IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)

Volume 9 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Growth and Productivity of Indian Sugar Companies
Country : India
Authors : Dr.P.Chellaswamy, S.V.Revathi
: 10.9790/487X-0950110      logo

Abstract: Sugar production in India has been cyclic in nature. An estimated 75 per cent of the population depends on the sector either directly or indirectly. Sugar industry is also expected to develop further, thereby offering more employment opportunities to a number of semi-skilled and skilled workers in the rural areas of the country thereby contributing towards their development. The sugar industry also supports diversified ancillary activities and skills that support the local economy. The dependent population creates substantial demand for local goods and services. There are broad areas of public intervention that regulate the sugar market in India. First, both the Central and the State Governments set a price support for sugar cane. Next is by restrictions on sugar quantities to be sold in the market also impose on the sugar factories a so-called sugar levy, by which they are required to sell at below market price to the public distribution centers. There are 34 companies were included for this study among 119 universal companies. The data were appropriately tabulated and classified to analyze the tools like Annual compound growth rate, trend analysis by method of least squares. The productivity ratios and the production function were computed by Solow model. Multiple Regression analysis was used to ascertain its impact on variables and they were tested by 5% level of significance. The analysis reveals that the relationship between Raw Materials and other independent variables i.e. the Capital, Labour and Sales has contributed 99 percent on dependent variable of the companies which started after green revolution period. The growth of the northern region has positive growth in terms of output, capital employed and also there is better rainfall and irrigation in this region than that of the southern region. The trend line moves towards maximum in BHL companies. The average growth of sugar industry was slower in the southern region than that of northern region due to poor irrigation and rainfall. There is a need for improving the productivity and it can be done by improving the quality of labour compensation such as providing reward to their workers

Key Words: Sugar production, sugar industry, Sugar growth, Green revolution, Production Function.

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[5]. Ramasamy, K.V, "Productivity of the Indian Manufacturing Industries", Print Well Publishers, Jaipur, 1996.
[6]. Agarwal, "Technical Efficiency and the Productivity Growth in the Central Public Sector Enterprises in India", Economic and Political Weekly, 2001.
[7]. Balakrishnan, R, "Productivity Measurement in Indian Industry" Madras university press, 1958.
[8]. Banerjee, A., "Capital Intensity and Productivity in Indian Industries", MacMillian Publications, New Delhi, 1975.
[9]. Brown and Decani, "Technological Changes can be Measured through the Simple Ratios and through Production Approach", National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton University press, 1962.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Developments in Indian Energy Sector: Problems and Prospects
Country : India
Authors : Vineet Tiwari, M.Kapshe, A.Deshpande3 V.K. Khare
: 10.9790/487X-0951117      logo

Abstract: India is developing at nearly 8% economic growth. Several development initiatives have been taken by the Government of India (GOI) to sustain this economic growth. Continued development requires strong energy infrastructure to support this economic transformation in order to remain competitive. To meet the increasing energy demand, many projects have been planned and offered but could not be successfully implemented either on account of deficient legislative and regulatory structure or lack of coordination among execution agencies. It is observed that legislative and institutional frameworks are required to be in sync to facilitate the development process. This paper reviews the major problems faced by Indian energy sector, presents an analytical view of the future prospects and suggests possible measures that can help in improving the situation.

Keywords – Energy, development, legislations, institutions,

[2]. Planning Commission, 2006, "Integrated energy policy: report of the Expert Committee." Available from:;
[3]. "Indian Power Sector: Holistic Capacity Building", September 11-13, 2008, International Conference on Power Sector organized by FICCI
[4]. Xiaojiang Yu, An overview of legislative and institutional approaches to China‟s energy development, Energy Policy, 38,2010, 2161–2167
[10]. India country report, From ideas to action: clean energy solutions, For asia to address climate change, USAID, June, 2007

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Current Status of SEZ, India
Country : India
Authors : S. Chandrachud, Dr. N. Gajalakshmi
: 10.9790/487X-0951827      logo

Abstract: SEZ, the acronym of Special Economic Zone. SEZ is a geographical region that has economic laws different from a country‟s generally applicable economic laws, for the purpose of economic development and growth with the help of foreign investment. Literally SEZ means, a geographically demarcated region that has economic laws that are more liberal than the country‟s typical economic laws and where all the units therein have specific privileges. SEZs are specifically delineated duty-free enclaves and are deemed to be foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations, duties and tariffs.1

[1]. Aggarwal Aradhana (2004). Export Processing Zones in India: Analysis of the Export Performance. - Working Paper No. 148. New Delhi: ICRIER.
[2]. Aggarwal, Aradhna (2006), "Special Economic Zones:Revisiting the Policy Debate‟, Economic and Political Weekly, November 4, pp. 4533-4536.
[3]. Arora, O P (2003). Compilation of Circulars on EPZ/SEZ/EOU issued by CBEC, DGFT & RBI. Published byM/s Anmkur Arora Associates.
[4]. Aseem Shrivastava (2007), 167.jsp) raises the following questions regarding the SEZs.
[5]. Ashok Upadhyay (2005), Special Economic Zones--An idea whose time has lapsed, Business Line, Tuesday, December 20.
[6]. Asian Productivity Organization (1983), Economic and Social Impacts of Export Processing Zones in Asia, APO, Tokyo.
[7]. Bhandari, Anup Kumar and Pradip Maiti (2007). Efficiency of Indian Manufacturing Firms: Textile Industry as a Case Study. International Journal of Business and Economics, 6 (1): 71-88.
[8]. Goldar, B, V S Ranganathan and R Banga (2003). Ownership and Efficiency in Engineering Firms in Indian, 1990-91 to 1999-2000. ICRIER working Paper No. 115.
[9]. Grasset, Jeremy and Frederic Landy (2007). Special Economic Zones in India–Between International Integration and Real Estate Speculation. Man and Development , 29 (4): 63-74.
[10]. IIFT (1990). Exports Processing Zones in India: A Case Study of Kandla Free Trade Zone. Indian Institute of Foreign Trade Occasional Paper. New Delhi.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Study on Customers Satisfaction towards Selective Sony Products with Special Reference to Coimbatore City
Country : India
Authors : Ms.S.Santhini, ** Mr.R.Jeeva Bharathi, **G.Meena Priya
: 10.9790/487X-0952832      logo

Abstract: Every customer has certain wants and a strong desire to satisfy them. The customer purchases certain goods under the impression that the goods would satisfy his wants. If the product fails to satisfy his wants, he will discard the product and switch over to some other product, which can effectively satisfy his needs. This being the case, every producer should satisfy the needs of the consumer effectively for the very existence of his enterprise. Particularly in a free enterprise economy, the customer is regarded as the King. That is why the study of customer satisfaction towards selective Sony products is necessary to identify whether selective Sony products are satisfying the needs of the customer effectively.

Key Words: Awareness, Customer Satisfaction, Factors, Problems

[1]. Philip Kotler "Marketing Research Management" Prentice hall Inc. Eagle wood Cliffs, USA, April 1992
[2]. Rajan Nair, "Marketing Management". Sultan Chand publications, New Delhi, 1987
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Need for Financial Inclusion and challenges ahead - an Indian Perspective
Country : India
Authors : Sachindra G R
: 10.9790/487X-0953336      logo

Abstract: SFinancial inclusion is delivery of banking services at an affordable cost to the vast sections of disadvantaged and low income group. Unrestrained access to public goods and services is the sine qua non of an open and efficient society. As banking services are in the nature of public good, it is essential that availability of banking and payment services to the entire population without discrimination is the prime objective of the public policy. But in the Existing Banking System segment of the population, especially the underprivileged sections of the society still out of banks' fold. Percentage of adult population having bank account is only 59 %, means 41% of population is unbanked unfortunately this percentage is higher in rural areas. Extent of exclusion from credit markets much more. Number of Loan accounts only 14 % of Adult population and its coverage is only 9.5 % in rural areas. 51.4% Farm Households have no access to formal or informal sources of credit, 73 % had no access to the formal sources of credit. Considerably, marginal farmers, landless laborers, oral lessees, self employed and unorganized sector enterprises, urban slum dwellers, migrants or ethnic minorities and socially excluded groups, senior citizens and women are out of the purview of financial inclusion. Hence an attempt has been made to analyze the extent of financial inclusion, prevailing lacunas and challenges therein in Indian perspective.

[1]. Amol Agrawal "The need for Financial Inclusion with an Indian perspective" Economic Research IDBI March 3, 2008
[2]. Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes, 2000, Levine,Loayza, Norman, Beck, Thorsten, Journal of Monetary Economics 46.
[3]. Committee on Financial Sector Reforms (Draft Report), 2008, Planning Commission, Government of India.
[4]. Finance for All? Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access, World Bank Policy Research Report, 2008, World Bank, Washington
[5]. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda, June 1997, Ross Levine, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XXXV.
[6]. The Economics of Microfinance, 2007, Beatrize, Armendariz and Jonathan Morduch, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
[7]. How can Technology Facilitate Financial Inclusion in India? - A Discussion Paper February 16, 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Assessment Study on the ''Factors Influencing the Individual Investor Decision Making Behavior
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Dr. Taqadus Bashir, Ms. Scholar AaqibaJaved, Ms. Scholar Arslan Ali ButtMs. Scholar NazishAzam, Ms. Scholar Ayesha Tanveer, Ms. Scholar IrtazaAnsar
: 10.9790/487X-0953744      logo

Abstract: Behavioral finance assumes that characteristics of market participants and information structure systematically have an influence on individuals' investment decisions. This research paper aims at identifying the factors that influences the Pakistan's individual investor behavior. Thirty four items under the five categories of variables were taken as independent that influences the individual investment decision making behavior that belongs to self-image/firm image, neutral information, accounting information, personal financial needs and advocate recommendations. Data collection is made with the help of structured questionnaires. Sample size of 125 was considered for the study out of which 40were finance students of University of Gujrat, 30 were finance teachers from different colleges and 55were bank employees of Sialkot, Gujranwala, Lahore and Gujrat. The statistical tools that were used for data analysis were mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution table of variables that have significant influence on decision making and frequency distribution table of variables that have least influence on decision making

[1]. PandiyanandAranganathan, (May-June 2012)"‟Savings and Investments Attitude of Salaried Class in CUDDALORE District‟‟ IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSRJBM) Volume 1, Issue 1, PP 40-49 [2]. Jain, D and Mandot, N. (2012) ‟‟ Impact of Demographic Factors on Investment. Decision of Investors in Rajasthan‟‟, Issue–2 (3),
[3]. Awan, H andArshad, S (2012) "‟Factors valued by investors while investing in mutual funds-a behavioral context‟‟, Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business,Volume 4, no 1
[4]. Iqbal,A and Usmani, S(2009)‟‟Factors Influencing Individual Investor Behavior‟‟ South Asian Journal of Management Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 1, Page no, 15 – 26
[5]. Kabra, Mishra and Dash. (2010)."‟Factors Influencing Investment Decision of Generations in India‟‟: An Econometric Study, Asian Journal of Management Research. [6]. Anna A.M, Andreas, G.M, George, S.V. (2004) ‟‟Economic Factors.And Individual Investor Behavior‟‟The Case of the Greek Stock Exchange, Volume 20, 93. Prasad Journal of Applied Business Research.
[7]. Lusardi, A & Mitchell, OS (2006), "‟Financial Literacy and Planning: Implications for Retirement Wellbeing", Pension Research Working Paper, Pension Research Council, Wharton School University of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
[8]. Lucey& Dowling, M (2005) "The Role of Feelings in Investor Decision-making" Journal of economic surveys vol. 19, no. 2# Blackwell publishing ltd. 2005, 9600
[9]. Kadariya.S, (2012) "‟Factors affecting investor decision making: A case of Nepalese capital market‟ ‟Journal of Research in Economics and International Finance (JREIF), Vol. 1(1) Page. 16-30,
[10]. Sultan.T.S&Pardhasaradhi.S,(2012)S "‟ An Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Individual equity Investors Decision Making and Behavior‟ ‟European Journal of Business and Management, Volume 4, No.18,2012,Page 50-62

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Factor Branding in Selection of Higher Educational Institutions in India
Country : India
Authors : Dr.S.Franklin John, Ms.S.Senith
: 10.9790/487X-0954550      logo

Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the influence of Branding in higher Educational Institutions. The questionnaires were given to 26 engineering institutions with existence of at least ten years anonymity for all respondents and institutions was guaranteed. Reports of the study were promised to each participating institution, but respondents and institutional names were kept confidential. Respondents to the questionnaire were only students. Out of 1000 students contacted, 780 questionnaires were received with required coverage and details. The participants completed the two sets of self-reported questionnaires, including Background characteristics and variables chosen for this study in order to measure the influence of branding in Engineering Institutions and the Service,Innovation,Quality,Price ,Image and External Exposure. The collected data were computed and analysed using multiple regressions and Partial least Squares. The findings of the study were generalized as follows: Statistically significant differences were found in Brand rating by the different brand dimensions like Service, Innovation, Quality, Price,Image and External Exposure. In the end of the study implications and conclusion were provided.

Keywords - brand, Education ,External Exposure, Influence, Service

[1]. Aaker, D.A. And Joachimsthaler, E. (2000),Brand Leadership, The Free Press, New York, Ny.
[2]. Aaker, David A. (2004a), Brand Portfolio Strategy. Creating Relevance, Differentiation, Energy, Leverage And Clarity. New York, Free Press.
[3]. Aaker, David A. (2004b), "Leveraging The Corporate Brand" California Management Review, 46 (3), 6-18.
[4]. Aaker, David A. And Erich Joachimsthaler (2000), Brand Leadership, London, Free Press.
[5]. Aaker, Jennifer L. (1997), "Dimensions Of Brand Personality", Journal Of Marketing Research, 34 (August), 347-356.
[6]. Alok Chakrabarti, Higher Education And Research In India: An Overview, Sitra Reports, 2007.
[7]. Anderson, J.C. And Narus, J.A. (2004), Business Market Management: Understanding, Creating, And Delivering Value, Pearson Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, Nj, P. 136.
[8]. Annual Report : 2007-2008, Department Of School Education And Literacy & Department Of Higher Education, Ministry Of Human Resource Development, Government Of India
[9]. Bob Toper, Vol Xv,No.2, "Branding Higher Education", Marketing Higher Education
[10]. Chen, Arthur C.H. (2001), "Using Free Association To Examine The Relationship Between Characteristics Of Brand Associations And Brand Equity", Journal Of Product And Brand Management, 10 (7), 439-451.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Quantitative Analysis on the Correlation between Risks: Empirical Evidence from Banks in United Kingdom
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Sheila Nu Nu Htay, Syed Ahmed Salman
: 10.9790/487X-0955158   logo

Abstract: Financial institutions or banks are faced with several types of risks that are uniquely related to the nature of the industry. Therefore it is a must for banks to have risk mitigation methods in order to maintain its competitiveness and sustainability. For the purpose of this paper, four unique risks related to the banking industry will be discussed, as well as to provide empirical study on the relationship between these risks. These risks are liquidity risk, operational risk, credit risk and market risk. The focus of this study is on ten listed banks in United Kingdom with complete secondary data from the year 2002 to 2011. Liquidity risk is measured by the ratio of total loans to total deposits, operational risk is calculated based on two ratios, i.e. the ratio of operating expenses to total assets and the ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Credit risk is based on the probability of default based on Altman's z score equation and market risk is calculated based on the standard deviation of quarterly stock returns. The findings show the evidence that there is a relationship between tested risk and it is expected that the findings will be the interest of the bankers to see which risk is the source of other risks.

Key words: Operational risk, liquidity risk, credit risk, market risk and UK

[1]. Benton E. Gup, James W. Kolari, Donald R. FraserJ, Commercial banking: the management of risk (Wiley, 2005).
[2]. European Central Bank, Working Paper No. 1006: Liquidity (Risk) Concepts Definitions and Interactions. (2009).
[3]. Bonfim, Diana & Kim Moshe, Liquidity risk in banking: is there herding? (July 2012).
[4]. Doerig, Hans-Ulrich, Operational Risks In Financial Services An Old Challenge In A New Environment
[5]. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Principles for the Sound Management of Operational Risk (June 2011).
[6]. Varotto, Simone, Liquidity Risk, Credit Risk, Market Risk and Bank Capital, ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance DP2011-02 (January, 2011).
[7]. Bank Negara Malaysia, (2001).
[8]. Vodova, Pavla, Credit Risk as A Cause Of Banking Crises (n.d.)
[9]. Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin, Managing Market Risk in Banks, December (1996).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : On the internal control of mandating companies with the stress on effectiveness and efficiency factors
Country : Iran
Authors : Vahideh Tabibi Rad, Khadijeh Ghasemi
: 10.9790/487X-0955965      logo

Abstract: Many people regard the term "Internal Control" as a measure taken by the business unit to prevent from the employees' fraud. However, such measures constitute a very small part of internal controls. The main purpose of internal controls is improving the efficiency and the effectiveness of the business units operations. Internal controls include the plans required for development, evaluation and distribution of reports by different levels of supervision, the analysis of which enables the managers to keep their controls over types of activities done in large business units.

Key Words: internal controls, efficiency and effectiveness, weak points

[1]. Apostolou, B., & Apostolou, N. G. (1991). Managerial evaluation of the internal control structure. Research in Accounting Regulation,vol 5,121-143
[2]. Ashbaugh-Skaife (2008). A study of the relationship between company performance and CEO compensation. American Business Review, 18),77–85).
[3]. Ashbaugh-Skaife, H., Collins, D. W., Kinney, W. R., & LaFond, R. (2009). The effect of sox internal control deficiencies on firm risk and cost of equity. Journal of Accounting Research, 47(March), 1–43.
[4]. Beneish, M. D., Billings, M. B., & Hodder, L. D. (2008). Internal control weaknesses and information uncertainty. The Accounting Review,83(May), 665–703.
[5]. 5. Committee of sponsoring organization of the treadway commission.2002 Internal
[6]. control :Integrated framework .New York:AICPA
[7]. Dowlatabadi, Reza, 1992, on weak points of internal controls of companies that are members of the development and innovation organization, M.A. thesis, Tehran University
[8]. Ge, W., & McVay, S. (2005). The disclosure of material weaknesses in internal control after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Accounting Horizons, 19(September), 137–158
[9]. Ghadimi, Mehrdad,2004, on the status of effectiveness of internal controls in public companies being studied by the auditing organization, M.A. thesis, Tehran University
[10]. Hammersley, J. S., Myers, L. A., & Shakespeare, C. (2008). Market reactions to the disclosure of internal control weaknesses and to thecharacteristics of those weaknesses under Section 302 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. Review of Accounting Studies, 13(March141–165.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Impact of KSE-100 Index on Oil Prices and Gold Prices in Pakistan
Country : Pakistan
Authors : Abdul Basit
: 10.9790/487X-0956669      logo

Abstract: Investments in stocks, gold and oil contracts are always thought to be the best source of investment in developing markets. Investors keep on swapping their investment in different investments options to gain the maximum return. In Pakistan stock market, gold and oil investments are ranked among the most desirable area of investments. In this paper the researcher tired to study that how KSE-100 Index affects the oil and gold prices in Pakistani market. This paper will help the investor to investigate the relationship in the said investment options in Pakistan. For this purpose the researcher on the basis of available secondary data collected the KSE-100 Index, oil prices and gold prices for the time period 2005 to 2011. The researcher took oil price and gold prices as dependent variables where as KSE-100 Index is taken as independent variable. The researcher applied the simple regression models separately for both dependent variables and concluded that there is no obvious relationship in these variables.

Keywords: Gold Prices, oil Prices, KSE-100 Index

[1] Ahmet, The Effect of Macroeconoics Variables on Stock Return: Evidence from Turkey, European Journal of Social Science – Volume 14, Number 3 (2010).
[2] Basher and Sadorsky, Oil price risk and emerging stock markets, Globel Finance Journal 17 (2006) 224-251
[3] Chung S. Kwon and Tai S. Shin (1999), Cointegration and Causality between Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Markets Returns, Globel Finance Journal, 10(1), 71-81.
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[6] Grorge Handroyiannis and Evangelia Papapetrou (2001), Macroeconomic Influences on the Stock Market, Journal of Economics and Finance, 25(1), 33-49.
[7] Hamed Sadri and Ehsan TayebiSani (2012), the Impact of Crude Oil, Gold Price & Their Volatilities on Stock Markets: Evidence from Selected Member of OPEC, Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(10)10472-10479, 2012.
[8] Kuan-Min Wang and Yuan-Ming Lee, Could Gold Serve as Exchange Rate Hedge in Japan, Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineerig Economics, 2010, 21(2), 160-170.
[9] Mahmood Yahyazadehfar and Ahmad Babaie, Macroeconomic Variables and Stock Price, Middle-East Journal of Scientfic Research 11 (4): 408-415, 2012
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comprehensive Leadership Qualities of All Time Great Leader A Unique Role Model for Leaders of All Times
Country : India
Authors : Dr.Vijetha Mukkelli
: 10.9790/487X-0957079      logo

Abstract: In this era of declining values and ethics among the leaders, there is a need to look into history to find out the leaders who relentlessly stood for values and became successful. Leadership is no more than influence. The effectiveness of this influence can be measured with the number of followers he has and the legacy he leaves behind. Without followers there is no leader. If this be true, Jesus Christ can be considered the most effective leader leaving a rich legacy behind even after 2000 years having two thirds of the world population as his followers. There have been millions and millions of people who are ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of this all time great leader. This paper deals with the comprehensive leadership qualities of this great leader. His leadership strategies are universally applicable for all kinds of organizations. The cultivation of Christ like qualities is a demanding and relentless task of all leaders. This paper is purely qualitative and is based on literature survey.

Key words - Jesus, Leadership, Servant, Transforming, Team

[1]. Joel McClure. Leading like Jesus: Five Metaphors for Christ like Leadership, from reading room @ water‟s edge. Retrieved from
[2]. John C. Maxwell (1998), The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, Thomas Nelson Publishers.
[3]. World Population, (9 September 2009) In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia Retrieved from
[4]. All Scripture citations will be in the New International Version (NIV), unless otherwise stated.
[5]. Jeff.M.Sellers (February, 2003). The Higher Self Gets Down to Business. Christianity Today 47 (2). Retrieved from
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[10]. Chua Wee Hian (1987). Learning to Lead. Inter-Varsity Press. Retrieved from

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