IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 13- Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Multipath Routing Protocol by Breadth First Search Algorithm in Wireless Mesh Networks
Country : India
Authors : Prof. Rekha Patil, N. Rajesh S.
: 10.9790/0661-1360107      logo

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a multipath routing protocol in wireless mesh networks. In this protocol, the source discovers multiple paths to the destination using parallel layer based approach. This approach organizes the nodes and discovers multiple paths using breadth first search algorithm. From multiple paths, the primary path is elected using Expected Forwarding Counter (EFW) metric. We evaluate quality linked based in our approach using network simulator 2 (NS-2). Our approach discovers multiple paths effectively and the elected primary path is more reliable. The approach makes use of Expected Forwarding Counter (EFW) metric to elect the primary path. We have evaluated the protocol using NS-2. The results show that the proposed protocol attains more throughput and packet delivery ratio with reduced packet drop and delay.

Keywords: Breadth first search (BFS), Expected Forwarding Counter (EFW), Network simulator 2 (NS-2), Wireless mesh networks (WMNs).

[1] Hassnaa Moustafa, Usman Javaid, Tinku Mohamed Rasheed, "A Panorama onWireless MeshNetworks: Architectures, Applications and Technical Challenges". Proceedings of Wimeshnets 2006, Waterloo, Canada, 2006.

[2] Md. Arafatur Rahman, Farhat Anwar, and Md. Saiful Azad, "Integrated Metric-Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector: A Routing Protocol over Wireless Mesh Networks" Journal of Computer Science, vol.5, No.7, pp.511-518, 2009.

[3] Ian F. Akyildiz, Xudong Wang, "A Survey on Wireless Mesh Networks", IEEE Radio Communications, pp.525-530, 2005

[4] Bruno, R., Conti, M. & Gregori, E, "Mesh networks: commodity multihop ad hoc networks", IEEE Communications Magazine 43, pp. 123-131, 2005

[5] Yaling Yang, Jun Wang, Robin Kravets, " Designing routing metrics for mesh networks" IEEE- WiMesh, 2010.

[6] Baumann, R., Heimlicher, S., Lenders, " Routing Packets into Wireless Mesh Networks", Third IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing Networking and Communications, WiMob, 2007 [7] Akyildiz, I.F., Wang, X. & Wang, W. "Wireless mesh networks: a survey" Computer Networks 47, pp. 445-487, 2005.

[8] Mohsenian-Rad, A.H. & Wong, " Joint logical topology design, interface assignment, channel allocation, and routing for multi-channel wireless mesh networks", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 6, 2007

[9] Yong Ding, Yang and Li Xiao, "Multi-Path Routing and Rate Allocation for Multi-Source Video On-Demand Streaming in Wireless Mesh Networks" IEEE INFOCOM-2011

[10] Chun-Wei Chen and Eric Hsiao-Kuang Wu, "Gateway Zone Multi-path Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks", Proceedings of ACM 4th international conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing, (UIC '07), Pages 350 – 359, 2007

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review on Image Inpainting to Restore Image
Country : India
Authors : M. S. Ishi, Prof. Lokesh Singh, Prof. Manish Agrawal
: 10.9790/0661-1360813      logo

Abstract: With the advent of lots of multimedia instruments in today's world peoples are clicking lots of Picture of theirs and also trying to preserve their past pictures. As the time goes on those pictures got damaged. Image inpainting is technique which tries to recover such images which are damaged. Inpainting is an art of modifying the digital image in such a way that the modifications/alterations are undetectable to an observer who has no idea about the original image. Image Inpainting is used to filling the region which are damaged and want to recover from unwanted object by collecting the information from the more promising neighbouring pixels which will add details to the image such that image have close resemblance to the original image and we are not able to differentiate between original image and the inpainted image. In this paper we are trying to study various technique of image inpainting, where the authors used the multiresoultion technique, wavelet transform, counterlet transform, fragment based image completition etc. to complete the image. We also discuss about the advantages and disadvantages of that technique with respect to efficiency and time limit. Keywords: Image Inpainting, multiresoultion, neighboring pixels, undetectable, wavelet transform.

[1] M. Bertalmio, G. Sapiro, V. Caselles and C. Ballester, "image inpainting," In Proc. ACM Conf. Compo Graphics (SIGGRAPH), New Orleans, LU, 2000, pp. 417-424.
[2] Timothy K. Shih,Liang-Chen Lu, Ying-Hong Wang and Rong-Chi Chang, "Multi-resolution Image Inpainting" IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2003.
[3] D. Iddo, C. O. Daniel, and Y. Hezy, "Fragment Based Image Completion," ACM Transactions on Graphics, 2003, 22(3) 303-312.
[4] S, Borikar, K. K. Biswas, and S. Pattanaik, "Fast Algorithm for Completion of Images with Natural Scenes," graphics. Cs. ucf. eduiborikarlBorikarPaper. pdf.
[5] Y. Zhang, J Xiao, and M. Shah, "Region Completion in a Single Image,". EUROGRAPHICS, Grenoble, France, Short Presentations.
[6] A, Criminisi, P. Perez, and K. Toyama, "Region filling and object removal by exemplar-based image inpainting," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2004, 13(9) 1200-1212.
[7] Dongwook cho and Tien D. Bui "Image Inpainting Using Wavelet-Based Inter-and Intra-Scale Depedency" IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 2008.
[8] M. Elad, J.L. Starck, P. Querre, and D.L. Donoho, "Simultaneous Cartoon and texture image inpainting using morphological component analysis (MCA) ," Journal on Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, 340-358, 2005.
[9] Po, Duncan D K, "Directional multiscale modeling of images using the contourlet transform", Statistical Signal Processing, 2003 IEEE Workshop on 28 Sept.-1 Oct. 2003.
[10] Z. Xu and S. Jian, "Image inpainting by patch propagation using patch sparsity," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 19, Pp. 1153-1165, 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review on Matching For Sketch Technique
Country : India
Authors : Prasad Mahale, Prof. Ms. Deepshikha Patel, Prof. Dr. Bhupen Gaur
: 10.9790/0661-1361417      logo

Abstract: In the area of digital image processing content based image retrieval (CBIR) is one of the most popular, researches raising area. Many tools like Google, Yahoo & other used textual annotation of images. The principle work that was done by CBIR is to extract visual content of image intuitively like color, shape & texture. Additionally sketch based image retrieval system (SBIR) is also plays very imperative role within the content based image retrieval system (CBIR). The system including problem & challenges concerned with design and constitution of content based image retrieval system. The vital objective that holds the information gap between a sketch & color image we have to design & appliance task specific descriptor. The system states that a description about a possible solution for the implementation of descriptor to carry a special sequence of altering the steps of the reconstruction of full color image sketch can be compared. For the preparation of gallery can take a shop images with possible application for forensic sketch identical images.

Keywords: Sketch-based image retrieval, Image databases, Image descriptors, CBIR, SBIR.

[1] D. Comaniciu, and P. Meer, "Robust analysis of feature spaces: color image segmentation," IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 750-755, June 1997.
[2] D.G. Lowe, "Object Recognition from Local Scale-Invariant Features," IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, vol. 2, p. 1150, 1999.
[3] N. Dalal, and B. Triggs, "Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection," IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 886-893, July 2005.
[4] T. Deselaers, D. Keysers, and H. Ney, "Features for image retrieval: an experimental comparison," Information Retrieval, vol. 11, pp. 77-107, December 2007.
[5] A.K. Jain, J.E. Lee, R. Jin, and N. Gregg, "Graffiti-ID: matching retrieval of graffiti images," ACM MM, MiFor'09, pp. 1-6, 2009.
[6] A.K. Jain, J.E. Lee, R. Jin, and N. Gregg, "Content based image retrieval: an application to tattoo images," IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pp. 2745-2748, November 2009.
[7] A.K. Jain, J.E. Lee, and R. Jin, "Sketch to photo matching: a feature-based approach," Proc. SPIE, Biometric Technology for Human Identification VII, vol. 7667, pp. 766702-766702, 2010.
[8] M. Eitz, K. Hildebrand, T. Boubekeur, and M. Alexa, "An evaluation of descriptors for large-scale image retrieval from sketched feature lines," Computers and Graphics, vol. 34, pp. 482-498, October 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Survey on the Social Impacts of On-line Social Networking Sites
Country : Bangladesh
Authors : Monjur Ahmed
: 10.9790/0661-1361820      logo

Abstract: In the contemporary information age, the social networking sites (SNS) have been proved to be very popular where a significant number of total global populations are habituated in using the social networking platforms for interaction and collaboration purpose. The on-line social networking platforms have evolved to be the on-line collaboration platform in social, professional and personal settings that helpe people to be in touch for socializing or for professional interactivity purpose. The social networking interaction has become an integral part of human life and being used in diversified fields with dynamic reasons. As social networking platforms are becoming an integrated part of human life, the impact of those platforms subsequently has become part of interest on which significant level of research and studies have been carried out. This paper enlists the surveys, studies and research on the impact of social networking sites from a critical evaluation viewpoint.

Keywords: Social Networks, Social Networking Site, Digital Culture, On-line Collaboration, SNS.

[1]. Lauren A. J., Eickhoff, J. C. and Moreno, M.A., 2013. "Facebook Depression?" Social Networking Site Use and Depression in Older Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52, pp. 128 –130,
[2]. Alloway, T.P., Horton, J., Alloway, R.G. and Dawson, C., 2013. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter? Computers & Education, 63, pp. 10–16,
[3]. Floros, G., Siomos, K., 2013. The relationship between optimal parenting, Internet addiction and motives for social Networking in Adolescence. Psychiatry Research,
[4]. Hunter, P., 2008. Social Networking: The Focus for New Threats – and Old Ones. Computer Fraud and Security, pp. 17-18, doi: 10.1016/S1361-3723(08)70114-3
[5]. Karpinski, A.C., Kirschner, P.A., Ozer, I., Mellott, J.A. and Ochwo, P., 2013. An Exploration of Social Networking Site Use, Multitasking, and Academic Performance Among United States and European University Students. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, pp. 1182–1192,
[6]. Ellahi, A. and Bokhari, R.H., 2013. Key Quality Factors Affecting Users' Perception of Social Networking Websites. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20, pp. 120–129,
[7]. Ryymin, E., Palonen, T. and Hakkarainen, K., 2008. Networking Relations Of Using ICT Within a Teacher Community. Computers & Education, 51, pp. 1264–1282, doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.12.001
[8]. Sengupta, A. and Chaudhuri, A., 2011. Are Social Networking Sites a Source of Online Harassment for Teens? Evidence from Survey Data. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, pp. 284–290, doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.09.011
[9]. Nosko, A., Wood, E. and Molema, S., 2010. All About Me: Disclosure in Online Social Networking Profiles: The Case of FACEBOOK. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, pp. 406–418, doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.11.012
[10]. Lin, K. and Lu, H., 2011. Why People Use Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Study Integrating Network Externalities and Motivation Theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, pp. 1152–1161, doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.12.009

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Forecasting of Exchange rates with Recurrent FLANN
Country : India
Authors : Ajit Kumar Rout, Sai Prasad Setty
: 10.9790/0661-1362128      logo

Abstract: In this paper, Functional link artificial recurrent neural network (FLARNN) ensemble forecasting model is proposed for foreign exchange rates prediction. In the survey of existing literature, it is revealed that there is need to develop efficient forecasting models involving less computational load and fast forecasting capability. We compare the FLARNN model performance with some existing neural network models such as LMS and FLANN in terms of the exchange rates between US Dollar and other three currencies (Indian Rupees, British pound, Japanese Yen). Experimental results reveal that the predictions using the proposed approach are consistently better than the above mentioned methods on the basis of various parameters including error convergence and the Mean Average Percentage Error (MAPE).

Keywords: Artificial neural networks; Recurrent; Currency Exchange rate Forecasting; FLANN; FLARNN.

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[8] Lee, P. and Haykin, S. (1999) "A dynamic regularised radial basis function network for nonlinear,nonstationary time series prediction‟, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 47, No. 9,pp.2503–2521.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Filtering Schemes for Injected False Data in Wsn
Country : India
Authors : Shahina K, Anand Pavithran
: 10.9790/0661-1362931      logo

Abstract:Wireless sensor networking is an emerging technology, which supports many emerging applications due to their low cost, small size and unethered communication over short distances. Sensor nodes are deployed in open hostile environment in WSN applications. An adversary can easily compromise sensor nodes due to their unattended nature. Adversaries can inject false data reports into the WSN through compromised nodes. The false data reports lead the en-route nodes and the base station to make false decision. False decision depletes the energy of en-route nodes and the base station. Hence create threat to the lifetime of the sensor nodes. To detect and drop false data, number of en-route filtering schemes have been developed. Bandwidth Efficient Cooperative Authentication scheme for injected false data(BECAN) is an efficient method for filtering false data. Here, implements the BECAN scheme by using NS2 and increases the security by adding Hybrid Authentication scheme (HAS).

Keywords: En-route filtering, Sensor node, false data.

[1] F. Ye, H. Luo, S. Lu, and L. Zhang. Statistical en-route filtering of injected false data in sensor networks. In INFOCOM 2004.
Twenty-third Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, volume 4, pages 2446-2457. IEEE, 2004
[2] H. Yang and S. Lu. Commutative cipher based en-route filtering in wireless sensor networks. In Vehicular Technology Conference,
2004. VTC2004 Fall. 2004 IEEE 60th, volume 2, pages 1223-1227.IEEE, 2004.
[3] C. Kraub, M. Schneider, K. Bayarou, and C. Eckert. Stef: A secure ticket-based en-route filtering scheme for wireless sensor
networks. In Availability, Reliability and Security, 2007. ARES 2007.The Second International Conference, pages 310-317. IEEE,
[4] Z. Yu and Y. Guan. A dynamic en-route filtering scheme for data reporting in wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions
on Networking(ToN), 18(1):150-163, 2010.
[5] R. Lu, X. Lin, H. Zhu, X. Liang, and X. Shen. Becan: A bandwidth efficient cooperative authentication scheme for filtering injected
false data in wireless sensor networks. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transacztions , 23(1):32-43,2012.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Using Fuzzy Clustering and Software Metrics to Predict Faults in large Industrial Software Systems
Country : Malaysia
Authors : Nurudeen Sherif, Nurudeen Mohammed
: 10.9790/0661-1363236      logo

Abstract: Faults are a key problem in software systems. Awareness of possible flaws from the initialization of a project could save money, time and work. Estimating the possible deficiency of software could help in executing software development activities. This paper proposes a model to predict the possibility of faults on a software system before testing. The model predicts possible faults during software development using Fuzzy Clustering and Software Metrics. This research is aimed at predicting faults in large software systems by creating clusters and then finding out the distance of each point in the data set with the clusters created to determine their degree of membership within each cluster

Keywords: Software, fault prediction, software metrics, fuzzy clustering

[1] Koru, H. Liu, "Building effective defect- prediction models in practice", IEEE Software, 2005, 23-29.
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[9] Gaffney, J. E., and Davis, C. F., An Approach to Estimating Software Errors and Availability, SPC-TR-88-007, Version 1.0, March 1988, Proc. 11th Minnow Brook Workshop on Software Reliability, (1988).
[10] Gaffney, J. E., and Pietrolewiez, J., An Auto

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design Test-bed for assessing load utilising using Multicast Forwarding Approach in Wireless Mesh Networks
Country : India
Authors : Kirti Dhiman & Dr. Parminder Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1363740      logo

Abstract: The challenges and complexities, coupled with the crucial importance of routing protocol in establishing communications among mobile nodes, build the routing space. In this kind of strategy, a node tries to forward the packet to one of its neighbours that are nearer to the destination than itself. If quite one nearer node exists, totally different selections area unit are attainable. A node selects ensuing hop for packet forwarding by mistreatment the physical position of its one-hop neighbours and therefore the physical position of the destination node. If the packet is retransmitted by some hop the most range of times and no receipt confirmation is received, this node returns a route error message to the original sender of the packet, characteristic the link over that the packet couldn't be forwarded. Due to common and unpredictable topology alterations in MANETs, the package consignment rate of multicast messages can be low. Their aim is to double-check that all multicast group constituents obtain, absolutely or with a high likelihood, the facts and figures multicast in this assembly, supplied they are reachable. This paper separately measures the Battery lifetime and load generated by AODV in WMNs because of node quality victimization a simulated test bed.

Keywords: APs, AODV, WMNs, Gateway, Load, Router.

[1] David A. Maltz and Josh Broch ,"Lessons from a Full-Scale Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Testbed",IEEE Personal Communications,2001,pp.8-15.

[2] Pradipta De, Ashish Raniwala, Srikant Sharma, and Tzi-cker Chiueh, "Design Considerations for a Multihop Wireless Network Testbed",IEEE Communications Magazine,2005,pp. 102-109.

[3] C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer, ―Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing‖, in: Proceedings of IEEE WMCSA'99, February 1999.


[5] S. M. S. Bari, F. Anwar, M. H. Masud, "Performance Study of Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) for IEEE 802.11s WLAN Mesh Networks",International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering (ICCCE 2012), 3-5 July 2012.

[6] Amitangshu Pal, Asis Nasipuri,"A quality based routing protocol for wireless mesh networks",Pervasive and Mobile Computing,2011.
[7] The network simulator — ns-2,

[8] Timo Vanhatupa, Marko Hännikäinen, Timo D. Hamalainen, "Performance model for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh network deployment design",J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., 2008.

[9] Yannick Lacharite, Maoyu Wang, Louise Lamont, Lars Landmark, "A Simplified Approach to Multicast Forwarding Gateways in MANET",IEEE, 2007.

[10] Charles E. Perkings, Elizabeth M.Royer and Samir R.Das,Performance Comparison of Two On-Demand Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Personal Communications, Feb 2001.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Readability and Academic Communication: A Comparative Study of Undergraduate Students' and Handbook of Three Ghanaian Universities
Country : Ghana
Authors : William Kodom Gyasi
: 10.9790/0661-1364150      logo

Abstract: Essentially, this study investigated the readability of handbooks of three reputable universities in Ghana, namely: University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and University of Cape Coast. The study conducted an in-depth investigation into the readability of these handbooks, using seven readability indexes. These readability indexes include: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog Index, Coleman-Liau Index, SMOG Index, Automated Readability Index and Lisear Write Formula. The readability consensus for the 7 readability indexes showed that these handbooks are very difficult to comprehend when measured in terms of readability indexes and that they were generally written to be understood by university graduates and in some cases even above the reading level of university graduates. The study also established that there are no statistically significant differences across the mean scores of the readability of the three handbooks. It is therefore recommended that the hallmark of texts contained in students' handbooks should be sensitive to students' reading level. It is belief that this can be achieved through the use of plain language in writing students' handbooks.

Keywords: text readability; readability index, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Coleman-Liau Index, SMOG Index, Automated Readability Index, Lisear Write Formula and Ghanaian Universities Students' Handbook.

[1]. Boghossian, P.A. (2001). What is social construction? Times literary supplement, 23: 6-8
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[7]. Gyasi, I. K. (1990). The state of English in Ghana. English Today 23, 24–6.(1991). Aspects of English in Ghana. English Today, pp. 26-31.
[8]. Hackling, L. (1999). The social construction of what? Harvard: Harvard University Press.
[9]. Hyland, K. (1999). Academic attribution: Citation and the construction of the disciplinary knowledge. Applied Linguistics,20.3:341-67
[10]. Ivan, A. (2010). Fog Index and Readability Formulas. Available at Accessed on March 12, 2013.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Chaos Based Direct Public Verifiable Signcryption Scheme
Country : India
Authors : Richa, Parvinder Singh
: 10.9790/0661-1365157      logo

Abstract: Chaos is one type of complex dynamic behaviour generated by determined nonlinear dynamic systems.Chaos functions have mainly used to develop mathematical models of non linear systems .Chaotic systems have many important properties, such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions, system parameters, density of point set topology of all cycles passed. Most properties such as mixing and diffusion are related to some requirement in the sense of cryptography. Therefore, provide more useful and practical applications of chaotic cryptosystems. In this paper, we investigate the utility of such functions in signcryption scheme for secure communication. An algorithm using a simple chaotic function f(x) = 3*x *(1 – x2) is proposed .The proposed scheme is highly sensitive to the initial conditions. This paper presents chaos based Multi message signcryption scheme with public verifiability concept. The proposed scheme works for both single recipient and multiple recipients. The proposed scheme uses a chaos based multi key generator to generate multiple keys for signcryption scheme, and provides high security due to its chaotic nature. This represents important improvements over the chaotic key multi-message multi-recipient signcryption (CPK-MM-MRS) scheme proposed earlier.

Keywords: Chaos, Signcryption, Choatic function, Hash function, Keyed Hash Function, Encryption, Signature.

[1] S. Han, E. Chang, Chaotic map based key agreement with/out clock synchronization, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 39 2009, 1283–1289.

[2] Yuliang Zheng, Alexander W. Dent, Moti Yung, "Practical Signcryption", 2010.

[3] Yuliang Zheng "Digital Signcryption or How to Achieve Cost (Signature & Encryption) << Cost (Signature) + Cost (Encryption) " Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '97, 17th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, California, USA, , vol 1294, Springer-Verlag 1997, pp. 165-179.

[4] M.S Baptista "Cryptography with chaos" Physics Letters A 240 1998,no.1-2,50 4.

[5] Dalia.H.Elkamchouchi "A chaotic key multi-message multi-recepientssigncryption scheme (CPK-MM-MR-SS)." Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Alexandria Higher Institute of Engineering & Technology (AIET), Alexandria 21311, Alexandria, Egypt.

[6] Dr. Ranjan Bose , Amitabha Banerjee "Implementing symmetric cryptography using chaos function" Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, HauzKhas, New Delhi.

[7] YuliangZheng, "Signcryption and Its Applications in Efficient Public Key Solutions"First International Workshop, ISW'97 Tatsunokuchi, Ishikawa, Japan,Springer-Verlag, 1997, pp 291-312.

[8] J.M. Amigó, L. Kocarev b, J. Szczepanski, "Theory and practice of chaotic cryptography", Physics Letters A 366 , 2007,pp. 211–216.

[9] M. Elkamchouchi, A-A. M. EmarahEsam A. A. Hagras: "Public Key Multi-Message Signcryption (PK-MMS) Scheme For Secure Communication Systems," Fifth Annual Conference on Communication Networks and Services Research(CNSR), 2007.

[10] H. Elkamchouchi, Mohammed Nasr, and R. Ismail, "A New Efficient Multiple Messages Signcryption Scheme with Public Verifiability," L. Qi (Ed.): FCC 2009, CCIS 34, 2009, pp. 193–200.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Methodology for Traffic Monitoring and Efficient Data Propagation in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : Archana Y. Nilajkar, Sujata P. Umarani
: 10.9790/0661-1365867      logo

Abstract: A vehicular ad hoc network is an emerging technology, however some challenging issues need to be resolved. In recent years, road congestion and traffic related pollution have a large negative social and economic impact worldwide. For better public transport, strategic planning, traffic monitoring is required to cut pollution and congestion. One of the important attributes of traffic data is the interval between the time that the data are generated by a vehicle on a particular road and the time that the data is made available to the user as a query response and also to select the fastest route to a destination in a reliable manner. To address these issues, this work focuses on two routing algorithms for VANETS 1) Delay bounded greedy forwarding(D-Greedy) 2)Delay bounded minimum cost forwarding (D-MinCost). The first proposed algorithm (D-Greedy) exploits local traffic conditions, i.e., information about the speed and density of cars at the road segment that it currently traverses. The second algorithm (D-MinCost) assumes knowledge of global traffic conditions, i.e., statistical information about the speed and density of cars on every road segment of the city. This work explores on the current traffic conditions on that road segment. Also a framework is proposed for vehicular networks that jointly optimizes the two key processes associated with monitoring traffic i.e. data acquisition and data delivery.

Keywords: Ad hoc network, data muling (DM), multihop (MH) communication, routing, sensor participation, traffic monitoring, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), vehicular networks.

[1] M. A. Perillo and W. B. Heinzelman, "Optimal sensor management under energy and reliability constraints," in Proc. IEEE WCNC, 2003, pp. 1621–1626.

[2] M. Cardei and D.-Z. Du, "Improving wireless sensor network lifetime through power aware organization," ACM Wireless Netw., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 333–340, May 2005.

[3] K.-P. Shih, Y.-D. Chen, C.-W. Chiang, and B.-J. Liu, "A distributed active sensor selection scheme for wireless sensor networks," in Proc. IEEE ISCC, Jun. 2006, pp. 923–928.

[4] J. Lu, L. Bao, and T. Suda, "Coverage-aware sensor engagement in dense sensor networks," in Proc. EUC, 2005, pp. 639–650.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Routing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Network in VANET
Country : India
Authors : Ravi Shankar Shukla, Neeraj Tyagi
: 10.9790/0661-1366877      logo

Abstract: Today, Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging technology. With the progress of wireless radio technology, telecommunication, various wireless specifications and protocols, the routing problems in heterogeneous wireless network become popular research area in the field of VANET for supporting different aspects of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications. In this paper, we integrate cellular (3G) network and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) into a hybrid network. This hybrid network is called heterogeneous wireless network (HWN) with multi-cells architecture to overcome the weakness of cellular network and Ad-Hoc network. We also, propose a routing algorithm for HWN. The simulation results show that HWN with the proposed routing algorithm has minimum request block rate and transmission time.

Keywords: Heterogeneous Wireless Network, VANET, Routing Algorithm

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[2] Muhammad Nawaz Khan,Ishtiaq Wahid & Gulzar Mehmood (2012) "A Global Mobility Management Scheme for Reducing Overall Handover Latency in IP based VANETs" in IJASUC) Vol.3.
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[8] U. Varshney, and R. Jain," Issues in emerging 4G wireless networks", IEEE Journal on Computer, vol.34, no.6, pp.94–96, Jun., 2001.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Image Processing for Automated Flaw Detection and CMYK model for Color Image Segmentation using Type 2 Fuzzy Sets
Country : India
Authors : Anindita Chatterjee, Himadri Nath Moulick
: 10.9790/0661-1368999      logo

Abstract: Infrared (IR) thermography has evolved in recent years from being an emerging nondestructive testing (NDT) technique to a viable approach for both aerospace manufacturing and in-service inspections. One of the drawbacks of thermography techniques is that no standard signal processing has been universally adopted and that different algorithms yield different sizing results. Additionally, the data interpretation is not as simple as with other NDT techniques. In this paper the most common signal processing techniques applied to pulsed thermography, which include derivative processing, pulsed phase thermography and principal component analysis, are applied in an attempt to simplify the damage detection and sizing process. The pulsed thermography experiments were carried out on 25 impacted panels made of carbon fiber epoxy material. Despite using similar panels and the same experiment parameters, the damage detection and sizing processes are not straight forward. It is concluded that some algorithms provide easier detection capability than others. However, on their own, the different algorithms lack the robustness to make the damage detection and sizing processes reliable and fully automated. And Optimization of the similarity measure is an essential theme in medical image registration. In this paper, a novel continuous medical image registration approach (CMIR) is proposed. This is our extension work of the previous one where we did a segmentation part of any particular image with a custom algorithm .The CMIR, considering the feedback from users and their preferences on the trade-off between global registration and local registration, extracts the concerned region by user interaction and continuously optimizing the registration result. Experiment results show that CMIR is robust, and more effective compared with the basic optimization algorithm. Image registration, as a precondition of image fusion, has been a critical technique in clinical diagnosis. It can be classified into global registration and local registration. Global registration is used most frequently, which could give a good approximation in most cases and do not need to determine many parameters. Local registration can give detailed information about the concerned regions, which is the critical region in the image. Finding the maximum of the similarity measure is an essential problem in medical image registration. Our work is concentrating on that particular section with the synergy of Tpe-2 fuzzy logic invoked in it. Keywords; Extrinsic method, Fuzzy sets, image possessing, intrinsic method Introduction, Multi-model image alignment.

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