IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 11 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The efficacy of strategic management processes: An empirical study of National Sports Associations of Zimbabwe.
Country : Zimbabwe
Authors : Edmore Nhamo, Margaret Tinny Muswazi
: 10.9790/487X-1160112      logo

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to appraise the adequacy of strategic management processes of National Sports Associations (NSAs) in Zimbabwe. Most of Zimbabwe NSAs perform poorly as evidenced by the perennial failure of national teams to qualify for major regional and international tournament. Their strategic management processes appear to be inadequate to meet the modern day environmental challenges. The study used the descriptive survey as the design. A sample of fifty three National Sports Association and Provincial Sports Association chairpersons were randomly selected from a population of seventy nine chairpersons. Hand delivered questionnaires with both open ended and closed questions were used to collect data. Results from the study indicate that most NSAs have core values, corporate objectives, policies and make use of physical structures. However the results also show that the majority of NSAs do not have strategic plans, do not practice strategic management and do not conduct strategic reviews. The results led to the conclusion that the strategic management processes in NSAs are inadequate. The study recommended that NSAs should prioritize strategic management and that both the Sports and Recreation Commission and Zimbabwe Olympic Committee should assist NSAs technically and financially to facilitate the adoption of strategic management principles.

Keywords: National Sports Associations, strategic control, strategic implementation, strategic management, strategic planning, Zimbabwe

[1]. Government of Zimbabwe (1996) Sports and Recreation Commission Act, Zimbabwe.
[2]. Sport and Recreation Commission (2008) Community Sport Development Manual, SRC: Belvedere. Harare.
[3]. Shalomsoundproject (2010) Key problems facing sports today,(on line) [retrieved on the 8th of November 2011] from http//www:
[4]. Kanhukamwe and Zvomuya (2004) Sports Marketing and Management. Zimbabwe Open University. Mount Pleasant Harare
[5]. Dess. G. G, Lumpkin, G. T and Taylor, M. L (2005) Strategic Management, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin
[6]. Cole, G. A, (2000) Strategic Management Theory and Practice London: Lens Educational Aldine Place
[7]. Smith K.G Baum J.R and Locke, E.A (2001) A multidimensional model of venture growth, Academy of management Journal: in press
[8]. Kuveya, T, (2002) Strategic Management. Zimbabwe Open University. Mount Pleasant Harare
[9]. Noneprofit (2002) strategic management (online) [retrieved on the 19th of December 2010] from http//
[10]. Jonhson , G and Scholes, K, (2002) Exploring Corporate Strategy ,New York: Prentice Hall PTR,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Customer Satisfaction in Online Shopping: a study into the reasons for motivations and inhibitions
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Rashed Al Karim
: 10.9790/487X-1161320      logo

Abstract: This study endeavours to understand customer satisfaction in online shopping while investigating the major reasons that motivated customers' decision-making processes as well as inhibitions of online shopping. The Kotler and Killers (2009) Five Stage Buying Process Model was chosen as the basis of framework of this study to explain customer satisfaction through their motivations to buy products online. The existing literature was reviewed to discover reasons that would influence customers positively or negatively towards shopping online. Surveys were conducted by distributing questionnaires in the Wrexham area (North Wales) to gather data for this research. SPSS software package was used to present research data graphically and to test research hypothesis. From the findings, it was discovered that respondents use internet to purchase products through online because they believe it is convenience to them and the term convenient includes elements such as time saving, information availability, opening time, ease of use, websites navigation, less shopping stress, less expensive and shopping fun. In contrast, along with respondents' mind-sets, online payment security, personal privacy and trust, unclear warranties and returns policies and lack of personal customer service are the foremost barriers of online shopping. Furthermore, the result of hypotheses established that even though online shopping is convenient to all consumers, online payment system and privacy or security anxieties have significant impact on online shopping. Finally, some recommendations have been offered for online retailers to take initiatives for making online shopping more admired and trustworthy.

Keywords: Customer satisfaction, Customer motivation and inhibition, On-line shopping, On-line vendor, SPSS software.

[1] Brennan, R., Baines, P., Garneau, P. & Vos, L. (2008). Contemporary Strategic Marketing. 2nd Ed., New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [2] Constantinides, E. (2004). Influencing the online consumer‟s behaviour: the Web experience. Journal of Internet Research, 14(2), pp111-126.

[3] Collis, J. & Hussey, R. (2009). Business Research: A practical guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate students. 3nd Ed., Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

[4] Canavan, O., Henchion, M. & O‟Reilly, S. (2007). The use of the internet as a marketing channel for Irish speciality food. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35 (2), pp 178-195.

[5] Demangeot, C. & Broderick, A. J. (2007). Conceptualising consumer behaviour in online shopping environments. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(11), pp 878-894.

[6] Gay, R., Charlesworth, A. & Esen, R. (2007). Online Marketing: a customer-led approach. New York : Oxford University Press.

[7] Jayawardhena, C., Wright, L.T. & Dennis, C. (2007). Consumers online intentions, orientations and segmentation. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35 (6), pp 515-526.

[8] Johnstone, P. (1999). Financial Crime: Prevention and Regulation in the Intangible Environment. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 2(3), pp 253-263

. [9] Kim, E. Y. & Kim, Y. K. (2004). Predicting online purchase intentions for clothing products. European Journal of Marketing, 38(7), pp 883-897.

[10] Koo, D.M., Kim, J.J. & Lee, S.W. (2008). Personal values as underlying motives of shopping online. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(2), pp 156-173.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An improvement of two multi-criteria inventory classification models
Country : Tunisie
Authors : Makram Ben Jeddou
: 10.9790/487X-1162127      logo

Abstract: ABC analysis is a useful method to classify inventory items into different categories that can be specifically managed and controlled. Traditional ABC analysis classifies inventory items into three categories according to the annual dollar usage of an inventory item. Multi criteria inventory classification models have been proposed by researchers in order to take into account other important criteria. From these models we considered in this paper the R- model and the Ng-model in order to improve them. Illustrative examples are presented to compare the improved models and the initial ones.

Keywords: ABC classification, Multi criteria inventory classification models, R-model, Ng-model.

[1]. Chen J. 2011. Peer-estimation for multiple criteria ABC inventory classification, Computers & Operations Research, 38, 1784–1791.
[2]. Flores, B. E., Olson, D. L., & Dorai, V. K. 1992. Management of multicriteria inventory classification. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 16,71–82.
[3]. Hadi-Vencheh A. 2010. An improvement to multiple criteria ABC inventory classification. European Journal of Operational Research, 201, 962–965.
[4]. Ng W. L. 2007. A simple classifier for multiple criteria ABC analysis, European Journal of Operational Research, 177, 344–353.
[5]. Ramanathan R. 2006. ABC inventory classification with multiple-criteria using weighted linear optimization, Computers and Operations Research,33, 695–700.
[6]. Zhou P., & Fan L. 2007. A note on multi-criteria ABC inventory classification using weighted linear optimization, European Journal of Operational Research, 182, 1488–1491.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Escalation and Expansion of Electronics and Computer Software / Services Export Promotion Council of India (Esc): An Empirical Analysis.
Country : India
Authors : Irfan Mumtaz K. S.
: 10.9790/487X-1162833      logo

Abstract: This is an attempt in reverence of Electronics and computer software export promotion council of India (ESC). The description of ESC espoused here is very broader, covering Electronic Hardware, Computer Software, and Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES). ESC got preferred for the analysis based on its growth which is pretty remarkable in the past two decades and also for the prospect arrangement to heighten the Indian exports. The arrangement of this research paper is pursues. Level II aims at the importance of export promotion council of India. The growth of export promotion chosen for the current scrutiny is discussed in Level III. Facts and Inference of variables are conferring in the Level IV. The final Level projects on summary and conclusion.

Keywords: Export promotion, Growth of Electronics and computer software export promotion council, Expansion of Electronics and computer software export promotion council, Export Promotion Councils

[1]. Annual Report (2009-10); Electronics and IT (Software) Export Promotion Council
[2]. Aradhna Aggarwal( 2005); Indian performance Of Export Processing Zones: A Comparative Analysis Of India, Sri Lanka And Bangladesh; Indian Council For Research On International Economic Relations; page10-15
[3]. Biswanath Goldar (1989); Determinants of India's Export Performance in Engineering Products: 1960-79
[4]. Dorsati Madani (1999); A Review of the Role and Impact of Export Processing Zones
[5]. Economic survey (2008-09); Exports and Imports and Trade Balance
[6]. Brian Nicholson & Sundeep Sahay; Software Exports Development in Costa Rica: Contradictions and the Potential for Change, page 10-13
[7]. Economic survey (2010-11); Statistical Tables; Exports and Imports and Trade Balance; Pages 80-82,
[8]. Export promotion of consultancy and management services from India; (2006); Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, New Delhi
[9]. Felix B. Tan & Kallaya Leewong charoen; (2010), IT for Development; Factors contributing to IT industry success in developing countries: The case of Thailand
[10]. HR. Appannaiah, PN Reddy, S. Shanthi (2005); Economics for Business, Himalaya Publishing House; Pages 435-449

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The changing perception and buying behaviour of women consumer in Urban India
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Sriparna Guha
: 10.9790/487X-1163439      logo

Abstract: The working women segment has significantly influenced the modern marketing concept. The objective of this paper is to identify the changing perception and comparison of buying behaviour for working and non-working women in Urban India. It suggests that women due to their multiple roles influence their own and of their family members' buying behaviour. The study also reveals that working women are price, quality and brand conscious and highly influenced by the others in shopping.

Key Words: Women, Purchasing behaviour, Perception, Consumer, Urban ,Involvement

[1]. Bakewell, C. and Mitchell, V. (2003), "Generation Y female consumer decision-making styles". International Journal of Retailand Distribution Management, 31 (2), 95-106. Barletta, M. (2003), "Marketing to women: How to understand, reach, and increase your share of the world's largest market segment." Chicago, IL, Dearborn Trade Publishing. Behling, D. (1999), "Measuring involvement". Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 55-64. Census, 2001, India
[2]. Fairhurst, A., Good, L. and Gentry, J. (1989), "Fashion involvement: an instrument validation procedure." Clothing andTextiles Research Journal 7 (3), 10-14. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M., and Buss A. (1975), "Public and private self-consciousness:
[3]. assessment and theory." Journal ofConsulting and Clinical Psychology, 43 (4), 522-527. Goldsmith, R. (2002), "Some personality traits of frequent clothing buyers". Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 6(3), 303-316.
[4]. Goldsmith, R., Moore, M. and Beaudoin, P. (1999), "Fashion innovativeness and self-concept: A replication." Journal of Product and Brand Management, 8 (1), 7-18. Korzaan, M.L. and Boswell, K.T. (2008), "The influence of personality traits and information privacy concerns on behavioral intentions", The journal of computer information system, 48(4), 15-24
[5]. Ministry of Labour Statistics 2005 India, Maspar NV The Retail Weeks, 2007
[6]. O'Cass, A. (2001), "Consumer self-monitoring, materialism and involvement in fashion clothing". Australian Marketing Journal 9 (1), 46-60.
[7]. Solomon, M. and Rabolt, N. (2004), "Consumer Behavior in Fashion." NJ, Prentice Hall. Zaichkowsky, J. (1986), "Conceptualizing involvement." Journal of Advertising, 15 (2), 4- 34.
[8]. Tai, H.C. (2005), "Shopping styles of working Chinese females", Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 12, 191–203.
[9]. Willaims, T.G. (2002), "Social Class influences on purchase evaluation criteria," Journal of consumer marketing, 19(3), 249-276.
[10]. Yoo, S. (2005), "Design Elements and Consumer Characteristics Relating to Design Preferences of Working Females", International Textile & Apparel Association, 21(2), 49-62

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "Mutual fund acts as an investment consultant in the challenging financial market"
Country : India
Authors : Prof. Naila Iqbal
: 10.9790/487X-1164042      logo

Abstract: Mutual Funds Emerged as an opportunity for small investors to earn money with limited money and knowledge of market scenario all over the world. The concept of Mutual Funds represents the most appropriate investment opportunity for small investors, as financial markets become more sophisticated and complex; investors need a financial intermediary who provides the required knowledge and professional expertise on successful investing. Mutual Fund originated in the USA and moving to the UK in the 1930, this culture started in India in 1960, with the setting up of UTI in 1964.Public sector bank and financial institutions began to establish mutual fund in 1987.The private sector and foreign Institutions were allowed to set up mutual funds in 1993.In a mutual fund the savings of many investors are combined to form a fairly large and well diversified portfolio of investments. The Indian Mutual Fund industry has already opened up many exciting investment opportunities to Indian investors. As a result we have started witnessing the phenomenon of more savings now being entrusted in Funds.

[1]. Bhole L M, "Financial Institutions and markets", Tata McGraw-Hall, New Delhi, 1999.
[2]. Khan M Y, "Indian Financial System, Tata Mc Graw-Hill, New Delhi, 2001.
[3]. S. Gurusamy, Financial markets and Institutions, Thomson publications, First Edition, 2004.
[4]. Pandey I M, Financial Management, Vikas Publications, New Delhi, 2000.. Mishra R K, An Overview of financial services, financial services, emerging trends, Delta, Hyderabad, 1997.
[5]. Mishra R K, "Development of financial services in India some perspectives", Financial services in India Delta, Hyderabad, 1998.
[6]. Mishra R K, "Global financial services Industry and the specialized financial services institutions in India, Utkal University, 1997.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The impact of project managers' leadership style on employees' job satisfaction, performance and turnover
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Hadi Minavand, Seyed Ehsan Mokhtari, Hamideh Zakerian, Sara Pahlevan
: 10.9790/487X-1164349      logo

Abstract: "Behavioral theory of leadership, divides leaders into two groups of "task-oriented" and "relationship-oriented" leaders. According to this theory, task-oriented leaders' priority is normally achieving projected results for current tasks, whereas relationship-oriented leaders focus on employees and try to improve them and take into consideration their ideas and suggestions. The current research intends to discover the extent to which employees' level of job satisfaction, quality of performance and rate turnover are affected by the leader's style. The employees of Iranian oil&gas projects were selected as the target population for this study. An online survey was selected as the method of data collection. 100 employees from different projects participated in the survey. The collected data were analyzed using independent sample t-test. The results of the analysis showed that in all the three research areas there was a significant difference between the employees of task-oriented project managers and those who work with relationship-oriented project managers, while the latter group scored higher."

Keywords - Project manager, Leadership Style, Job Satisfaction, Performance, Turnover

[1] PMI (2008). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK® Guide. Project Management Institute.
[2] Nordqvist, S., Hovmark, S., & Zika-Viktorsson, A. (2004). Perceived time pressure and social processes in project teams. International Journal of Project Management, 22(6), 463-468.
[3] Maylor, H. (2010). Project Management. 4th edition. Pearson Eduation Ltd. Essex, GBR.
[4] Chapman, R.J. (1998) "The role of system dynamics in understanding the impact of changes to key project personnel on design production within construction projects‟, International Journal Of Project Management 16(4)
[5] Kryvenda, A. (2012). Reducing Adversity of Employee Turnover within Projects. Case Study at Volvo Car Corporation.
[6] Shamsuzzoha, A. H. M., & Shumon, M. R. H. (2007). Employee Turnover- a Study of its Causes and Effects to Different Industries in Bangladesh.Manufacturing Engineering/ Vyrobne Inzinierstvo, 6(3), 64-68.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Learning and Improvement Model in Entrepreneurial Leadership
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Ashfaq Ahmed, Dr. Muhammad Ramzan
: 10.9790/487X-1165060      logo

Abstract: Currently entrepreneurial leadership has expended and increased momentum as developingmodel of both in research and practice. Though, there is not sufficient knowledgeon the theoretical and intangible basis of this emerging area of analysisandlot of questions are raised up on how to grow entrepreneur leadershipabilities, capabilitiesprecisely in university students. The basicmotive of thistheoretical paper is to slight the gap through offering the theoretical andconceptual basics of entrepreneur leadership. This paper has also examinedvariousfeatures of entrepreneurial education in the perspective of universitygiven entrepreneur-ship programs and then projected a model for entrepreneurial-leadership enlargement. The projected model describes entrepreneurial leadershipenlargementbase on a dynamic progression of "experimental, social interactive,observational and reflective learning" which make available a base for entrepreneur leadership exercise, enlightenment and research.

Keywords: entrepreneurial leadership, leadershipgrowth, entrepreneurial knowledge,entrepreneurial capabilities,learning model

[1]. Anna, A. L., Chandler, G. N., Jansen, E. & Mero, N. P. (2000) Women Business Owners in Traditional and Nontraditional Industries, Journal of Business Venturing 15, 279 303
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[7]. Cope, J., and G. Watts. 2000. Learning by doing: An exploration of experience, criticalincidents and reflection in entrepreneurial learning. International Journal of Entrepreneur-ship Behaviour and Research6, no. 3: 104–24.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of Job Stress on Employees Job Performance A Study on Banking Sector of Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Ashfaq Ahmed, Dr. Muhammad Ramzan
: 10.9790/487X-1166168      logo

Abstract: Currently Bankers are under a great transaction of stress and due to many backgrounds of stress such as Excess, Role doubt, Role conflict, Concern for people, Contribution, Lack of feedback, possession up with rapid technologicalchange. Being in an inventive role, Career development, Organizational structure and climate, and recent episodic events. The thing which find out is stress. This study examines the relationship between job stress and job performance on bank employees of banking sector in Pakistan. The study examines the purpose model in relation of job stress and its impact on job performance by using sample of 144 participants. In participant the data ofsenior, graduate employees including customer services officers and managers of well reputed rising bank in Pakistan. The data were obtained through close ended questionnaire. A statistical test of regression, correlation and reliabilities were also confirmed. The results are significant with negative correlation between job stress and job performances and shows that job stress significantly reduces the performance of an individual. The results suggest to the organization that they have sustained a very health, cooperative and friendly environment within the team for better performance.

Keywords: Job performance, Job stress, Effects of stress

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Investment choices of individual investors in D.I.Khan, KPK province of Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Bela Kundi
: 10.9790/487X-1166977      logo

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to inquire the investment avenues of the people of D.I.Khan prefer to choose. Study showed that most of investors in the district prefer to deposit their savings at banks, post office savings & real estate. Investment choices are many & selection between them is based on investors' objectives. Income is key factor affect risk tolerance of investor.

Keywords - Investment Avenue, individual investor behaviour.

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