IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 13 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Organization
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Yogita Sharma
: 10.9790/487X-1340108      logo

Abstract: Corporate social responsibility is emerging as a new field in the management research. It encompasses not only what companies do with their profits, but also how they make them. It is not just for large scale companies but also used by small scale and non-profit organizations. In India many firms have taken the initiatives of CSR practices which have met with different needs of the society as a whole. Data has been collected from number of articles, books, periodicals and websites.The present study has been an attempt to generate awareness and to understand meaning, significance, dimensional aspect of CSR and how to manage it. An extensive literature review is done on CSR. At the end some forces at work, some issues related to CSR in India and some recommendations are given.

Keywords: Meaning of CSR, Significance, Social aspect, Economic aspect, Environmental aspect, Managing CSR, Forces at work.

[1] Blowfield, M. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: Reinventing the meaning of development. International Affairs, 81, 515–524. [2] Chaudhri, V., & Wang, J. (2007). Communicating corporate social responsibility on the Internet: A case study of the top 100 IT companies in India. Management Communication Quarterly, 21, 232-247.

[3] Mohammed Hossain and MasrurReaz, "Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management", Volume 14, Issue 5, pages 274–288, December 2007

[4] Murthy, V. and Abeysekera, I., Corporate social reporting practices of top Indian software firms,Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal, 2(1), 2008.

[5] RenuJatana, David Crowther, (2007) "Corporate Social Responsibility and the Empowerment of Women: An Indian Perspective", Social Responsibility Journal, Vol. 3 Iss: 4, pp.40 - 48

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Sustainability of Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Project in Enugu State
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Onah Roseline C., Ayogu Gabriel I., Agboeze Matthias U.
: 10.9790/487X-1340917      logo

Abstract: Disused and abandoned completed projects of LEEMP are common features of many communities in Enugu state, Nigeria. This situation prevails against the background of gross inadequacy of basic infrastructure and social amenities in rural communities in the country at large and the state in particular. Against this backdrop, this study attempts to find out the factors that are responsible for the non-sustainability of LEEMP projects, with particular focus on Enugu state. Data were gathered through both primary and secondary sources. Findings show that the non-sustainability of LEEMP projects in Enugu State was primarily as a result of a number of factors namely; poor follow up funding for maintenance, local politics/conflicts, improper location of LEEMP projects and lack of political will by indigenes. A number of recommendations are therefore made which if adopted, will significantly reduce if not totally eliminate those factors that impede project sustainability in the state.

Key words: Local Empowerment and Environmental Management Project (LEEMP); Project Sustainability; Community Driven Development (CDD).

[1]. Adato, M; Besley, T. Haddad, L and Hoddinott, J., 1999. "Participation and poverty reduction: Issues, theory and new evidence from South Africa". Background paper for World Bank Development Report 2000/2001. International Food Policy Research Institute and World Bank. Washington, D.C.
[2]. Anna, M. and Diana, M,, 2007. "Securing inclusion: Strategies for community empowerment and state redistribution", Environment and Urbanization, 19(2): 425-439.
[3]. Baccus,I; Hemson, D; Hicks, J. and Piper, L. 2008. "Community development and engagement with local governance in South Africa", Community Development Journal 43(3): 297-311.
[4]. Diana M, and Satterthwaite, D. 2007,. "Strategies for grassroots control of international aid", Environment and Urbanization, 19(2); 483-500.
[5]. European Commission, 2006. "Sustainability of international cooperation projects in the field of higher education and training," Handbook on sustainability. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
[6]. Eze, G.O. 2007. "The politics of poverty eradication in Nigeria", Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 2(3): 16-17.
[7]. Ibeawuchi, E.I and Nwachukwu, C.C., 2010. "An investigation on the impact of FADAMA II Project implementation in Imo State", American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1(3): 532-538.
[8]. International Development Association, 2009. "Community – Driven Development: Delivering the results people need", IDA at Work. (
[9]. International Federation for Agricultural Development, 2010a. IFAD Strategy for rural poverty reduction in Asia and the Pacific. Rome.
[10]. IFAD, 2011b, IFAD Strategic Framework 2007-2010. Rome.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Non-linearity in timing the equity market and debt-equity choice of UK firms.
Country : United Kingdom
Authors : HafezaliIqbal Hussain, Noor Hafidzah Jabarullah
: 10.9790/487X-1341825      logo

Abstract: We empirically test the market timing theory of capital structure of issuing behavior of UK firms and find that the debt-equity choice decision is non-linear. In line with the previous literature, we find that managers are more likely to issue equity (debt) when equities are overvalued (undervalued). In further analyzing the issuing pattern, we find that managers' inclination towards equity issues during periods of overvaluation is non-linear as it is only significant during periods of slight overvaluation and insignificant during periods of excessive overvaluation. On the other hand, probabilities of issuing debt significantly increase only when equities are excessively undervalued. Our findings suggest that managers' take into account other considerations when timing the equity market and poses some interesting questions on the viability of market timing as a stand-alone theory in explaining the capital structure puzzle. Keywords: Capital structure, equity mispricing, market timing, UK firms.

[1] M. Baker, and J. Wurgler, Market timing and capital structure. Journal of Finance 57, 2002, 1-32.

[2] A. Hovakimian, T. Opler, and S. Titman, The debt-equity choice. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 36, 2001, 1-24.

[3] A. Hovakimian, Are observed capital structures determined by equity market timing? Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 41, 2006, 221-243.

[4] A. Mahajan and S. Tartaroglu, Equity market timing and capital structure: International evidence. Journal of Banking and Finance 32, 2008, 754-766.

[5] J. Graham and C. Harvey, The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field, Journal of Financial Economics 60, 2001, 187-243.

[6] D. Brounen, A. de Jong, and K. Koedijk, Capital structure policies in Europe: Survey evidence. Journal of Banking and Finance 30, 2006, 1409-1442.

[7] P. Marsh, The choice between debt and equity: An empirical study. Journal of Finance 37, 1982, 121-144.

[8] M. Flannery, M. and K. Rangan, Partial adjustment toward target capital structures, Journal of Financial Economics 79, 2006, 469-506.

[9] S. Byoun, How and when do firms adjust their capital structure towards targets?Journal of Finance 63, 2008, 3069 – 3096.

[10] R. Warr, W. Elliott, J. Koeter-Kant O. Oztekin, Equity mispricing and leverage adjustment costs. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 47, 2012, 589 – 616.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "Effective Executive Communication, the Bhagavad Gita Way"
Country : India
Authors : Prof. T. S. Balakrishnan
: 10.9790/487X-1342629      logo

Abstract: Communication is the life blood of an organization. As free blood circulation is a must for the survival and growth of human body, so is free flow of communication a must for an organization. The Bhagavad Gita is literally translated as "Song Celestial‟ and is essentially a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, the most important among the Pandava Princes. Gita forms part of the famous epic "Maha Bharata‟ and it consists of 18 chapters and 700 stanzas. Gita is one of the basic books of Hinduism. In this paper an attempt is made to interpret a particular stanza of Gita as an infallible guide for effective communication. According to Gita, effective communication is that which contains the truth, which is beneficial to the listener, pleasant to hear and which is made only after self study. An executive who follows the guidelines provided by Gita for effective communication is sure to have good rapport with his bosses and subordinates and also will accomplish the objectives of his communication.

Key words: Austerity of speech, Base emotions, Bhagavad Gita, Communication, Self study.

[1]. Swami Bodhananda ,The Gita and Management‟, Bluejay Books, Calcutta, 2004,P.130

[2]. Swami Chinmayananda, The Holy Gita , Commentary , Chinmaya Mission Trust, Mumbai, ,2001,P.1023
[3]. Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich ,"Essentials of Management- An International and Leadership Perspective‟, McGraw Hill Education ( India ) Private Limited, New Delhi, 2013, P 394
[4]. , retrieved on 20.9.2013

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Triple Bottom Line Accounting: A Conceptual Expose
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Atu, Omimi-Ejoor Osaretin Kingsley
: 10.9790/487X-1343036      logo

Abstract: This paper is centered on Triple Bottom line Accounting (TBL) which has now become an important issue in the business accounting. The objective of this study is to review the concept TBL, explain how it can be useful to business, policy makers and economic development practitioners and highlights some current examples on how TBL reporting can be practicalized. To achieve the above stated objectives, the researcher explains the concept of TBL, measures of TBL, its advantages and disadvantages and the Operationalization of TBL. The study was concluded in favour of TBL because by adopting TBL reporting, businesses understand that they are held to specific principles that are developed by internal and external forces. For this reason, they will need to focus on the impact that their operations have on the community. This change of mindset will, typically, be followed by changes in ordinary, everyday operations to increase transparency.

Key words: Triple bottom line, Sustainability, Planet, People and Profit

[1]. Andrew Savitz, (2006) The Triple Bottom Line (San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
[2]. Bob Willard (2002) The Sustainability Advantage: Seven Business Case Benefits of a Triple Bottom Line. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.
[3]. David .C. (2005) Adapting your Accounting Practices to Triple Bottom Line Reporting. Certified Management Accountants Magazine. February 2005.
[4]. Ho, L.-C. J., & Taylor, M. E. (2007). An Empirical Analysis of triple Bottom-line Reporting and its Determinants: Evidence from the United States and Japan. Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting 18(2).
[5]. Isaksson, R. (2005). Economic Sustainability and the Cost of Poor Quality. Corporate Social Responsibility and Evnironmental Management,( 12) .
[6]. John Elkington, (1994) Towards the sustainable Corporation Win Win Win Business strategies for sustainable development. California Management Review (36) 2.
[7]. Mish, J., & Scammon, D. L. (2010). Principle-Based Stakeholder Marketing: Insights from Private Triple-Bottom-Line Firms. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1).
[8]. Mitchell, M., Curtis, A., & Davidson, P. (2008). Evaluating the Process of Triple Bottom Line Reporting; Increasing the Potential for Change in Local Environment, 13(2).
[9]. Painter-Morland, M. (2006). Triple Bottom-Line Reporting as Social Grammar: Integrating Corporate Social responsibility and Corporate Codes of Conduct. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(4).
[10]. Sher, K. R. (1994). Beyond the Conventional Wisdom: Rural Development as if Australia's Rural People Really Mattered. Journal of research in Rural Education, 10(1).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Organisational Commitment with Special Reference to Neyveli Lignite Corporation
Country : India
Authors : C. Murali Kumaran, Dr. M. Sivasubramanian
: 10.9790/487X-1343740      logo

Abstract: In organizational behaviour and industrial and organizational psychology, organizational commitment is the individual's psychological attachment to the organization. The basis behind many of these studies was to find ways to improve how workers feel about their jobs so that these workers would become more committed to their organizations. Organizational commitment predicts work variables such as turnover, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance. This present study access the level of organisational commitment and the factors influencing the organisational commitment. . It is also found that a moderate level of organisational commitment was found among the respondents. It is also concluded that training and development, work-life policies and empowerment practice influences the level of organisational commitment of the respondents.

Key words: Organisational commitment, training and development, work-life policies, empowerment practices

[1]. Alexander Newman. The Impact of Employee Perceptions of Training on Organisational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: A Study of Multinationals in the Chinese Service Sector perceptions....pdf
[2]. Armstrong, M. (1999). Human resources management practice. London: Kogan Page.
[3]. Dornstein, M., & Matalon, Y. (1998). A comparative analysis of predictors of organizational
[4]. commitment. A study of voluntary army personnel in Isreal. Journal of Vocational Behaviour 34 (2), 192-203.
[5]. Guest, E.A. (1991). Human resource management. London: McGraw-Hill.
[6]. Mahnaz Kargar (2012). Evaluation of Organizational Commitment of Employees in University; Case Study: Islamic Azad University. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(5)5017-5021, 2012
[7]. Mooday, R.T., Porter, L.W., & Steer, R.M. (1982). Employees organization linkages. New York: Academic Press.
[8]. Northcraft, T. & Neale, H. (1996). Organisation Behaviour. London: Prentice-Hall.
[9]. Salancik, G.R. (1977).Commitment and the control or organizational behaviour and belief. In B Staw and G. Salancik (ed), New direction in organizational behaviour. Chicago: St Clair Press, pp. 1-59.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Training for the Art Administrators In Order To Manage Systemic Change in Ministry Of Education Benghazi Libya
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Abdelhakim M. S. Elhash, Imam Suyadi, Siti Ragil Handayani
: 10.9790/487X-1344144      logo

Abstract: This report has explored the extent to which current training in arts administration is suited to meet changing demands in the cultural sector in Libya and has aimed to develop both a theoretical construct and an educational model to enhance cultural policymakers' and arts administrators' capacities to manage systemic change. Recognizing that environmental change in the cultural sector will be an ongoing phenomenon, and that the nature, pace, and scope of change will differ dramatically from community to community. The report has concluded that the change management capacities identified as necessary to meet changing demands, and training options available to current and future leaders in arts administration. In each representative case study, evidence is provided of disconnect between new demands in the cultural sector and the current focus of arts administration training. This gap would suggest that new competencies and skills may be required to manage change taking place in the cultural sector. It is particularly instructive to examine the major issues and trends affecting each Libya's cultural sector. At precisely the time that African nations such a Libya sand Egypt are looking to standard models to deal with privatization and the rise of market criteria in their economies, Libyan are increasingly focusing on the public value and community-building role of the cultural sector. Hence, while European nations are trying to develop the "private" side of the arts and culture sector, after the recent crisis Libyan are trying to develop the "public" side. Further, while Libya cultural policymakers and arts administrators are attempting to adopt and adapt world standard marketing and fundraising tools to support their work in their changing arts funding system, Libya are finding that an unsustainable arts funding system is forcing new approaches and increased collaboration among cultural organizations.

Keywords: Libya, Art administration, Cultural, Economic Systemic Change, Ministry Of Education Introduction.

[1] El-Hawat, A., Awami, M. & Said, B. (2005) Higher Education in Libya: Accomplishment andAmbitions, 1st Edition, Tripoli, National Commission for Education, Culture and Science

[2] El-Hawat, A. (2009) Libya National Report(submitted to the Arab regional conference abouthigher education (+10)), Beirut, Lebanon, 2-5 / 3 / 2009

[3] European commission (2013) HIGHER EDUCATION IN LIBYA.

[4] General Peoples' Committee (2010), Decision No. (501) By Law For organization of HigherEducatio, General Peoples' Committee for Education & Scientific Research website:

[5] General Peoples' Committee for Higher Education (2008) Report on Higher Education duringthe Period (1/1/2008 – 31/10/2008, Unpublished Technical Report

[6] National Authority for Information and Documentation (1999) Report on Human Developmentin Libya Tripoli

[7] National Commission for Education, Culture and Science (1994)National Report on theDevelopment of Education in Libya during the Years1992 – 93 – 94 (submitted to theInternational Conference on Education – 44thSession). Tripoli.

[8] National Foundation for Technical & Vocational EducationSecretariat of education (1992)The Development of Education during the Years 1989 – 90 –91, the National Report (Libya). The International Conference on Education. Geneva.

[9] Jeffri, J. (1983). Training arts managers: Views from the field. The Journal of Arts Management and Law, 13 (2), 5-28.

[10] Hutchens, J., & Zoe, V. (1985). Curricular considerations in arts administration: A comparison of views from the field. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 15 (2),7-28.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Profitability Analysis of Private Sector Banks In India
Country : India
Authors : Brindadevi V.
: 10.9790/487X-1344550      logo

Abstract: The objective of this study was overall profitability analysis of different private sectors banks in India based on the performances of profitability ratios like interest spread, net profit margin, return on long term fund, return on net worth & return on asset. Profitability is a measure of efficiency and control it indicates the efficiency or effectiveness with which the operations of the business are carried on. Recording profitability for the past period or projecting profitability for the coming period, measuring profitability is the most important measure of the success of the business. A business that is not profitable cannot survive. Conversely, a business that is highly profitable has the ability to reward its owners with a large return on their investment. Increasing profitability is one of the most important tasks of the business managers. Managers constantly look for ways to change the business to improve profitability. These potential changes can be analyzed with a support of income statement and balance sheet.


[1] M.N Arora (2010), "Accounting for Management", Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai-400004, PP- 9.13 & 9.39. [2] Dalston L.Cecil & Jenitra L. Merwin (2010) "Management Accounting", Learntech Press, Trichy-620102, PP- 3.23.

[3] N.P.Srinivasan & M. Sakthivel Murugan (2010), "Accounting for Management", S.Chand & Company Ltd, New Delhi – 110055, pp- 212-213.

[4] Dr.S.P Gupta (2010), "Statistical methods" , S.Chand & Sons , New Delhi-110002 ,PP 1011-1013.

[5] Dr.Priti R.Majhi & Dr Prafull K .Khatua (2011), "Business Research methods", Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai-400004, PP-278.

[6] C.R.Kothari (2010), "Research Methodology (Methods & Techniques)", New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, New Delhi-110002, PP-258.

[7] Dr.T.Ramasamy (2011), "Management accounting", Gold books Publishing House, Srivilliputtur-626125, PP-80-86.

[8] Dr.Kajal Chaudhary & Monika Sharma ,Performance of Indian Public Sector & Private Sectors banks a Comparative Study ,International Journal Of Innovation ,Management & Technology ,Vol 2,No 3,June 2011,PP- 249-256.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Analysis of Stimuli Attracting Customer Buying Behavior and their Satisfaction Level in Modern as Well as in Conventional Retail Stores
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Dipin Mathur, Manoj Kumar Sharma
: 10.9790/487X-1345153      logo

Abstract: The paper highlights the stimuli that attract a prospective buyer in modern retail mall and conventional stores and researcher made a comparative analysis of those variables between modern retail format and conventional retail store. The purpose of this research is specifically to compare the level of satisfaction of the customers with the offerings and attributes offered to them in modern retail formats vis-à-vis conventional shopping stores..

[1]. Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., and Miniard, P. W. (1986), "Consumer Behaviour, 5th ed., Dryden.
[2]. Foxall, G.R. (1987), Consumer Behaviour, pp. 124-146. In Baker, M.J. (1987), The Marketing Book, Heinemann Professional Publishing.
[3]. Jhamb Deepika and Kiran Ravi, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 11 (4): 481-490, 2012, ISSN 1990-9233 © IDOSI Publications, 2012.
[4]. Kothari C.R., "Research Methodology Methods & Techniques", Second Edition, New Delhi: New Age International publisher, 2004, PP. 1-2.
[5]. Kotler, Keller, Koshy and Jha (2012). Marketing Management, 13th edition, published by Pearson Education, pg-144, 432, 453.
[6]. Raut Manmath and Dash Saroj Kumar (2011), The Factors predicting Buying Behavior in Organized Retailing, International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow Vol. 1 No. 3, p-2.
[7]. Richard 2011, Consumer Behaviour Theories, The WritePass Journal October 20, p-2-5.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Pedalium Murex L. (Pedaliaceae) – A New Record of Purba Medinipur District to the State Of West Bengal
Country : India
Authors : Debabrata Das
: 10.9790/487X-1345456      logo

Abstract: The present paper reflects on the new report of Pedalium murex L. in Coastal area of Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, It also delas withent taxonomy and shrot ecology for the same to develop further research in different fields. This is due to the potential use of medicinal purpose of the same species. A total thwelve species of different taxa are available in the same area along with highest abundane value is prented here.

Keywords: Pedalium murex L., Taxonomy –ecology, Uses, Purba Medinipur District.

[1} Balamurugan, G; Muralidharan, P and Polapala, S. Aphodisiac activity and curative effects of Pedalium murex L. against ethanol-induced infertility in male rates, Turk J Biol, 34, 2010, 153-163.

[2] Katewa, S S and Galav, P K. Traditional herbal Medicines from Shekhawati regions of Rajasthan, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 4(3),2005, 237-245. Books:

[3] Anonymous.. The wealth of India, A dictionary of Indian Raw materials and industrial products, ( Raw Materials, CSIR; New Delhi, Vol.-7 (N-Pe),1996), 284.

[4] Anonymous. Medicinal Plant resources of South West Bengal, West Bengal, Research Wing, (Directorate of Forests, Govt. of West Bengal, Vol-I, 2005), 1-198

[5] Anonymous. Medicinal Plant resources of South West Bengal, West Bengal, Research Wing, (Directorate of Forests, Govt. of West Bengal, Vol-II, 2010), 1-124.

[6] Anonymous. Comprehensive Documentation of the Malay Traditional knowledge on Medicinal Plants in Peninsular Malaysia, (2nd August, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, 2013).

[7] Bennet,S.S.R. Name Changes in Flowering Plants of India and Adjacent Regions, (Triseas Publishers,Dehra Dun,India,1987).

[8] Dalzel, N.A. and Gibson, A. Bombay Flora, (Bombay, 1861), 62.

[9] Kirtikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D. Medicinal plants of India, (Vol 3, 1933): 1856-1857.

[10] Watt, G. Dictionary of Economic Products of India, (1889-1893), 371-372.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Analytical Study of Customer's Satisfaction Level of Different Gender from CRM Process and Customer Care Cell in Banks.
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Dipin Mathur, Apeksha Jain
: 10.9790/487X-1345759      logo

Abstract: Customer satisfaction from banking services plays crucial role in building a loyal customer base for in all types of banks. So it is very important to study the satisfaction level of the customers from the Customer Relationship Management process of the bank through which they deal. People of different gender have different psychology and perception. Thus, it becomes necessary for every bank to know their customer's satisfaction level to survive in the competitive financial Indian market. This research paper emphasize on the degree of satisfaction of male and female banking customers from the services under Customer Relationship Management process in the banks where they operate. The paper also aims at finding out the satisfaction of customers of banking industry from the service of customer care cell with respect to solution to their queries.

Keywords: Banks, Customer Relationship Management, Perception, Psychology, Satisfaction.

[1]. Chaubey, D. S., Joshi, S., & Zafar, S. T. (2010). An Assessment of Customer Relationship Management Practices Opted by Banks for Retaining Customers in Uttrakhand State. International Transactions in Humanities and Social Sciences, July-December., Volume -2, No. - 2, pp. 205-217.

[2]. Park, C. H., & Kim, Y. G. (2003). A Framework of Dynamic CRM: Linking Marketing with Information Strategy. Business Process Management Journal,9(5), 652-671.

[3]. Sahoo Rashmita (2013). A Study of Customer Perception and Importance of CRM Initiative in the Indian Banking Sector. VSRD International Journal of Business and Management Research, Vol. 3 No. 2 February 2013 / 49.

[4]. Deshmukh, M. (2012). Customer Relationship Management in Indian Commercial Banks. International Journal. Volume 1 Issue 1, October 2012, pg. 10.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study On Determinants Of Student's Attitude Towards Higher Education
Country : India
Authors : V. Maheswari, R. Haridas
: 10.9790/487X-1346062      logo

Abstract: Higher education has helped the students to realize their career goals and dreams. The present study is to determine the student attitude towards higher education programs. The purpose of survey is to explore attitudes of students and their untouched problems in colleges. This survey investigates final year under graduate students and ascertain the level of attitudes among the students in various factors. Further, the researcher investigated the 625 student's attitudes towards higher education programs at Arts and Science College in Coimbatore city. Likert attitude scale questionnaire was used. The researcher conducted interviews and obtained quantitative a well as qualitative data. The results revealed that the majority of the students determined the personal and employment attitude to continue their higher studies.

Keywords: Higher Education, Attitude, Students, Personal, Employment

[1]. All India Survey on Higher Education (2011), Pilot Report, MHRD, Department of Higher Education, 2011 Planning, Monitoring and Statistic Bureau. pp.3
[2]. Higher Education in India (2011), Strategies and Schemes during 11th plan period (2007-12) for universities and colleges, UGC, pp.1-3.
[3]. Antonak, R.F (1988) Methods to measure attitudes towards people who are disable Higher Education (ed.). Attitudes towards persons with disabilities, New York: Springer Publishing Company, pp. 106-126.
[4]. Suresha. R and B. C. Mylarappa (2010),"An investigative Attitudes of rural students in higher education", Bangalore city.pp.3.
[5]. Bornholt, L., Gientzotis, J. And and Cooney, G. (2004) Understanding choice behaviours pathways from school to university with changing aspirations and opportunities, Social Psychology of Education, vol.7, pp. 211-228.
[6]. Silver, H (2003). Does a university have a culture? Studies in Higher Education. pp. 157-169.
[7]. Archer, L, Pratt, S D and Phillips, D (2001). Working-class men's constructions of masculinity and negotiations of (non) participation in higher education. Gender and Education. 13(4) pp. 431 –449.
[8]. Powar, K. B. (2012). Expanding domains in Indian higher education. New Delhi: Association of Indian Universities.pp.45.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Linking trust, perceived website quality, privacy protection, gender and online purchase intentions
Country : Iran
Authors : Mona Afshardost, Sepideh Farahmandian, Seyed Mohammad Sadiq Eshaghi
: 10.9790/487X-1346372      logo

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate individual's online purchase intention, Website trust, privacy protection, Website perceived quality and gender. The theory of reasoned action was employed to develop the conceptual framework. The research used a survey approach. Using cluster sampling, the respondents include active postgraduate students at the International Business School Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, reliability test, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The study found that only Website content quality is significant in online purchase intention. Implications of the research are discussed herein.

Keywords: online purchase intentions; trust; website quality; privacy; gender

[1]. Adams, A., 1999. Users' perception of privacy in multimedia communication. In: CHI'99 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. ACM, 53-54.
[2]. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M., 1977. Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin; Psychological Bulletin, 84 (5), 888.
[3]. Aladwani, A. M., and Palvia, P. C., 2002. Developing and validating an instrument for measuring user-perceived web quality. Information & Management, 39 (6) 467- 476.
[4]. Barnes, S. J., and Vidgen, R., 2000. WebQual: an exploration of Web site quality. In: Proceedings of the eighth European conference on information systems, 2000. Vienna, 298-305.
[5]. Chang, H. H., and Chen, S. W., 2008. The impact of online store environment cues on purchase intention: Trust and perceived risk as a mediator. Online Information Review, 32 (6), 818-841.
[6]. Chiu, Y. B., Lin, C. P., and Tang, L. L., 2005. Gender differs: assessing a model of online purchase intentions in e-tail service. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 16 (5), 416-435.
[7]. Cronbach, L. J., 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16 (3), 297-334.
[8]. Drescher, L. S., De jonge, J., Goddard, E., and Herzfeld, T., 2012. Consumer's stated trust in the food industry and meat purchases. Agriculture and Human Values, 29 (4), 507-517.
[9]. Featherman, M. S., Miyazaki, A. D., and Sprott, D. E., 2010. Reducing online privacy risk to facilitate e-service adoption: the influence of perceived ease of use and corporate credibility. Journal of Services Marketing, 24 (3), 219-229.
[10]. Flavián, C., Guinalíu, M., and Gurrea, R., 2006. The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty. Information & Management, 43 (1), 1-14.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Modelling of Indian Stock Prices using Nonhomogeneous Poisson Processes with Time Trends
Country : India
Authors : Rupal Shah, K. Muralidharan
: 10.9790/487X-1347386      logo

Abstract: The financial sector in India has undergone radical reforms, particularly in the stock market segment, since early 1990s. Testing duration in stock markets concerns the ability to predict the turning points of bull and bear cycles. This article study some point process models to fit the data from Indian stock market cycles. We have considered the BSE 30 (SENSEX) data from January, 1991 to August, 2012 for bull and bear markets. The duration dependence of stock market cycles can help to pinpoint the peaks and troughs in these cycles. Upon carrying out various statistical procedures and goodness of fit tests, we found that the Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process models like Power Law Process, Modulated Power Law Process, Log-linear process and other models are some of the possible alternative models to describe the data. We provide estimates, confidence interval estimates and tests of hypothesis for the parameters involved in a particular model.

Key Words: Power Law Process, Log linear process.

[1] Mishra, P. K., Das K. B. and Pradhan, B. B., Empirical evidence on Indian stock market efficiency in context of the global financial crisis. Global Jr. of Finance and Management, 1(2), 2009, 149-157.

[2] Mishra, P. K., Indian capital market – Revisiting market efficiency. Indian Jr. of Capital Markets, 2(5), 2009.

[3] Zhou, H. and Rigdon. S. E., Duration dependence in U. S. business cycles: An analysis using the modulated power law process. Jr. of Economics and Finance, 32(1), 2008, 25-34.

[4] Zhou, H. and Rigdon. S. E., Duration dependence in bull and bear stock markets. Modern Economy, 2, 2011, 279-286.

[5] Ascher, H. E. and Feingold, H.,Repairable Systems Reliability – Modeling, Inference, Misconceptions and Their Cause (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Relationship Between Quality of Work Life and Employees Improvement in Keshavarzi Banks of Saveh,iran
Country : Iran
Authors : Akram vali, Zeinolabedin amini sabegh, Reza shafizadeh
: 10.9790/487X-1348793      logo

Abstract: This study was conducted with aims of representing the relationship between Quality of work life and employees improvement in keshavarzi banks of saveh city in the years of 2013. The pollution of research was including 125 employee involved in keshavarzi banks of saveh city and among whom, 95 people was considered as sample by using Cochran formula and random sampling method. Data collection was carried out through Walton(1973) questionnaire, and made researcher of employees improvement questionnaire. questionnaires reliability by using of Alpha Chronbach method obtained 0.81 for QWL questionnaire and 0.85 for made researcher of employees improvement questionnaire. Also to measure of questionnaires validity, used Content validity that for this reason questionnaires confirmed by specialists. Data analysis was carried out through SPSS 20 and Lisrel 8.8 software in two aspects of descriptive (frequency, frequency percentage, mean, Standard deviation) and inferential (Structural Equation Modeling, K-S Test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Ranking Fridman test, Simple and multi-variable linear regression). The results showed that there is a significant relationship between QWL and it's dimensions (Fair pay, working conditions of safe and health care, legalism, providing opportunities for continued growth and security, social dependence, personal skills development, total space of work and social integration) with employees improvement.

Keywords: QWL, employees improvement, Fair pay, legalism

[1]. Balcombe, K., Davidova, S. and Latruffe, L. (2008) The use of bootstrapped Malmquist indices to reassess productivity change findings: an application to a sample of Polish farms, Applied Economics, 40, 2055–61.
[2]. Dehghan Nayeri N, Salehi T, Asadi Noughabi A. (2009). Assessing the quality of work life, productivity of nurses and their relationship. Journal of Nursing Research. 3(8,9): 27-33. [ In Persian].
[3]. Kumar, S. And Gulati, R. (2010). Measuring efficiency, effectiveness and performance of Indian public sector banks. Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 59(1), 51-74.
[4]. Lee, B. L., Worthington, A. and Leong, W.-H. (2010) Malmquist indices of pre and post-deregulation productivity, efficiency and technological change in the Singaporean banking sector, Singapore Economic Review, 55, 599–618.
[5]. Mohammadi A, Sarhangi F, Ebadi A, Daneshmandi M, Reiisifar A, Amiri A, Hajamini Z.(2011). Relationship between psychological problems and quality of work life of Intensive Care Units Nurses. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing. 4(3): 135-140. [In Persian]
[6]. Pammolli, F., Magazzini, L. and Riccaboni, M. (2011), The Productivity Crisis in Pharmaceutical R&D, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 10, 428–438.
[7]. Syverson, Chad (2010), "What determines productivity?" mimeo, University of Chicago.
[8]. Taali H. [A study of impact of quality of life work on productivity of employees of all banks of Iran]. MA. Dissertation. Allameh Tabatabaei University, 1996: 92-112. (Persian).
[9]. Zheng, W, Yang, B & McLean, G.N (2010). Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management, Journal of Business Research, 2010, Vol63, p764.

IOSR Journal Publish Online and Print Version Both