IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 5 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Export Diversification Model – a Strategic View for Economic Development with reference to Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Dr. A. R. Zaki, Dr. Muhammad Asim
: 10.9790/487X-0560118      logo

Abstract:The objective of this study is to examine the causes of the falling trend of Pakistan exports and to suggest measures for diversification of export in terms of countries and commodities. During the research study it came to light that Pakistan's export suffered lack of diversification both on account of countries and commodities. According to Government's survey Pakistan's export is concentrated about 62% on cotton related products (refer Table 1 & Table 2).
Key Words: Diversification Strategy, Social development Agricultural product, Export earnings, Concentrated structural transformation.

[1] Akbar, Muhammad, and Fatima, Zareen Naqvi. (2002, January 14-16). Competitiveness Diversification of Pakistan‟s
Exports. PIDE. pp. 14-15.
[2] Alam, Babar Iqbal. (2006). Indo Pakistan Economic Relation Essential for survival. Management Accountant. Institute of Cost &
Management Accountants of Pakistan. p.15.
[3] Albaum Gerald, Standskov, Jesper and Duerr, Edwin. (1998). International Marketing and Export Management. Addison Wesley
Longman Publishing Company. pp. 78-85.
[4] Annual Report. (2000 – 2001). State Bank of Pakistan. pp.13-16.
[5] Azam, Asim. (2004, October). Is Pakistan Export Competitive? The Dawn. p.17.
[6] Bhashyam, S. (1998). Export Promotion in India. New Delhi: Common Wealth Publishers. pp. 17-19.
[7] Economic Adviser‟s Wing. (2002). Economic Survey: 2001-2002. Finance Division. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan. pp.115- 125.
[8] Economic Adviser‟s Wing. (2005). Statistical Supplement Economic Survey: 2004-2005. Finance Division. Islamabad:
Government of Pakistan. p.139.
[9] Gay, and Diehl. (1984). Research Methods for Business and Management. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International. p.126.
[10] Hamza, Azam. (2004, November 8). Can Pakistan Follow Malaysia Export Model. The Dawn. p.4.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Scenario of the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Bangladesh: An Evaluation
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Dr. Alak Kumar Saha
: 10.9790/487X-0561926      logo

Abstract:The Economic indicators which are also considered to be the mirrors of economic scenario show the real picture of the development of a country like Bangladesh. Accordingly, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can be termed in this regard and it can represent Bangladesh as one of the developing indicators in terms of development structure. The objective of the study is to focus the position of FDI in Bangladesh along with its problems and remedies. The study in fact, finds that the contribution FDI of developed and developing countries in Bangladesh is not so appreciating because of some uncertainties like uneven ratio in between savings and investments, unsound GDP, trade deficit, political instability and so on. To develop the scenario of FDI in Bangladesh some suggestions have been outlined in this study.
Key Words:FDI, GDP, Global Perspective, Investment & Savings, Trade Deficit

[1] M Ali and N.Alam, The Economy of Bangladesh ( Dhaka: Ideal Library, 8th Edition, 2008).
[2] J.Abedin, Bangladesh: Share O Punji Bazar (Dhaka: Antarip Publication, 2nd Edition, 2008).
[3] Bangladesh Bank, Annual Report,2007.
[4] ----------------------, Enterprise Survey, 2007
[5] --------------------- ,Monthly Economic Trend, Bangladesh Bank, Statistic
i. Department,Vol.XXXIII No. 8.
[6] Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association, Annual Report, 2007.
[7] J,W. Best and J.V. Kahn, Research in Education ( New Delhi, Prentic-Hall of India Private Ltd, 5th Edition).
[8] A,R .Bhuyan, An Overview of the Bangladesh Economy: Recent Performance and Future Challenges in hought on Economics,
Vol.7 No. 3 & 4.
[9] FDI in South Asia (2003), Challenges and Prospects, Briefing Paper in South Asia Watch on Trade, Economics & Environment,
No.1.
[10] Institute of Chartered Accountants of Bangladesh , The Bangladesh Accountant‟, Vol. 35, No. 8, 2002.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microfinance: A comparative Study Of Bangladesh and India
Country : India
Authors : Naveen Kumar. H, Dr. S.J.Manjunath, Srikanth H.S
: 10.9790/487X-0562735      logo

Abstract:Microfinance is being practiced as a tool to attack poverty the world over. The term "Microfinance" can be defined as "provision of thrift, credit and other financial services and products of very small amounts to the poor in rural, semi- urban or urban areas, for enabling them to raise their income levels and improve living standards". The aim of the paper is to understand whether the institutions are serving their purpose of existence or are these rather becoming profit-making centers. This paper conducts a comparative study between India and Bangladesh, in terms of loan lent by institutes to the customers, clientele, financial sustainability of MFI's Institutions, in order to understand how MFI's in India are performing as against those MFI's in Bangladesh as it is considered to be the originator of Microfinance. The paper discovers that no doubt Indian MFI's are more profitable and operating more efficient than those in Bangladesh.
Key Words: Microfinance Institutions, Financial Sustainability, profitability, Clientele

[1] ASA. (1997). Causes of Default in Microcredit: Motivating and Encouraging Enthusiasm Among Group Member s is Essential to Addressing the Causes of Default. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Association for Social Advancement (ASA). Accessed on 14 December 2007.

[2] Basixindia, 2003. Microfinance in india. The paper & publication. P 1-10. [Online]

[3] Availablehttp://www.bwtp.org/arcm/mfdm/Web%20Resources/General%20MF%20Resources/micro_finan ce_in_india.pdf

[4] CGAP (2002) : Microfinance Consensus Guidelines Viewed on 31 March 2009 (http://www2.cgap.org/gm/document- 1.9.2787/Guideline_RegSup.pdf)

[5] Economic Times, 2010. Microfinance in India is like subprime lending: Y V Reddy Availableat:http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2010/11/23/news/27602978_1_priority-sector-lending-sks-microfinancemicrofinance- industry

[6] Financial Data http://www.mixmarket.org/mfi/country/India

[7] Financial Express, 2009. Microfinance world. [Online] Available at: http://indiamicrofinance.com/files/2009/12/Microfinance- Jul-2009.pdf

[8] Fisher. T and M.S. Sriram (2002): "Micro Finance and Livelihoods: The Challenge of BASIX" in Beyond Micr o-Credit Putting Development Back into Micro-Credit, Fisher and Sriram (ed),Vistaar Publications, New Delhi.

[9] Konieczko, 2006. A primer on microfinance. USNews: nation & world. Available at: http://www.themix.org/sites/default/files/2006_10_13_USNEWS_A%20primer %20on% 20microfinance_0.pdf

[10] Montgomery.H, Weiss. J, 2010. Can commercially oriented microfinance help meet the MDG ?Evidence from Pakistan. World Development. [Online] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.lancs.ac.uk/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V6- 5197M6R1_cdi=5946&_user=196517&_pii=S0305750X10001580&_origin=search&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2011&_sk=99960 9998&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzzzSkzS&md5=18850f1f47269cfefacebda130a25566&ie=/sdarticle.pdf


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 'Is Residual Income Model (RIM) REALLY Superior to Dividend Discount Model (DDM)?' – A Misconception
Country : Japan
Authors : Mohammad Ali Tareq
: 10.9790/487X-0563644      logo

Abstract:The development of the residual income model (RIM) has potential implications for the empirical researchers as the model specifies relationship between earnings and book values as proxies for equity values and accounting variables. Although researchers have supported RIM as an alternative to the dividend discount model (DDM), some empirical studies on RIM have triggered arguments on the superiority of the RIM over DDM. In theory, both models give the same value estimates; empirically, these value estimates changes with the changes in the assumption sets. In this paper, we show that both models provide the same values estimates when the terminal value can be forecasted. Although, under the perpetual growth rate model, the researchers have shown that empirically RIM outperforms DDM. We have shown that this superiority of RIM is misleading, as the transversality condition, a necessary assumption for deriving the RIM, is void under the perpetual growth rate scenario.
Keywords: Book Value, Clean Surplus Relation (CSR), Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Residual Income Model (RIM), Valuation.

[1] Bernard, V. L. (1995). "The Feltham-Ohlson framework: Implications for empiricists." Contemporary Accounting Research. 11:
733-747.
[2] Courteau, Lucie, Jennifer L. Kao and Gordon D. Richardson (2000). "The equivalence of dividend, cash flows and residual earnings
approaches to equity valuation employing ideal terminal value expression." Working paper, Universite Laval.
[3] Dechow, P. M., A. P. Hutton and R. G. Sloan (1999). "An empirical assessment of the residual income valuation model." Journal of
accounting and Economics. 26(1-3): 1-34.
[4] Dechow, P. M. and R. G. Sloan (1997). "Returns to contrarian investment: tests of the naive expectations hypothesis." Journal of
Financial Economics. 43: 3-27.
[5] Feltham, G. A. and J. A. Ohlson (1995). "Valuation and clean surplus accounting for operating and financial activities."
Contemporary Accounting Research. 11: 689-732.
[6] Francis, J., P. Olsson and D. Oswald (2000). "Comparing the accuracy and explainability of dividend, free cash flow and abnormal
eamings equity value estimation." Journai of Accounting Research. 38(Spring): 45-70.
[7] Francis, J., Olsson P. and D. Oswald (2000). "Comparing the accuracy and explainability of dividend, free cash flow and abnormal
earnings equity valuation models." Journal of accounting Research. 38(1 (Spring)): 45-70.
[8] Frankel, Richard and Charles M. C. Lee (1998). "Accounting Valuation Market Expectation and Cross-Sectional Stock Returns."
Journal of accounting and Economics. 25: 283-319.
[9] Lee, Charles M. C., James Myers and Bhaskaran Swaminathan (1999). "What Is the Intrinsic Value of the Dow?" The Journal of
Finance. 54(5 (Oct.)): 1693-1741.
[10] Lo, K. and T. Z. Lys (2000). "The Ohlson Model: Contributions to valuation theory, limitations, and empirical applications."
Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance. 15(3): 337-367.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Retailers and Customers: Problems and Perspectives
Country : India
Authors : Surajit Dey, Dr. Sameena Rafat, Alam Sageer
: 10.9790/487X-0564553      logo

Abstract: The retail scenario is one of the fastest growing industries in India over the last couple of years. India retail sector comprises of organized retail and unorganized retail sector. Traditionally the retail market in India was largely unorganized; however with changing consumer preferences, organized retail is gradually becoming popular. Unorganized retailing consists of small and medium grocery store, medicine stores, subzi mandi etc. More than 90% of retailing in India fall into the unorganized sector, the organized sector is largely concentrated in big cities. Organized retail in India is expected to grow 25-30 per cent yearly and is expected to increase from Rs35, 000 crore in 2004-05 to Rs109, 000 crore ($24 billion) by 2010.

Books
[1] Kothari.C.R, Research Methodology, New Age (P) Limited, Second Edition, 2004.
[2] Pillai & Bagavathi, Marketing management, New Delhi, sultan Chand & Sons, 1999.
[3] David Gilbert, Retail Marketing Management, Prentice Hall, Second Edition, 2003.
Journals
[4] Amatual Baseer (2007), "Emerging Trends in India", Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. XXXVII, No.11, pp
[5] Amuthan .R. (2004), "A study on Retail Banking strategies of private sectors Banks with special reference to HDFC bank & ICICI
Bank", 2004, Vol. XXXIV, No.12, pp
[6] Hariharan.G. (2008), "Profile and perception of retail consumers", Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. XXXVIII, No.2, pp
[7] Laxmi Prabha.G. (2007), "The prospects and problems of Indian Retailing", Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. XXXVII, No.10, pp
[8] Rathanyake (2008), "customer complaining Behaviour in Retailing", Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 8, pp
[9] Suresh (2007), "Buying Behaviour and promotion in Textile Retailing", Indian journal of marketing, Vol: XXXVII, No.7, pp
[10] Tamilarasan.R. (2007), "A study on retail store service quality dimensions in select retail store of Chennai", Indian Journal of
Marketing, Vol. XXXVII, No.7, pp

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Impact of Advertising on Brand Awareness and Consumer Preference (With Special Reference to Men`S Wear)
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Roshni P Sawant
: 10.9790/487X-0565461      logo

Abstract:The word is speeding into information age. Style is taking a sent next to substance and the bar gauge of commerce is shifting to images and perceptions from nuts and bolts. As a result everyone is jumping on the brand wagon. Brands are bigger than every, but as a result it is also true that more than ever is expected of them. In today's world a brand occupies a space on the consumer landscape much like tat of a person. Advertising also provides the necessary support after the consumer has made the purchase. If the consumers experience dissonances or discomforts owing to their purchase decision, then advertisement reduces this feeling of discomforts y providing information on the products attributes. It is even more necessary to neutralize the impact of the advertisements of rival brands. The subsequent paper endeavors to gauge the role of advertising in promoting brand predominantly in the perspective of men's wear.
Keywords: Branding, Advertising, consumer preference, Brand equity, Brand Awareness

[1] Tom Peters , Circle of innovation Publisher Tata Mc GrawHill 1997
[2] Chunnawala SSA , Compendium of Brand Management, Himalaya Publishing House Mumbai,(2004).
[3] Danel T Seymure, Marketing research, publisher S Chand and Company.New Delhi (1995).
[4] James F Engel,David T Kollat and Roger D. Blackwell-Consumer Behavior. New York 1973)
[5] Suja Nair Consumer Behavior Text and Cases Himalaya Publishing house 2000
[6] R.Batra ,David A Aacker and John G.Myers Advertising Management,Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi,1999.
[7] Ramaswamy & Namkumari ,Marketing Management ,Publisher Mac Millan 2004
[8] George E Belch & Michael Belch ,Advertising & Promotion ,Publisher :Tata McGrawhill ,New Delhi 2007.
[9] Farris and Albion ,the impact of Advertisng on the price of Consumer Products "
[10] Robert l Steiner ,"Does advertising lower consumer price ?"Journal of Marketing 37,no.4 Oct 1990.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of Software Agents on Decision Support System
Country : India
Authors : Aquibjaved Momin, Varun Nirantar, Abhijeet Zagade Abhishek Deshmukh
: 10.9790/487X-0566269      logo

Abstract: Software agents are a major innovation in how people use information systems, and they have parallels with how Decision Support Systems (DSS) support human decision-making. A DSS approach to the development of software agents suggests a highly interactive and flexible interface between the agent and its user, and addresses some potential barriers to the successful adoption of agent technologies. Within a DSS model, agents can be classified as providing search, choice or interface support. Each of these classifications uses techniques originating from separate disciplines and requires different performance measures. We use a real estate agent as a metaphor to examine the descriptive, procedural and semantic knowledge bases that agents can use to support search and choice activities in an e-commerce domain.
Keywords: Decision Support System, e-Commerce, e-publishing, Information Retrieval, Knowledgeable Agents, Web mining .

[1] Chavez, A. and P. Maes, "Kasbah: An Agent Marketplace for Buying and Selling Goods," First International Conference on the Practical Application of Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Technology, London, UK, April 1996.

[2] Nissen, M. E., "Procurement Revolution with Intelligent Agent Technology," PRACTIX, December 1999. http://www.capsresearch.org/research/best-practices.html. (Accessed January 22, 2000.)

[3] Wang, S., "Analyzing Agents for Electronic Commerce," Information Systems Management, 16(Winter): 40-47, 1999.

[4] Genesereth, M. J., "An Agent-based Framework for Interoperability," Software Agents, J. M. Bradshaw (ed.), AAAI Press/MIT Press, Menlo Part, CA, 1997

[5] Norman, D. A., "How People Might Interact with Agents," Software Agents, J. M. Bradshaw (ed.), AAAI Press/The MIT Press, Menlo Park, CA, 1997.

[6] Malone, T., K. R. Grant and K.-Y. Lai, "Agents for Information Sharing and Coordination: A History and Some Reflections," Software Agents, J. M. Bradshaw (ed.), AAAI Press / The MIT Press, Menlo Park, CA, 1997.

[7] Turban, E., Decision Support and Expert Systems, MacMillan, New York, NY, 1988.

[8] Wooldridge, M., "Intelligent Agents," Multiagent Systems, G. Weiss (ed.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999

[9] Siskos, Y. and A. Spyridakos, "Intelligent multicriteria decision support: Overview and perspectives," European Journal of Operational Research, 113: 236-246, 1999.

[10] Turing, A. M., "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," MIND - A quarterly review of Psychology and Philosophy, LIX (236), October 1950. http://www.abelard.org/turpap/turpap.htm. (Accessed August 10, 1999.)