IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 12- Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : The Impacts Of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On The Teaching And Learning Science And Mathematics For Sustainable Development.
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Oni, N.O., Raji, M.T., Olayiwola, M.A., Adeniran, P.O. & Fasasi, S.K.
: 10.9790/0661-1210103      logo

Abstract: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is relatively a new area in human development that combines the technology of various electronic devices. The use of them and the distribution of these facilities with reference to the geographical location are made known. The paper highlights the concept of ICT, the impact of ICT in the teaching and learning context, the role of ICT in the teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics. The various implications of ICT for sustainable development are also exhaustively discussed. The paper then concludes with adequate recommendations to ensure widespread use of ICT nationwide. Keywords: Impacts, ICT, Science, Mathematics, Sustainable Develpoment,

[1]. Abayai, T. (2004) Vision and mission of ICT education for sustainable development in Nigeria. In Ashituabe, G. A. and Kolo, I. A. Eds) Education for sustainable development in Nigeria. Minna: Niger State College of Education.
[2]. Abifarina, M. S. (2203) Information and Development of distance Education programme in Nigeria in the 21st Century. Nigeria Journal of Education Studies
[3]. Asiriwa, D. O. (2005) The use of ICT as an instructional material in Science Education. A paper presented at the Annual National Conference of School of Science, College of Education Ekiadotor-Benin.
[4]. Idihosa, O. M. and Ero, N. R. (2005). The use of ICT in Mathematics Education. A paper presented at the Annual National Conference of School of Science, College of Education Ekiadotor-Benin.
[5]. Ige. B. (2001) African Response of ICT Revolution, Paper presented at the African Technology Policy Study Network (ATPS) Annual Workshop. October 29 – November 2, Nairobi.
[6]. Iloeje, M. U. (2002) The challenges, innovations in Technology pose to Libraries and librarians. Paper delivered at the Plenary Session of the NLA 39th National Conference and AGM. Newsletter: A biannual pub. On NLA 13
[7]. Liverpool, L. S. O. (2001) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and University Administration. Paper presented at the Annual General Meeting of the Committee of the Association o Nigerian University Professional.
[8]. Mutula, M. (2002) Supporting democracy with ICTs: South Africa independent Electoral Commission. Open society initiative. Information Communication Technologies and Civil Society Consultative Meeting.
[9]. Ojo, M. O. (2005) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and teacher preparation for basic education. Journal of Teacher Education.
[10]. Osiakwan, E. M. (2002) Sustainable development without ICTs is not sustainable. Open Society Initiative ICT and Civil Society Consultative Meeting.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Latest Developments in WirelessNetworking and Wireless Security
Country : India
Authors : Asst. Prof. Shubhada Talegaon
: 10.9790/0661-1210407      logo

Abstract: This paper illustrates some key recent developments in the area of wireless networking. It also illustrates the key concepts of security, wireless networks, and security over wireless networks. Wireless security is demonstrated by explaining the main specifications of the common security standards. This paper also provides information about latest development in wireless security network with standards like 802.11ac 802.11n WPA and WPA2

Keywords: WPA, WPA2, 802.11ac,802.11,

[5]. Daily Tech - May 21, 2013 [6]. Forbes [7]. [8].

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Automatic Vehicle Detection Using Pixelwise Classification Approach
Country : India
Authors : K.Srinivasulu Reddy, A. Bhanu Prasad
: 10.9790/0661-1210815      logo

Abstract: We present a system to detect and track moving vehicles based on the pixelwise classification approach. In this approach escapes some of the existing frameworks for detection vehicles in traffic monitoring systems. So many researchers and intelligent minds are introduces so many technique but not provided the accurate results. Proposed technique uses designed pixel wise classification method, canny edge detection techniques and back ground color subtraction method that leads to accurate results in vehicle detection rate. Pixel wise classification provides not only region wise but also sliding window also detected the vehicles. The feature extraction performed in both training and detection stages. The classification purpose we use dynamic Bayesian networks and in this network vehicle and non vehicle are identify purpose used a support vector machine. The classification of vehicles and non vehicles are identification purpose used a color histogram algorithm. When we performed all the methods easily identify the vehicles and provides accuracy results to compare the previous approaches. In experimental results are shown in different videos are taken at different cameras and different heights in surveillance systems.

Keywords – Aerial surveillance, Canny edge detection, Dynamic Bayesian Networks, Soft Computing, and Vehicle Detection.

[1] K.Srinivasulu Reddy, A. Bhanu Prasad, "Automatic Vehicle Detection and Tracking for Event Analysis in Intelligent Aerial
Surveillance Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks", IJERT February-2013, Vol.2, no.2.
[2] Hsu-yung cheng, Chih-chia weng and yi-ying Chen," Vehicle Detection in Aerial Surveillance Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks",
April-2012 IEEE, vol.21, no.4.
[3] R. Kumar, H. Sawhney, S. Samarasekara, S. Hsu, T. Hai, G. Yanlin, K. Hanna, A. Pope, R. Wildes, D. Hirvonen, M. Hansen, and P.
Burt, "Aerial Video Surveillance and Exploitation", Proc.IEEE,2001, vol.89,no.10,pp. 1518-1539.
[4] I. Emst, S. sujew, K.U. Thiessenhusen, M. Hetscher, s. rabmann, and M. Ruhe, "LUMOS-Airborne traffic monitoring system", in
Proc.IEEE Intell. Transp. Sys., oct.2003, vol. 1, pp. 753-759.
[5] L. Lin, X. Cao, y.Xu, c.Wu, and H.Qiao, "Air bone moving vehicle detection for urban traffic surveillance", in Proc. IEEE Intell.
Veh.Symp. 2009, pp. 203-208.
[6] J.F. Canny, "A computacional approach to edge detection", IEEE Transs. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intel., Nov.1986, vol.PAMI-8, no.6,
[7] L. D. Chou, J. Y. Yang, Y. C. Hsieh, D. C. Chang, and C. F. Tung , "Intersection- based routing protocol for VANETs", Wirel. Pers.
Commun., 2011, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 105-124.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Generate an Encryption Key by using Biometric Cryptosystems to secure transferring of Data over a Network
Country : India
Authors : Sayani Chandra, Sayan Paul, Bidyutmala Saha, Sourish Mitra
: 10.9790/0661-1211622      logo

Abstract: Our modern day era faces an inevitable problem of securing our most integrated data and messages. The chief problem is to protect our data in a unique way that could only be worked upon by the sender and the recipient. Most of the traditional techniques probably in-use today, emphasizes on keys that are generated by generic function, algorithms or in random key generators. But question remains whether this key is unique and authentic in nature. Moreover how can these keys be unique to one and one person only? The answer to this would be Biometric Cryptosystems. Biometric Cryptosystems are the newest members in the field of security. The very basis of this Biometric Cryptosystem lies on the very fact that some features of human body are significantly unique to each and every human in the world, such as fingerprint, DNA sequence, Iris, etc. Using those biometric we can generate an exclusive key that will be unique for each and every individual. Now having generated these keys we can use them for encrypting our message. And as because these keys are uniquely generated for individual persons there's no chance of there will be a matching keys. Moreover as we use RSA algorithm based encryption technique so the encryption lies on two basic sets of keys to decrypt the message. Hence, eavesdropper or third unwanted parties have to acquire two set of keys which adds up to security level of the encryption and hence protect the message from unwanted third parties from acquiring our secret message.

Keywords - Bio-metric cryptosystem, Encryption, Fingerprint, Minutiae point, Private Key, Public Key, RSA

[1]. B. Goode, "Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)". Proceedings of three IEEE, VOL. 90, NO. 9, Sept. 2002.

[2]. Announcing the "ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD (AES)" – Federal Information, Processing Standards Publication 197, November 26, 2001

[3]. D.Maio and D. Maltoni, "Direct gray-scale minutiae detection in fingerprints ". IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. And Machine Intell., 19(1):27-40, 1997

[4]. L.C. Jain, U.Halici, I. Hayashi, S.B. Lee and S. Tsutsui. "Intelligent biometric techniques in fingerprint and face recognition.", 1999, the CRC Press Websites and PDFs:

[5]. "Breaking Through IP Telephony "

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[8]. "Security Risk Factors in IP Telephony Based Networks "

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Self Concept and Scholastic Competence of Secondary School Teachers in relation to some Personal Variables
Country : India
Authors : Savita Mishra
: 10.9790/0661-1212328      logo

Abstract: The self concept is an organized cognitive structure comprising a set of attitudes, beliefs and value that cut across all facets of experience and action, organizing together the variety of specific habits, abilities, outlooks, ideas and feelings that a person displays. Scholastic competence refers to the intellectual behavioral and manifestation activities that a teacher has developed from the early years of his schooling up to the attainment of degree of teaching. The objectives of this study was to find out significant difference if any in both self concept and scholastic competence of teachers in relation to gender, locale, teaching experience, educational qualification and academic stream variations. It was a descriptive study design of normative type. The population of this study consisted of secondary school teachers from Gangtok, East Sikkim. The sample included one hundred teachers selected on simple random sampling method. The tools used for the collection of data were Nayak's Teacher's Self Concept Scale (2004) and Samal's Scholastic Competence scale (2000). The findings of this study were that female, rural, more experienced, graduate and non science teachers have less self concept compared to urban, less experienced, science and post graduate teachers where as male, urban, graduate, non science, less experienced teachers have less scholastic competence compared to female, urban, post graduate, science and more experienced teachers.

Key Words: Self Concept, Scholastic Competence, Personal Variables

[1]. Chhetri, S. (2007). Self Concept of Prospective teachers of Sikkim in relation to Gender, Experience, Qualification and Place of Habitation. Unpublished Dissertation in Education, University of North Bengal.
[2]. Lee, C.l. (1992). The relationship between Home Economics teachers‟ Self esteem and their classroom interaction. Dissertation Abstract International. Vol-53.
[3]. Mani, G. and Gonsalves, C.A. (1977). A study of self Concept of student teachers in relation to their performance in practical teaching. Stella Matutina College of Education, Madras.
[4]. Nayak, N. (2004). Mental Health and Adjustment of Secondary School Teacher influencing development of Self Concept in teacher. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation in Education, Utkal University.
[5]. Purkey, W. (1988). An overview of Self Concept Theory for Counseling. ERIC Clearing House ERIC/CAPS Digest: ED. 304630 www.Document
[6]. Rai, G. (1983). A Study of Self Concept of the prospective teachers. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation in Education, BHU.
[7]. Samal, A. (2000). Teaching Efficiency as a function of Self Concept, job Satisfaction and Scholastic Competence. Unpublished dissertation in education, Utkal University.
[8]. Silberman, M. (1996). Behavior Expression of Teachers Attitudes Elementary School Students. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 60, pp. 402-407

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 11 × 11 Playfair Cipher based on a Cascade of LFSRs
Country : Iraq
Authors : Ouday Nidhal Ameen Hanosh, Baraa Wasfi Salim
: 10.9790/0661-1212935      logo

Abstract: Playfair cipher is one of the better-known multiple letter encryption ciphers. In this method, the diagrams in the plaintext are treated as a single unit and then these units converted into ciphertext diagrams. This paper implements and discusses a new system which proposed by using 11 × 11 Playfair cipher that supports all 26 alphabets in both: upper case letters (A-Z) as well as lower case letters (a-z), ten digits (0-9), special characters and the extended special characters. This combination will tackle the limitation of 5×5 Playfair cipher in which both "i" and "j" letters could not appear simultaneously. In order to increase the level of security of this method, the output of an 11×11 Playfair procedure will be an input to the complete procedure of a cascade LFSRs. Finally, this system was implemented using MATLAB 8.0 (R2012b).

Keywords: Playfair Cipher, Secret Keyword, Special Characters, LFSRs, Cryptanalysis.

[1] V.K. Pachghare, Cryptography and information Security, PHI Learning, New Delhi, 2010.

[2] William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice. 5th edition, Prentice Hall, January 24, 2010.

[3] Johannes A. Buchmann, Introduction to Cryptography. Second edition, Springer-Verlag NY, LLC, 2001.

[4] Shiv Shakti Srivastava, Nitin Gupta and RajramJaiswal "Modified Version of Playfair Cipher by using 8×8 Matrix and Random Number Generation" in Proceeding of IEEE 3rd International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation (ICCMS 2011), Mumbai, pp. 615-617, January,2011.

[5] PackirisamyMurali and GandhidossSnethilkumar, Modified Version of Playfair Cipher Using Linear Feed Back Shift Cipher. International Conference on Information Management and Engineering ICIME, pp. 488-490, 2009.

[6] AmandeepKaur, Harsh Kumar Verma and Ravindra Kumar Singh, 6×6 Playfair Cipher using LFSR based Unique RandomNumber Generator. International journal of computer pplications, Volume 51,no. 2,pp. 30-34, August, 2012.

[7] Dhiren R. Patel, Information Security: Theory and Practice. First edition, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, 2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel High Order Tree for Securing Key Management for Multicast Services
Country : India
Authors : M. Latha , Mrs. S. Nalini
: 10.9790/0661-1213640      logo

Abstract: With the emergence of diverse group-based services, multiple multicast groups are likely to co-exist in a single network,and users may subscribe to multiple groups simultaneously. However, the existing group key management (GKM) schemes, aiming to secure communication within a single group, are not suitable in multiple multicast group environments because of inefficient use of keys, and much larger rekeying overheads. In this paper, we propose a new group key management scheme for multiple multicast groups, called the master-key-encryption-based multiple group key management (MKE-MGKM) scheme. The MKE-MGKM scheme exploits asymmetric keys, i.e., a master key and multiple slave keys, which are generated from the proposed master key encryption(MKE) algorithm, and is used for efficient distribution of the group key. It alleviates the rekeying overhead by using the asymmetry of the master and slave keys, i.e., even if one of the slave keys is updated, the remaining ones can still be unchanged by modifying only the master key. Through numerical analysis and simulations, it is shown that the MKE-MGKM scheme can reduce the storage overhead of a key distribution center (KDC) by 75% and the storage overhead of a user by up to 85%, and 60% of the communication overhead at most, compared to the existing schemes.

Index Terms: Security, group Key Management, multicast, chinese remainder theorem, master key encryption

[1] Lawrence Horte "Introduction to data multicasting", 2008

[2] Zhang, J, Varadharajan, V and Mu, Y," A novel dynamic key management scheme for secure multicasting," ICON2003. The 11th IEEE International Conference on Network

[3] C. K. Wong, M. G. Gouda, and S. S. Lam, "Secure group communications using key graphs," 1998.

[4] H. Lu, "A novel high-order tree for secure multicast key management", IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 54, 2005.

[5] Y. Challal and H. Seba, "Group key management protocols: A novel taxonomy," International Journal of Information Technology,vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 105–118, 2005.

[6] Sherman and McGrew, "Key establishment in large dynamic groups using one-way function trees," IEEETSE: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 29, 2003.

[7] J.-C.Lin, F. Lai, and H.-C. Lee, "Efficient group key management protocol with one-way key derivation," in LCN. IEEE Computer Society, 2005, pp. 336–343. [Online].Available:

[8] Y. Sun and K. J. R. Liu, "Hierarchical group access control for secure multicast communications," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1514–1526, 2007.

[9] Q. Zhang and Y. Wang, "A centralized key management scheme for hierarchical access control," in IEEE Globecom. IEEE Communication Society, 2004, pp. 2067–2071.

[10] D. WALLNER, E. HARDER, , and R. AGEE, "Key management for multicast: Issues and architectures," IETF, Request For Comments 2627, 1999.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Greybox Hospital Information System in the Medical Center Tobruk Libya based on 3LGM
Country : Indonesia
Authors : Mohamd Ma Abdellgoad, Moechammad Sarosa, Dachlan Harry Soekotjo
: 10.9790/0661-1214149      logo

Abstract: Hospital Information System this study is set out to consider the different suggested models for hospital information system and then to look at their advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other model the selected information system model. This is where this project comes in to study the current information system architecture and the quality of information system to propose a comprehensive hospital information system model to support information system managers. They are supposed to make the right information and knowledge available to the right people, in the right place, at the right time and in the right form. To improve a HIS, its current state needs to be known. 3LGM (Three-layer Graph-based model) is a structured already validated approach for modeling and analyzing HIS.

Keywords - Hospital Information System using 3LGM.

[1] Haux Reinhold, Winter Alfred, Brigl Birgit (2004). Strategic Information Management in Hospitals: An Introduction to Hospital Information Systems. Springer. 63-73
[2] Haux R., Michaelis J (1997). nvestitionsschema zur Inforamtion sverarbeitung in Krank enhausern (investment scheme for information processing in hospitals).Das Krankenhaus. 7, 425-26.
[3] Hubner-Bloder Gudrun, Ammenwerth Elske, Brigl Birgit, and Winter Alfred (2005) ,et al Specification of a Reference Model for the Domain Layer of a Hospital Information System. In: Engelbert Rolf, Geissbuhler A., and Lovis C. Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio-informatics. IOS Press. 497-502
[4] Ammenwerth E., Buchauer A, and Haux R (2002). A Requirements Index for Information Processing in hospitals. Methods of Information in Medicine. 41 (4), 282-8. The requirements index is available at: Azizul Rusmadi Bin Abdul Rahman (2006).
[5] Wendt T., Haber A., Brigl B., and Winter A (2004). Modeling Hospital Information Systems (Part 2): sing the 3LGM for Modeling Patient Record Management. Methods Info Med. (43), 256-267.
[6] A. Brookstone, "Electronic medical records: Creating the environment for change," british olumbia medical journal, vol. 46, pp. 233-235, 2004.
[7] D. Garets and M. Davis,"Electronic medical ecords vs. electronic health records: yes, there is a difference," A HIMSS Analytics White Paper. Chicago, IL: HIMSS Analytics, 2005.
[8] Alvarez, R. (2002). The promise of e-Health a Canadian perspective. eHealth International, (1),4.
[9] Bath, P. A. (2008). Health informatics: current issues and challenges. Journal of Information Science, 34(4), 501-518.
[10] Engelbrecht Rolf, Geissbuhler A., Lovis C (2005). Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio-informatics: Proceedings of MIE2005: the XIXth International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics. IOS Press.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey of Software Reliability factor
Country : India
Authors : Nisha Sharma, Ms. Parveen Bano
: 10.9790/0661-1215055      logo

Abstract: Software Reliability is the probability of failure free software which work for a specified period of time in a specified environment. Software Reliability is also an important factor affecting system reliability. In the Existing, Software management approaches like CMM and SPICE gives the quantitative model of software process management. But these methods are based on the accuracy and the reliability of the input data to the system. This paper estimates the reliability factor issues of data for different metrics of software process model under different criteria. This paper is a survey which can be used to design a reliability system based on soft technique

Key words: - Software Reliability, Reliability Relevant Software Metrics, software approaches, software measurement, reliability factor.

[1] ANSI/IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology, IEEE STD-729, 1991.

[2] M. Agrawal, K. Chari, Software Effort, Quality and Cycle Time: A Study of CMM Level 5 Projects, IEEE Transaction on Software Engineering, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 145-156, 2007.

[3] Pankaj Jalote," Measuring Reliability of Software Products", (pp 1-8)

[4] Franz Brosch," Reliability Prediction for Fault-Tolerant Software Architectures",QoSA+ISARCS'11, June 20–24, 2011, Boulder, Colorado, USA. ACM 978-1-4503-0724-6/11/06 (pp 75-84)

[5] I Mandal," Software Reliability Assessment using Artificial Neural Network", International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2010) – TCET, Mumbai, India ICWET'10, February 26–27, 2010, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. ACM 978-1-60558-812-4 (pp 698-699)

[6] Aleksandar Dimov," How do we collect data for software reliability estimation?", International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies-CompSysTech'10 CompSysTech'10, June 17–18, 2010, Sofia, Bulgaria. ACM 978-1-4503-0243-2/10/06 (pp 155-160).

[7] hao-Jung Hsu,"Reliability Analysis Using Weighted Combinational Models for Web-based Software",WWW 2009, April 20–24, 2009, Madrid, Spain. ACM 978-1-60558-487-4/09/04. (pp 1131-1132)


[9] Goutam Kumar Saha, "Understanding Software Fault Tolerance Using a Concept Map," IEEE Reliability Society Newsletter, Vol. 54, No. 2, June 2008, IEEE Press, USA.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Green Computing: Issues on the Primary Memory of Personal Computers
Country : India
Authors : A. Mala, C. Umarani , L. Ganesan
: 10.9790/0661-1215660      logo

Abstract: Green computing is now a days becoming a research problem and many scientists are focusing their attention to do research on various issues related to this discipline. The topic addresses issues such as , effective power utilization, maximizing efficiency, maximizing efficiency of utilization, correct disposal of electronic gadgets, reliable and cost effectiveness etc. One of the most used components by ICT group are personal computers and hence considered for our analysis under green computing. Any personal computer has major functional components such as CPU, memory , monitors and peripheral devices etc. Each components have certain contribution towards green computing. The main focus of attention of this paper is to study how the power consumed by each functional units are effectively minimized so as to perform the job without any deviation while using the personal computer. Power thus saving is equivalent to power generation or optimal usage. Since there are many functional units present in a personal computer, in this paper, we discuss how memory is contributing to the green computing by conducting various studies on SDRAMs. Results and discussions are presented. The work related to the monitor and the processors are in progress.

Keywords: Green computing – Personal computers – Effective power utilization – Contribution from memory – Variations of power consumption at different frequencies.

[1]. Priya Rana, "Green Computing Saves Green", Department Of Information Technology, RKGIT, Ghaziabad International Journal Of Advanced Computer And Mathematical Sciences. Vol 1, Issue 1, Dec, 2010, Pp 45-51.
[2]. Er. Navdeep Kochhar and Er. Arun Garg, "Eco-friendly Computing: Green Computing", Baba Farid College, Bathinda, Punjab. International Journal of Computing and Business Research,ISSN (Online) : 2229-6166, Volume 2 Issue 2 May 2011.
[3]. Robert R. Harmon and Nora Auseklis, "Sustainable IT Services: Assessing the Impact of Green Computing Practices". Portland State University, Strategic Marketing Area, Portland, OR, USA Intel Corporation, Engineering computing, Hillsboro, OR, USA. PICMET 2009 Proceedings, August 2-6, Portland, Oregon USA © 2009 PICMET.
[4]. Enrico Bini, Giorgio Buttazzo and Giuseppe Lipari, "Minimizing CPU Energy in Real-Time Systems with Discrete Speed Management". Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.
[5]. Susanne Albers, "Energy efficient algorithms", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 86-96.
[6]. Intel® PentiumR 4 Processor or 90 nm Process. Datasheet Document No.: 300561-003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : 3D Localization Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : Hiral Patel, Prof. Neha Pandya
: 10.9790/0661-1216166      logo

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks have a great impact on long time monitoring applications (environment monitoring, security surveillance, habitat monitoring etc.) but its potential is yet to be discovered, where it can be deployed in time critical situations when disaster happens. There is a significant gap between existing applications of sensor networks and the requirement of applications supporting rescue operations that involves the catastrophe of human lives. As we are dealing with the human lives here, we can't just rely on the localization schemes that depend upon the connectivity information (range-free) algorithms only. Further, rescue operations are carried out in highly noisy environments, so distance based (range-based) localization algorithms generate high error in distance measurements. An efficient algorithm is needed that can measure the location of the sensor nodes near to the living being or being attached to them in 3-D space with a high accuracy. To achieve such kind of accuracy a combination of both the strategies is required. Further, the algorithms should be efficient and less resource consuming for getting executed on sensor nodes with low processing power. This research proposes an algorithm which incorporates both the range-based and range-free strategies.

Keywords - Wireless sensor network (WSN), Localization.

[1] J. Hightower, C. Vakili, G. Borriello, and R. Want, "Design and calibration of the spotonad-hoc location sensing system," CSE Techniuqe Report, University of Washington,August 2001.

[2] R. L. Moses, D. Krishnamurthy, and R. Patterson, "An auto-calibration method for unattended ground sensors," in Proc. ICASSP, vol. 3, May 2002, pp. 2941–2944.

[3] Neal Patwari, Alfred O. Hero, III, Matt Perkins, Neiyer S. Correal, Robert J. O'Dea,"Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks', 2003.

[4] S. M. Nazrul Alam, Zygmunt J. Haas, "Topology Control and Network Lifetime inThree-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks",2006

[5] I.F.Akyildiz, D. Pompili and T. Melodia, "Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks:Research Challenges", Ad Hoc Networks Journal, (Elsevier), March 2005.

[6] Neal Patwari, Joshua N. Ash, Spyros Kyperountas, Alfred O. Hero III, Randolph L.Moses, and Neiyer S. Correal , "Locating the Nodes :Cooperative localization in wireless sensor networks" , 2005

[7] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, "DV Based Positioning in Ad hoc Networks", In Journal of Telecommunication Systems, 2003.

[8] T. He, C. Huang, B. Blum, J. Stankovic, and T. Abdelzaher, "Rangefree localization schemes in large scale sensor networks," in Proc. ACM/IEEE 9th Annu. Int. Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'03), 2003.

[9] Andreas Savvides, Chih-Chieh Han, and Mani B. Strivastava, "Dynamic fine-grained localization in Ad-Hoc networks of sensors", 7-th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom) 2001, pp. 166-179, July 16 - 21, 2001.

[10] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, "Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) using AoA", INFOCOM' 03, San Francisco, CA, 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance of Phase Congruency and Linear Feature Extraction for Satellite Images Using Smoothing Algorithm
Country : India
Authors : J. Krishna Chaithanya, Babu. I, Shaik Basha, Dr. T. Ramashri
: 10.9790/0661-1216772      logo

Abstract: In computer vision all of the existing researches are interested in synthetic images features extraction. These images contain many types of features. Moreover, the satellite images are one most complex real image. Accordingly, many researches are developed in this way. The satellite images present a great variety of features due to the trouble what returns their treatment is little delicate. The automated extraction of linear features from remotely sensed imagery has been the subject of extensive research over several decades. Recent studies show promise for extraction of feature information for applications such as updating geographic information systems (GIS). Research has been stimulated by the increase in available imagery in recent years following the launch of several airborne and satellite sensors. In this paper, we introduce a new application of linear and phase congruency model for features extraction in satellite images. The aim of this paper is to exploit the advantages and the limitations of this model applied in satellite images features extraction. On the other hand, Adaptive minutia preserving smoothing algorithm used to improve the features extraction procedure. The paper also describes methods used for feature extraction and considers quantitative and qualitative accuracy assessment of these procedures. Keywords: Satellite images, phase congruency model, smoothing algorithm, linear feature extraction.

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