IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 9 - Issue 3

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Practice of Profit and Loss Sharing System For Rice Farmers in East Java, Indonesia
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Umrotul Khasanah, Ubud Salim, Iwan Triyuwono, Gugus Irianto
: 10.9790/487X-0930107      logo

Abstract: This research is aimed to explore: (1) the practice of profit and loss sharing (PLS) among the rice farmers society, (2) the meaning of PLS for rice farmers society. This qualitative research employs Giddens' structuration approach. The data analysis is executed through data collection, reduction and presentation which lead to the findings, proposition and conclusion. The research findings show that: (1) The PLS practice covers: (a) partnership as a work basis, (b) the priority of equity capital, (c) the one-third share model (2:1) and one-half share model (1/2:1/2) of PLS (2) PLS has: (a) equality; (b) prosperity; (c) mutual cooperation; (d) ta'awun meanings.

Keywords: Profit and Loss Sharing (PLS), Partnership, one-third share, and one-half share model.

[1] Antonio, M.S., 2001, Bank Syariah dari Teori ke Praktek, Gema Insani Press Tazkia Cendekia, Jakarta.

[2] Ashari dan Saptana, 2005, Prospek Pembiayaan Syariah untuk Sektor Pertanian, Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi, Vol. 23, N0. 2, Desember, h. 132-147.
[3] Bank Indonesia,2006, Kamus Istilah Keuangan dan Perbankan Syariah, Direktorat Perbankan Syariah, Bank Indonesia.

[4] Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad, 1994, Islamic Banking Practice: From The Practitioner's Perspective, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

[5] Bashir, Abdel Hameed M, 2002, The Welfare Effects of Inflation and Financial Innovation in a Model of Economic Growth, An Islamic Perspective, Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 21-32.

[6] Chapra, M.Umar, 2000, Sistem Moneter Islam, Gema Insani Press, Jakarta.

[7] Choudhury, Masudul A, and Hussain, Md. Mostaque, 2005, A Paradigm of Islamic Money and Banking, International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 203-217.

[8] Engineer, Asghar Ali, 2000, Islamic State, Imam Mutaqin (penerjemah), Devolusi Negara Islam, Pustaka Pelajar.

[9] Giddens, Anthony, 1984, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, Barkley, University of Calofornia Press.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "A Study on Performance Appraisal System at Wipro Infrastructure Engineering Pvt Ltd"
Country : India
Authors : Dr.S.Jansirani, Mr. R.Hatrikrishnan, Mrs.D.Jaya kani, Ms.A.Saisathya
: 10.9790/487X-0930823      logo

Abstract: In this study the operative function in the human resource department are analyzed with the contribution of employees and their opinion about the function performed by the employees and their opinion about the function performed by the HR Department in Wipro Infrastructure Engineering Pvt Ltd, Chennai. . The employees in the organization are directly interviewed and related data's where collected through the questionnaire. The data's are analyzed through the percentage analysis and chi-square method. From these inference were drawn, based on the inference it is found that most of the respondents fells that the performance appraisal system done by the organization is comfortable and satisfactory. From the study it is found that they are enriching their knowledge with appraisal system and necessary findings are made and suggestions were given.

[1]. Radha, "Human Resource Management ", Himalaya Publication.
[2]. Arora P.N and Arora .S "Statistics for Management", "First Edition Chard‟s & company ltd". New Delhi 2008
[3]. C.R .Kothari, "Research Methodology", New Age International Publishers. Second revised edition; 2004
[4]. R.Senapathi, "Research methodology", Lakshmi publication; First edition.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimal Return Period to Encourage the Online Shopping Tendency of Potential Bangladeshi Consumers
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Nafish Sarwar, Mashruha Zabeen, Husna Ara
: 10.9790/487X-0932430      logo

Abstract: Return policy is a promising catalyst to attract shoppers towards online purchasing since it compensates the dilemma of not examining the products physically before ordering. Objective of this research is to estimate an approximate return period expected by the potential Bangladeshi online shoppers to get rid of the inertia to go for adopting such recent shopping channel. Feasibility of that return period was also analyzed from retailers' point of view to determine an optimal value. An anonymous questionnaire was designed for data collection used in the survey conducted at random locations of Dhaka city during January and February, 2013 covering 120 participants aged above 20 years old, with Internet competency. The findings show that, a maximum of 30 days return period would be optimal for both consumers and retailers.

Keywords – Optimum Return Period, Online Shopping Tendency, Online Stores

[1] Lee, D., Park, J., Ahn, J., 2001, The explanation of factors affecting e-commerce adoption. Proc. of the 22nd Intl. Conf. on Information Systems, pp. 109-120.
[2] Senecal, S., 2000, Stopping variables in online buying processes: An innovation diffusion approach. Proc. of the 6th Americas Conf. on Information Systems, pp. 1380-1385.
[3] Borchers, A., 2001, Trust in Internet shopping: A test of a measurement instrument. Proc. of the 7th Americas Conf. on Information Systems, pp. 799-803.
[4] Pravakar, P. R., 2000, Who owns the online consumer? Journal of consumer marketing 17 (2), 158-171.
[5] Kim, Hee-Woong, Xu, Y., Gupta, S., 2012, Which is more important in Internet shopping, perceived price or trust? Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 11 (3), 241–252.
[6] Griffis, S. E., Rao, S., Goldsby, T. J., Niranjan, T. T., 2012, The customer consequences of returns in online retailing: An empirical analysis. Journal of Operations Management 30 (4), 282–294.
[7] Mukhopadhyay, S. K., Setoputro, R., 2005, Optimal return policy and modular design for build-to-order products. Journal of Operations Management 23 (5), 496–506.
[8] Mielach, D., 2012, Want to sell more online? Accept More Return. Business News Daily 4 June. Available from <http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/2630-online-shopping-improvement.html>. [15 February 2013].
[9] Petersen, J. A., Kumar, V., 2010, Can product returns make you money? MIT Sloan Management Review 51 (3), 85-89.
[10] Azam, Md. S., 2007, Internet Adoption and Usage in Bangladesh. Japanese Journal of Administrative Science 20 (1), 43-54.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Transactional Impediments to Entrepreneurship: A Cross Nation Comparison.
Country : India
Authors : Aashiq Hussian Lone*, Parvez Ahmad**, Nazir Ahmad Nazir***
: 10.9790/487X-0933138      logo

Abstract: The art of entrepreneurship is considered critical to the growth and development, given its profound impact on the wealth creation and employment generation. Entrepreneurs in China and India are characterized by unique differences in their motivations for starting a business, whether it has to do with money, social impact, or the role their families play in their decision. The central feature of China's transition from a centrally planned economy is the development of the non-state sector led by an emerging class of the entrepreneurs. On the other hand it is claimed that entrepreneurship has been embedded in the Indian genius and is a part of its tradition. India has been called an entrepreneurial society having incredible entrepreneurial skill. However, numerous impediments mar the prospect of reaping the desired benefits from entrepreneurship for both the countries. This paper makes an effort to revisit the efforts and measures taken by both the countries using decadal ‗Doing Business' report of World Bank and how far these actions have made a discernible dent in the inhibitors to entrepreneurship.

Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Planned Economy, Entrepreneurial Society.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Post Visit Assessment: The Influence of Consumption Emotion on Tourist Future Intention
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Basri Rashid
: 10.9790/487X-0933945      logo

Abstract: Tourism is essentially experiential based whereby tourist visit experience is influenced by the outcome of their encounters with the destination's elements. It is suggested that these encounters lead to various tangible and intangible experiences, thus it is vital to ensure that visitors had exquisite encounters during their stay at the destination. This paper empirically examines post visit evaluation of 501 international and domestic tourists at a well-known island resort destination in Malaysia. A survey method was employed to collect data regarding tourist demographic details as well as perceived performance of the destination's elements, post consumption emotions and their future behavioral intention. The study shows that tourists' consumption emotions are derived from their perceived performance of the destination products and services. The emotions which are grouped into positive and negative emotions eventually influence their future intentions. Results of this research are beneficial to various stakeholders such as the tourism and hospitality agencies and businesses. They must realize that the emotional outcome after consuming the products and services is influential in producing memorable visit experience which eventually leads to various tourist future behaviors.

Keywords: Behavioral intention, destination, emotion, tourist, visit assessment.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of Demographic Variables on Information Seeking Behaviour of Company Advertising Strategies in North-Eastern Nigeria
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Mustapha Momoh Mcpn, Mncs, Amnim , Dr. Rachael O. Folorunso1
: 10.9790/487X-0934651      logo

Abstract: This research contributes to the available management literature by empirically reviewing the effect of demographic variables on information seeking behaviour of company advertising strategies in North-Eastern Nigeria. Taking the entire consumers in this geopolitical zone as the universe, it investigates the demographic variables of the information seekers and non-information seekers. It specifically sampled 80 buyers in four (4) capitals cities of the six (6) state capitals in the zone. The cities selected are Bauchi, Gombe, Maiduguri and Yola for in-depth analysis. Data were presented and analysed with descriptive statistics, bar chart and Mann-Whitney U Test. The study found that demographic variables have considerable effect on information seeking behaviour of company advertising strategies in the North-eastern Nigeria. It also reveals that Advertising Strategic Model comprising of 'purchase attraction', 'purchase frequency' and 'awareness of product features' are determinants of information seeking behaviour in North-Eastern Nigeria. It recommends that companies should pay attention to demographic variables such as age, sex, education and occupation of the target market to make adverting effort effective and informative. It also recommends the use of Advertising Strategy Model (ASM) for determining the impact of information seeking behaviour of advertising efforts in Nigeria.

Keywords: Demographic variables, Information Seeking, Behaviour, Advertising Strategy Model

[1]. Case, D. O. (2007), Looking for Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, and Behavior. Elsevier/Academic Press, MA, Boston.
[2]. Kuhlthau, C. C., and Tama, S. L. (2001), "Information search process of lawyers: A call for "just for me‟ information services". Journal of Documentation, 57(1), 25–43; http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000007076
[3]. Brown, C. M., and Ortega, L. (2007), "Information seeking behaviour of physical science librarians: Does research inform practice". College and Research Libraries, 66(3), 231–247. http://crl.acrl.org/content/66/3/231.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement- A Hypothetical Approach
Country : India
Authors : Mr.K.ArunKumar, Ms.R.Renugadevi
: 10.9790/487X-0935257      logo

Abstract: One of the most important assets that differentiate two organizations is its Human Resources, each a unique combination of KSAs (Knowledge, Skills & Abilities). Human resources being most important assets of any organization act as source of competitive advantage. It has become essential for the organizations to find a way to take advantage of all available manpower for the purpose of sustainment and further growth. A successful approach to any task requires combining both rational and emotional behavior. Therefore, the organization must make a deliberate effort to reach out at both levels. Only motivation does not work here, it is very important to inculcate a sense of oneness among the employees for the organization's mission and vision. This could be only possible only when their efforts could be successfully converted into commitment. To achieve this end, employee engagement is a very powerful tool available to the employers.

Keywords: Burn Out, Disengagement, Employee Engagement, Job Involvement

[1]. Kahn, W.A. (1990) "Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work‟, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 33, pp 692-724.
[2]. Baumruk, R. (2004) "the missing link: the role of employee engagement in business successes, Workspan, Vol 47, pp 48-52.
[3]. Richman, A. (2006) "Everyone wants an engaged workforce how can you create it?‟Workspan, Vol 49, pp 36-39.
[4]. Shaw, K. (2005) "An engagement strategy process for communicators‟, Strategic Communication Management, Vol 9, No 3, pp 26-29.
[5]. Truss, C., Soane, E., Edwards, C., Wisdom, K., Croll, A. and Burnett, J. (2006) Working Life: Employee Attitudes and Engagement 2006. London, CIPD.
[6]. Harter, J.K., F.L. Schmidt & T.L. Hayes (2002), "Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis‟. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 87, No.2, pp 268-279.
[7]. Lucey, J. N. Bateman & P. Hines. (2005). "Why major lean transitions have not been sustained‟. Management Services, Vol 49, No.2, pp 9-14
[8]. Development Dimensions International (DDI). (2005). Whitepaper--Driving Employee Engagement. November 11, 2012, from www.ddiworld.com
[9]. Fleming, J.H., C. Coffman & J.K. Harter (2005). "Manage your human Sigma‟. Harvard Business Review, Vol 83, No.7, pp 106-115.
[10]. The Gallup Organization (2005). Employee Engagement: The Employee side of the Human Sigma Equation. Retrieved November 11, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/content/default.aspx?ci=52.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Brand Loyalty in Hospitality Sector in India: A Case study of Indian Hotels in Goa-Kerala
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Jaskaran Singh Dhillon, Director Principal
: 10.9790/487X-0935863      logo

Abstract: In general, perceived service quality seems to be positively related to customers' likelihood of remaining a loyal customer and their attitudes toward the service provider (Anton, Camarero, & Carrero, 2007; Bell, Auh & Smalley, 2005; Aydin & Ozer, 2005). Suhartanto (2011) reported that there are numerous studies, mostly conducted in developed countries, which examined service quality as the determinant of customers' brand loyalty in the hotel industry. This prompted the researchers to investigate empirically how and to what degree customers' perceptions on service quality dimensions impact their hotel brand loyalty in developing country - India. Multiple regression analysis, on survey responses of the customers of 8 different four and five star hotels, reflected that customers' perceptions on tangibles, empathy and reliability contributed to fostering their loyalty with hotel brands. Implications for practitioners and future researchers were discussed, too.

Keywords: Hospitality Sector, Service Quality, Brand Loyalty, Hotel Industry.

[1]. Aaker, D.A. (1996). Building Strong Brands, the Free Press, New York, NY. ASHE Higher Education Report, 2005, 31(2), 27-37.
[2]. Akbaba, A. (2006). Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: A study in a business hotel in Turkey. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(2), 170-192.
[3]. Albacete-Saes, C.A., Fuentes-Fuentes, M.M., Lloréns-Montes, F.J. (2007), "Service quality measurement in rural accommodation", Annual of Tourism Research, Vol. 34 No.1, pp.45-65.
[4]. Alexandris, K., Dimitriadis, N., & Markata, D. (2002). Can perceptions of service quality predict behavioural intentions? An exploratory study in the hotel section in Greece. Managing Service Quality, 12(4), 224-232.
[5]. Al-Rousan, M. Ramzi, Badaruddin Mohamed (2010), "Customer Loyalty and the Impacts of Service Quality: The Case of Five Star Hotels in Jordan", International Journal of Human and Social Sciences 5:13 2010
[6]. Anton , C. , Camarero , C. , & Carrero , M. ( 2007 ). Analysing firms‟ failures as determinants of consumer switching intentions: The effect of moderating factors, European Journal of Marketing , 41 ( 1/2 ), 135 -158
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[8]. Bailey, R. and Ball, S. (2006), "An exploration of the meanings of hotel brand equity", The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 26 No. 1, pp. 15-38.
[9]. Bell, S. J., Auh, S., & Smalley, K. (2005). Customer relationship dynamics: Service quality and customer loyalty in the context of varying levels of customer expertise and switching costs. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33, 169-183.
[10]. Berry, L.L. (2000), "Cultivating service brand equity", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28, pp. 128-37, Winter.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Understanding Word Of Mouth (WOM) Communication: A Case Study of Banking Sector in India
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Jaskaran Singh Dhillon, Director
: 10.9790/487X-0936472      logo

Abstract: Financial service providers have long placed considerable faith in positive word of mouth communication as a means of attracting new customers and a variety of studies of customer choice of bank highlight the significance of personal recommendation. Given that financial services tend to be characterised by a predominance of experience and credence qualities, word of mouth communication is particularly valuable, providing the potential consumer with vicarious experience of the service under consideration. The impact of word of mouth is probably at its strongest when it originates from social contacts because of their greater perceived reliability. By its very nature, this form of communication is outside the formal control of an organisation and yet its impact is such that the ability to influence or encourage word of mouth could be a powerful marketing tool. This paper provides an exploratory analysis of the importance of word of mouth and the factors which influence its role within an organisation's marketing strategy, with particular reference to customer referral campaigns. Empirical evidence is collected from the (rapidly changing and liberalising) financial services sector in India.

Keywords: Communication, Banking, Consumer Behaviour, Word of Mouth (WOM), Strategy

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : "Competitive Study of Service Quality Based on the Perception of Customers and Management of Islamic Banks in Pakistan"
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Chaudhry Kashif Mahmood, Tayyiba Khalil, Abdulghani Ali Al-Hattami
: 10.9790/487X-0937378      logo

Abstract: Service quality has become a highly debatable issue in banking industry all over the world. Several researches are there which indicate that high service quality is pivotal to achieve organizational profitability. Therefore, banks are trying to achieve high service quality by understanding customers' perception towards their products and services and to satisfy and retain the customers accordingly.This study is conducted to measure the level of service quality of Islamic banks in Pakistan by following the Compliance, Assurance, Reliability, Tangibility, Empathy and Responsiveness (CARTER) model approach. In Islamic banking it is called Islamic SERVQUAL. The difference in the perception of customers and employees regarding service quality is also included in this study. This is a primary research based on the data directly collected from the customers and employees of Islamic banks, operating in the city of Lahore. The study contains discussion on general idea of Islamic bankingand service quality. Descriptive related to Compliance, Assurance, Reliability, Tangibility, Empathy and responsiveness are calculated and described. Individual and overall significance is examined by using t-Stats for each element of the model and as a whole. The results indicate that there is significant difference between the perception of customers and management regarding the service quality of Islamic banks.

Keywords: Service quality, Islamic Banks, CARTER Model.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Minimization of waste by applying value stream mapping in the supply chain of cement industry
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Abu Md. Saifuddoha, Md. Ahasan Habib, Sohana Yasmin Sumi, Md. Jennurine6, Md. Saiful Islam
: 10.9790/487X-0937984      logo

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify and address various wastes or non-value added activities in the supply chain of a cement industry using a value stream mapping (VSM). Critical observations and interviewing techniques were used with open-ended questions to understand the processes involved in the value chain of the cement industry. There is an overproduction, excess inventory and information delays in the whole supply chain. Waste or non-value added activities removal from the cement-processing sector is one key to improving the productivity of the sector. The paper addresses the various wastes or non-value added activities in the processing side of the supply chain of a cement industry, using VSM as an approach which was hardly ever attempted before.

Keywords - Waste removal, value stream mapping, Current state mapping, Future state mapping, supply chain

[1] Arbulu, R.J. and Tommelein, I.D. (2002a) Value stream analysis of construction supply chains: case study on pipe support use in power plants, in Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference on the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC-10), Gramado, Brazil, pp. 183–195.

[2] Arbulu, R.J. and Tommelein, I.D. (2002b) Alternative supply chain configurations for engineered or catalogued madeto-order components: case study on pipe supports used in power plants, in Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference on the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC-10), Gramado, Brazil, pp. 197–209. Theses:

[3] Ohno, T. (1988) Just-in-Time for Today and Tomorrow, in T. Ohno with S. Mito, trans. J. P. Schmelzeis, Productivity Press.

[4] Koskela, L. (1992) Application of the New Production Philosophy to Construction. Technical Report 72, CIFE,Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Journal Papers:

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[6] Hopp, W.J. and Spearman, M.L. (2000) Factory Physics: Foundations of Manufacturing Management, 2ndEdn, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston. Theses:

[7] Suzaki, K (1987). The new manufacturing challenge: techniques for continues improvement, The Free Press, New York, NY, USA. [8] Monden, Y. (1993), Toyota Production System: An Integrated Approach to Just-in-Time, Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Norcross, GA..

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Using Information Technology in the Administration of Human Capital: A Proposed Model for Public Yemeni Organizations
Country : Yemen
Authors : Fahd Mohammed Saleh Alduais
: 10.9790/487X-0938594      logo

Abstract: Purpose: To establish a general framework for information technology IT in the public Yemeni organizations PYO, to make a proposed model for database exchange process among the different organizations in the public sector, and to clarify the importance of modern techniques in the administration of human capital HC. Method: the researcher made use of the inductive research method (descriptive-study) for data-collection functioning sources like academic books, and articles in relation to the investigated topic. Results and conclusions: with the increase of the public organizations in Yemen and the collected valuable data, it is prospectively expected that these organizations will depend on the new information technology techniques that include a group of tools working through special connected database programs like, Data-warehouse, Data-mining and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing). Hence, such tools could be either of positive or negative reflections depending on its user.

Keywords –information technology IT, human capital HC, business intelligence BI, public sector organizations PSO, human resources HR

[1] Kashive, N. (2011). Managing Today's Workforce: Human Resource Information System (HRIS), its Challenge and Opportunities. International Journal of Research in Finance & Marketing , Vol. 1 (No. 6), 38-66.
[2] Audigier, M., Couon, G., & Rassat, P. (2003). L'intelligence économique :un nouvel outil de gestion. Paris: Maxima.
[3] Nagm, N. A. (2009). Management and Electronic Knowledge. Amman, Jordon: Dar Alyazoury Press and Publishing.
[4] Gardner, S., P. Lepak, D., & M. Bartolc, K. (2003). Virtual HR: The impact of information technology on the human resource professional. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 63, 159–179.
[5] Grant, D., Dery, K., Hall, R., Wailes, N., & Wiblen, S. (2006). Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS): An Unrealised Potential. The Institute Building (H03), The University of Sydney. Australia: Australian Research Council Linkage Grant (LPLP0882247) in collaboration with the Australian Senior Human Resources Roundtable.
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[7] Hagar, A. E. (2010). Accounting Information System. Sana'a, Yemen: Ala'meen Publishing and Distributing.
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[9] Qendilgy, A. I., & Alsamara'ai, E. F. (2009). Information Technology and Its Applications. Amman, Jordon : Alwarraq Press and Publishing.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Factors influencing consumer's purchase decision of formula milk in Malang City
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Karunia Setyowati Suroto , Zaenal Fanani and Bambang Ali Nugroho
: 10.9790/487X-0939599      logo

Abstract: Various brands of formula milk offered by many companies make mothers having under five year old children difficult to make decision to buy formula milk. The purposes of this study were to analyze the simultaneous and partial effects of culture, social, personal, psychological, product and price variables on buying decision of formula milk, and to analyze the variables having dominant influence on the purchasing decisions of formula milk at Malang City. This study was conducted at Lowokwaru, Kedungkandang, Blimbing, Sukun and Klojen Districts of Malang City from November to December 2012. The method used for this study was an explanatory survey method using questionnaires to collect data from 120 mothers having under five year old children consuming formula milk that were selected by an accidental sampling method. Data of respondents were measured using Likert Scale that ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). A multiple linear regression model was used to predict the effects of culture, social, personal, psychological, product and price variables on purchasing decision. The results showed that the six variables simultaneously affected significantly the purchasing decision of formula milk at Malang City. The six variables contributed 83.5% of the variation in formula milk purchasing decision. Partially, culture, social, personal, psychological, and product variables positively influenced the purchasing decisions of formula milk, while price variables did not significantly influence the purchasing decision of formula milk. Culture variable was the most dominant variable influencing purchasing decision of formula milk.

Keywords - formula milk, consumer, behaviour, purchase decision

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Outsourcing Maintenance of Power Generating Equipment in Malaysian Palm Oil Mills
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Nazim Baluch, Che Sobry Abdullah, and Shahimi Mohtar
: 10.9790/487X-093100104      logo

Abstract: Government of Malaysia has acknowledged that its sources of fossil fuel are depleting and stresses the need to seek other forms of energy sources as critical and of strategic importance for its long-term energy security. The government continues to undertake efforts to manage both non-renewable and renewable energy resources to meet the energy demands of Malaysia's rapidly growing economy; in particular, Malaysian government's renewable energy efforts promote the biomass power generation and co-generation in the palm oil mills. However, Power producers must also consider the nature of power generation, i.e. uninterrupted electric service and environmental impact, which requires high reliability, stability and safety. Industrial organisations are constantly in search of new solutions and strategies to develop and increase their competitive advantage. This paper discusses the pros and cons of one such solution, outsourcing maintenance in power generating plants in palm oil mills and outlines, maintenance outsourcing process, and selection criteria of Maintenance Service Provider.

Key Words: Power Generation, Outsourcing Maintenance, Service Provider, Life Cycle Costing, Palm Oil Mills

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[10] Embleton, P. R., & Wright, P. C. (1998). A practical guide to successful outsourcing. Empowerment in Organizations, 6(3), 94-106.





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