities, Competitiveness, Revealed Comparative advantage

[1] Akhter, M.R. , Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in Pakistan: Commodity Aspects. Working Paper 44/1999 the CGPRT Centre, Bogor Indonesia.

[2] Mustafa, K., BarriersAgainst Agricultural Export from Pakistan: the role of WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. Pakistan Development Review, Volume 42, (4),2003 part II.

[3] Richardson,D.J.and C. Zhang ,Revealing Comparative Advantage :Chaotic or Coherent Patterns Across Time and Sectors and U.S. Trading Partners? National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No.7212/1999

[4] Ferto,I and L.J. Hubbard , Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Hungarian Agri-Food Sectors. The World Economy.Volume 26, ( 2),2003, 247-259.

[5] Mahmood, A., Export Competitiveness and Comparative Advantage of Pakistan s' Non-agricultural Production Sector: Trends and Analysis, Pakistan Development Review, Volume 43(4) Part II, 2004, 541-561.

[6] Batra, A and Z.Khan , Revealed Comparative Advantage: An analysis for India and China. ICRIER Working Paper No 168.2005, New Delhi.

[7] Burrange, L.G.and S.J.Chaddha, India s' Revealed


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of the Demand for Eggs in City Of Malang
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Nanang Febrianto, Budi Hartono, Dan Hari Dwi Utami
: 10.9790/487X-1153539      logo

Abstract: This research was aimed at determining the factors that influence the demand for eggs in the City of Malang and knowing the elasticity of demand in relation to the changes in price of the eggs in the City of Malang. Data collection was conducted from November 2012 to December 2012 from the consumers who purchase eggs at the traditional markets in the City of Malang (Dinoyo market and Pasar Besar market). The research method being employed in this study was a survey method. Sampling was conducted through purposive sampling method. The data collected included the primary data from 200 respondents through direct observations and interviews and the secondary data that were obtained from certain relevant agencies. Data were then analyzed by using multiple linear regressions in logarithms. Regression analysis result showed that the independent variables together significantly affected (P < 0.01) the dependent variable with a value of R ² was 0.731. Partially that each of the prices of the eggs, household income, the family members, and education, affected the demand for eggs in the City of Malang. The price elasticity of demand for eggs is elastic with a value of -2.824. The value of the income elasticity of demand for eggs was 0.022 which was inelastic, which means that eggs are normal goods or commodity. The value of cross-price elasticity of demand for eggs to broiler meat was -4.451, which means that the broiler meat are not as substitutes (commodity) for eggs of egg-laying chickens.

Keywords : eggs, demand, elasticity of the prices, elasticity of the demands

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : HR Challenges of Project Managers
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Hadi Minavand, Sepideh Farahmandian, Vahid Minaei
: 10.9790/487X-1154045      logo

Abstract: Project-based works, cause of their temporary nature involve some particular problems and challenges that are not normally experienced by operational and functional activities. Project manager, as the highest authority of a project, is exposed to these challenges more than anyone else. This study takes into consideration "authority", "cross-functional team", and "workforce motivation challenge" as the three main challenges that are faced by a project manager in interaction with project human resources. Also some solutions are recommended to avoid undesirable effects of mentioned challenges.

Keywords - project, project manager, authority, cross-functional, workforce motivation: career choice, entrepreneur, non-entrepreneur, risk taking, competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness, innovativeness, autonomy

[1] Standard, P. G. (2008). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). In Project Management Institute.
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[4] Linton, I. (2012). The difference between project managers Vs functional managers. In eHow. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8612844_difference-managers-vs-functional-managers.html.
[5] Pennsylvania State University, (2006). MANGT 510: PROJECT MANAGEMENT. In Courses Worldcampus. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from https://courses.worldcampus.psu.edu/welcome/mangt510/less02_01.html.
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[7] Jacques, P. H., Garger, J., & Thomas, M. (2007). Assessing leader behaviors in project managers. Management Research News, 31(1), 4-11.
[8] Turner, J. R., Müller, R., & Dulewicz, V. (2009). Comparing the leadership styles of functional and project managers. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2(2), 198-216.
[9] Bobera, D. (2008). Project Management Organization. Management, 3(1), 003-009.
[10] Kuprenas, J. A. (2003). Implementation and performance of a matrix organization structure. International Journal of Project Management, 21(1), 51-62.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Amount of e-banking fulfillment
Country : Iran
Authors : Farshad havasi, Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkany, Reza Hashemi
: 10.9790/487X-1154652      logo

Abstract: The comprehensive development of information and communication technology in the recent decades has made human face wonderfulevolution in all aspects of his life. Indeed, this evolution has had undeniable effects on economy general structure and social and cultural parts at the international level. Also, this evolution includes financial and banking services of the current century economy. They are so efficient that they have created some innovations on the kind, quality and quantity of the presented services. Technological revolutions creating high speed and low cost systems of electronic exchanges have seriously evolved financial and banking market structure. Thus this research considers e-banking fulfillmen.

Key words: substructure, electronic banking

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