IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 3 - Issue 2

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Peak-To–Average Power Ratio Reduction of Ofdm Siganls
Country : India
Authors : Ms. Nilofer. SK, Mr .Shaik. Umar Faruq M.Tech, (Ph.d)
: 10.9790/2834-0320105       logo

Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a form of multicarrier modulation technique with high spectral efficiency and immunity to interference. Despite of many advantages the main disadvantage of OFDM is that the time domain of OFDM signal which is a sum of subcarrier sinusoids leads to high Peak-to- Average power ratio (PAPR). A simple technique used to reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals is to clip the signal to a maximum allowed value, at the cost of bit error rate (BER) degradation and out-of-band radiation. The other method is Selective mapping method (SLM) technique which is a probabilistic technique for PAPR reduction with aim of reducing the occurrence of peaks in a signal. In this project partial transmit (PTS) scheme along with the threshold technique has been simulated using Matlab and the simulation results shows that the technique performs better. To compare the results SLM and clipping methods are also simulated.
Index Terms: Bit Error Rate (BER) Degradation, Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)), Partial Transmit Scheme
(PTS), Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) and Selective Mapping Method (SLM).

[1] Xue Li,Vasu.D.Chakravarthy "Spreading Code Design of Adaptive Non-Contiguous SOFDM for Dynamic Spectrum Access", IEEE
Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing,vol.5,no.1,Jan. 2011.
[2] Henrik Schulze and Christian Luders. "Theory and Applications of OFDM and CDMA. Wideband Wireless Communications". Wiley, 2003.
[3] Y.Wu and W. Y. Zou, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing: A multi-carrier modulation scheme," IEEE Trans. Consumer
Electronics, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 392–399, Aug. 1995.
[4] N. Dinur and D. Wulich, "Peak-to-average power ratio in high-order OFDM," IEEE Trans. Communications, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1063– 1072, Jun. 2001.
[5] Lingyin Wang and Ju Liu, Senio "PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals by PTS With Grouping and Recursive Phase Weighting
Methods" IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting,vol.43,no.1,Jan. 2010.
[6] Jun Hou, Jianhua Ge, and Jing Li "Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction of OFDM Signals Using PTS Scheme With Low
Computational Complexity" IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol.57, no.1, March 2011
[7] Ms. V. B. Malode, Dr. B. P. Patil "PAPR Reduction Using Modified Selective Mapping Technique".Int. J. of Advanced Networking
and Applications, Volume:02, Issue: 02, Pages:626-630 (2010).
[8] G.Yue, X.Wang,M.Madihian "Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction scheme with Threshold limited selection for orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing" IET Communications Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 1034–1042,2008.
[9] Heung-Gyoon Ryu, Member, IEEE, Jae-Eun Lee and Jin-Soo Park, Member, IEEE "Dummy Sequence Insertion (DSI) for PAPR
Reduction in the OFDM Communication System" IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 94 50, No. 1, FEBRUARY 2004.
[10] Y. Zhou and T. Jiang, "A novelclipping integrated into ACE for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems," 2009 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, WCSP 2009, Mar.2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Identification and Modeling of Dominant Causes of Congestion In A Cellular Network
Country : Nigeria
Authors : Akut E. K. B.Eng, M.Eng, S. M. Sani PhD, C. Eng, MIEE, MNSE
: 10.9790/2834-0320613       logo

Abstract: In this paper, teletraffic data were collected from Airtel Nigeria Ltd. for a period of 18 months. Frequencies of occurrence of congestion in the network were derived from the teletraffic data using the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) benchmark. The dominant causes of congestion in the network were identified from the data and their value of occurrence was seen to be random in nature. A Poisson probability distribution model was therefore implemented for the prediction of congestion in the network. The identified four dominant causes of congestion and their percentage relative weights based on frequency of occurrence were: (i) X1: Faulty System (50.63%); (ii) X2: Faulty Trunk(s) (29.11%); (iii) X3: Power Failure (16.46%) and (iv) X4: Cable Cut (03.80%). MATLAB (M-file Data Acquisition Toolbox) programming environment was used to write a software program in C++ language that simulated the four dominant causes of congestion. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient formula was used to test the relationship between the measured and simulated congestion. The value r = 0.7487 was the correlation coefficient obtained between the measured and simulated results. This shows that the model is reasonably reliable.
Key words: Airtel, Congestion, Mobile network, Poisson, Probability.

[1] Webster‟s New World Dictionary, copyright © 2008 by Wiley publishing inc. indianapolic, Indiana.
[2] Dspace Vidyanidhi Digital Library, University of Mysore (current
March, 2009)
[3] K. Sriram: "Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation and Congestion Control Scheme for Voice and Data Multiplexing In Wide Band
Packet Technology". AT & T Bell Laboratories. Room 3H-607 Crawfords Comer Road Holmdel, New Jersey 07733. (current April, 2009)
[4] David L. & Steven L: "Random Early Marking for Internet Congestion Control" T melbourne information technologies australia, Department of EEE. The University of Melbourne Carlton, Victoria, Australia 3053. (current April, 2009)
[5] Yong X., David H., Kishore R., Arvind V. & Shivkumar K.: "Accumulation-based Congestion Control" Department of Electrical, Electronics & Computer Studies EECS. University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. (current April, 2009)
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Troy, NY 12180. (current April, 2009)
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[8] The Nigerian Communications Commission (current, February, 2010)
[9] Dropped Call (TCH Drop-SDCCH Drop) – TCH Drop Analysis drop.html (current February, 2010)
[10] Airtel Nigerian Limited. A Technical Report Handbook For Operations Department Kaduna, Nigeria. 1991
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Implementation of Fast Fourier Transform Using NOC
Country : India
Authors : Lalitha Bhavani.Maddipati, D. Nataraj
: 10.9790/2834-0321419       logo
Abstract:In this paper, improved algorithms for radix-8 FFT are presented. Various schemes have been proposed for computing FFT. It has Different target domains of applications and different tradeoffs between flexibility and performance. Typically, they need reconfigurable array of processing elements .The applications have been restricted to domains based on floating arithmetic. We introduce floating-point Arithmetic which is based on processing elements. After developing the FFT design we present a routing Algorithm and use topology to reduce power dissipation. These modified radix-8 algorithms provide savings of more than 33% in the number of twiddle factor evaluations
[1] H. Singh, M.-H. Lee, G. Lu, F. J. Kurdahi, N. Bagherzadeh, and E.M. C. Filho, "Morphosys: An integrated reconfigurable system
for dataparalleland computation-intensive applications," IEEE Trans. Comput.,vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 465–481, May 2000.
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[3] B. Mei, S. Vernalde, D. Verkest, H. D. Man, and R. Lauwereins,"ADRES: An architecture with tightly coupled VLIW processor
andcoarse-grained reconfigurable matrix," in Proc. FPLA, 2003, pp. 61–70.
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[5] T. J. Callahan and J. Wawrzynek, "Instruction-level parallelism forreconfigurable computing," in Proc. IWFPL, 1998, pp. 248–257.
[6] W. Lee, R. Barua, M. Frank, D. Srikrishna, J. Babb, V. Sarkar, and S.P. Amarasinghe, "Space-time scheduling of instruction level
parallelismon a RAW machine," in Proc. ASPLOSV, 1998, pp. 46–57.
[7] B. Mei, S. Vernalde, D. Verkest, H. D. Man, and R. Lauwereins,"DRESC: A retargetable compiler for coarse -grained
reconfigurablearchitectures," in Proc. ICFPT, Dec. 2002, pp. 166–173.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Security for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Country : India
Authors : Mr. S. J. Patil, Prof. (Mr.) U. A. Patil, Ms. A. A. Patil
: 10.9790/2834-0322026      logo

Abstract: An Ad-hoc network is a dynamically changing network of mobile nodes that communicate without the support of a fixed network. Due to lack of centralized control, secured communication in mobile Ad-hoc network is important matter due to dynamic nature of the network topology. MANETs is affected by new security problems in addition to the problems of regular networks. In this paper, we introduce an efficient security AODV algorithm to enhance the data security in the network. To generate the private key ECDSA algorithm is used. Simulation result shows that our protocol gives better performance than the previous one.
Key words: AODV, ECDSA algorithm, MANET

[1] Z.M.Alfawaer, Saleem Al_zoubi. "A proposed security subsystem for Ad Hoc wireless networks" In International forum on
Computer Science-Technology And Application. IEEE 2009.
[2] Song. Ci et al, "Self-Regulating Network Utilization in Mobile Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks" IEEE Trans. Vehic. Tech., vol. 55, no.
4, pp. 1302–10, July 2006.
[3] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, "Ad Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing," IETF RFC 3561, July 2003.
[4] Th. Clausen et al., "Optimized Link State Routing Protocol," IETF Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-11.txt, July 2003.
[5] A. Shevtekar, K. Anantharam, and N. Ansari, "Low Rate TCP Denial-of-Service Attack Detection at Edge Routers," IEEE
Commun. Lett., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 363–65, Apr. 2005.
[6] Y-C Hu and A. Perrig, "A Survey of Secure Wireless Ad-Hoc Routing," IEEE Sec. and Privacy, May–June 2004.
[7] K. Sanzgiri et al., "A Secure Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. 2002 IEEE Int'l. Conf. Network Protocols, Nov. 2002.
[8] Y-C. Hu, A. Perrig, and D. B. Johnson, "Ariadne: A Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks," Proc.
MobiCom '02, Atlanta, GA, Sept. 23–28, 2002.
[9] M. G. Zapata and N. Asokan, "Securing Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols," Proc. 2002 ACM Wksp. Wireless Sec. pp. 1–10, Sept. 2002.
[10] B. Wu et al., "A Survey of Attacks and Countermeasures in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Wireless/Mobile Network Security,
Springer, vol. 17, 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Ftp Implementation with Arm Processor and Gprs for Real Time Applications
Country : India
Authors : N. Bala Saidulu, V.Rajasree
: 10.9790/2834-0322731       logo

Abstract: In this paper, we present the principles of a low-cost Internet-based data processing system. The main h e a r t of the system is an embedded hardware (ARM 9) running with a Linux OS. The embedded device communicates through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module, which makes it accessible from anywhere in the world. The GPRS module provides a bidirectional real-time data transfer between the server and client. The proposed system will provide no need for server software and maintenance
Key words: ARM, GPRS, GSM, FTP Server ,Data-acquisition, embedded system, interaction, Internet, Linux, real time.

Journal Papers:
[1] W. Kattanek, A. Schreiber, and M. Götze, "A flexible and cost-effective open system platform for smart wireless communication
devices," in Proc. ISCE, 2002.
[2] J. E. Marca, C. R. Rindt, and M. G. Mcnally, "The tracer data collection system: Implementation and operational experience,"
Inst. Transp. Stud- ies, Univ. California, Irvine, CA, Uci-Its-As-Wp-02-2, 2002.
[3] E. Bekiroglu and N. Daldal, "Remote control of an ultrasonic motor by
[4] using a GSM mobile phone," Sens. Actuators A, Phys., vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 536–542, May 17, 2005.
[5] C. Xiaorong, S. Zhan, and G. Zhenhua, "Research on remote data acqui- sition system based on GPRS," in Proc. 8th ICEMI,
2007, pp. 2-20–2-23.
[6] M. A. Al-Taee, O. B. Khader, and N. A. Al-Saber, "Remote monitoring of vehicle diagnostics and location using a smart box
with Global Positioning System and General Packet Radio Service," in Proc. IEEE/ACS AICCSA, May 13 –16, 2007, pp. 385–
[7] C. Zhang, J. Ge, H. Yu, and X. Zhang, "ET gravimeter data collect- ing system based on GPRS," in Proc. 8th ICEMI, Jul. 18–
Aug. 16, 2007, pp. 2-86–2-92.
[8] C. E. Lin, C.-C. Li, A.-S. Hou, and C.-C. Wu, "A real-time remote control
[9] architecture using mobile communication," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 997 –1003, Aug. 2003.
[10] C. Bettstetter, H.-J. Vögel, and J. Eberspächer, "GSM phase 2+ General Packet Radio Service GPRS: Architecture, protocols,
and air interface,"

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Proposal for Robust and Adaptive Forward Error Correction for< real-time Audio-Video streaming solutions
Country : India
Authors : Tarun Maheshwari, Neetu Gupta
: 10.9790/2834-0323236       logo

Abstract: In this paper, we present a robust and adaptive forward error correction technique for high end Audio-Video Streaming solutions. This solution targets all kinds of network loss conditions and can be used in any embedded platforms. This technique uses optimum solution for packet loss recovery that involves switching between adaptive FEC based packet loss recovery and retransmission management. Whenever network loss increases the permissible limit of adaptive FEC loss recovery, then it switches to re-transmission of media. Adaptive FEC based packet loss recovery works on best of adaptive matrix size selection, loss recovery method selection (on-the-fly or store and compute) and FEC codec selection (Parity 1D, 2D, Raptor, Read Solomon and Hamming etc.) This technique also incorporates support for embedded systems which do not have much computation power. For such embedded systems, the adaptive FEC recovery technique switches to fixed matrix of having store and save approach for single and burst packet loss recovery. This technique provides inter-operability w.r.t FEC codec selection which also takes care of embedded system capability
Key words: Adaptive FEC, Adaptive matrix size, FEC coding (Parity 1D, 2D, Raptor, read-soloman, hamming etc.), , FEC SDP negotiation, packet loss calculation techniques

[1] Eitan Altman, Chadi Barakat, and Victor Manuel Ramos Ramos, "Queueing analysis of simple FEC schemes for IP Telephony,"
INRIA, N° 3998, September 2000.
[2] Mitsuo HAYASAKA, Manodha GAMAGE and Tetsuya MIKI, "Referential Loss Recovery for Streaming Audio using Application
Level Multicast," in Proceedings of IEEE Explore of Communications, 2005 Asia-Pacific Conference on, 3 - 5 October 2005., pp.
[3] Fang Liu, JongWon Kim, and C.-C. Jay Kuo, "Quality Enhancement of Packet Audio with Time-Scale Modification," K-JIST
(Kwang-Ju Institute of Science & Technology) GwangJu, pp. 500-712
[4] Pro-MPEG Forum, "Transmission of Professional MPEG-2 Transport Streams over IP Networks," in Pro-MPEG Forum 2002,
2003, 2004 "Vid-on-IP-CoP3-r2.pdf" rfc 5109 and rfc 2733.
[5] Lopamudra Roychoudhuri, Ehab S. Al-Shaer, "Autonomic QoS optimization of real-time Internet Audio using loss prediction and
Stochastic control", Carroll University, University of North Carolina.
[6] Wai-tian Tan, Avideh Zakhor, "Video Multicast using Layered FEC and Scalable Compression", University of California,
Berkeley, CA 94720
[7] Eitan Altman , Chadi Barakat , Victor Ramos "Queuing analysis of simple FEC schemes for Voice over IP", IEEE INFOCOM 200,
April 2001
[8] Digital Video Broadcasting, "Upper Layer Forward Error Correction in DVB", DVB Document A148, March 2010,
[9] ALTERA white paper "Quality of Service in Home Networking", "wp-01024[1].txt"
CODECS", RWTH Aachen University, August 2009, EUSIPCO 2009.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review on Microwave Based Moisture Measurement System for Granular Materials
Country : India
Authors : Twisha Pandey, Tapas K Bhuiya, Ravi Singh, Bharti Singh, Rajesh Harsh
: 10.9790/2834-0323741       logo

Abstract:In the recent years, development of a non-destructive and non-contacting type moisture measurement system has attracted considerable interest. Because of their inherent nature of being nondestructive, ability to travel through non-conductive medium and having deep penetrative properties, Microwaves have been the traditional choice in this kind of research. This paper is a comprehensive review of Microwave Based Measurement System used for grains and pulses. In this paper, moisture measurement and calibration techniques for the system are presented. The objective of the paper is to provide the readers a broad perspective of the various techniques.
Key words: Bulk density, Complex Permittivity, Moisture Measurement, Temperature Compensation

[1] ASAE S352.2 Moisture Measurement-Unground grain and seeds, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI, ASAE, 1995, ASAE Standards 1995
[2] T. J. Kelleners, D. A. Robinson, P. J. Shouse, J. E. Ayars, and T. H. Skaggs, Frequency Dependence of the Complex Permittivity
and Its Impact on Dielectric Sensor Calibration in Soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., Vol. 69, pp 67-76, January– February2005
[3] Samir Trabelsi, Andrzej W. Krazsewski and Stuart O. Nelson, New Density-Independent Calibration Function for Microwave
Sensing of Moisture Content in Particulate Materials, IEEE , IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement, Vol. 47,
No. 3, June 199, pp 613-622
[4] Samir Trabelsi and Stuart O. Nelson, Microwave Moisture Meter for Granular and Particulate Materials, Instrumentation and
Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2010 IEEE, pp 1304-1308
[5] El Sabbagh, Richard B. Russell, Ramahi, O.M. ; Trabelsi, S. ; Nelson, S.O. ; Khan, L, Use of Microstrip Patch Antennas in Grain
and Pulverized Materials Permittivity Measurement, Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2003, IEEE,
Vol 4, pp 42-45
[6] Stuart O. Nelson, Samir Trabelsi, and Andrzej W. Kraszewski, Principles of Microwave Moisture Measurement in Grain,
Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2002. IMTC/2002. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE, Vol 1, pp 99-102
[7] A.W. Kraszewski, S. Trabelsi, S.O. Nelson, Simple Grain and Moisture Content Determination from Microwave Measurements,
Transactions of the ASAE, 1998 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 41, pp 129-134
[8] Ki-Bok Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Seung Seok Lee, and Sang Ha Noh, Measurement of Grain Moisture Content Using Microwave
Attenuation at 10.5 GHz and Moisture Density, IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement, Vol. 51, No. 1, February
[9] Yangjun Zhang and Seichi Okamura, A Density-Independent Method For High Moisture Content Measurement using a
Microstrip Transmission Line, International Microwave Power Institute, Journal of Microwave Power & Electromagnetic Energy
Vol. 40, No.2, 2006
[10] A.R. von Hippel, Dielectrics and Waves. New York: Wiley, 1954, p. 26

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Adaptive Selective State-Transition Decoding: A Combined Approach for Trellis Coded Modulation Scheme
Country : India
Authors : Niranjan B. S., Vanaja Shivakumar
: 10.9790/2834-0324245       logo

Abstract: We are presenting a new suboptimum decoding strategy, namely, Adaptive Selective State- Transition Decoding (ASSTD) for Trellis Coded Modulation schemes transmission over band-limited ISI channels. The ASSTD is a combined approach provides an improved error performance over Reduced State Sequence Estimation (RSSE) techniques which are in practical use. The ASSTD operates on two different concepts and has the flexibility to work with a controlled complexity. Simulation results are obtained for static band-limited ISI channels. The results show that the ASSTD can be extended to fading channels.
Key words:Adaptive, Parameter, Selective, Selection, Transit

Journal Papers:
[1] Gottfried Ungerboeck, "Trellis-Coded Modulation with Redundant Signal Sets part1: Introduction," IEEE communications
magazine, Feb. 1987-vol.25, No. 2
[2] Gottfried Ungerboeck, "Trellis-Coded Modulation with Redundant Signal Sets part1I: State of the art," IEEE communications
magazine, Feb. 1987-vol.25, No. 2
[3]. Forney G.D., Jr.,"Maximum-likelihood Sequence Estimation of Digital Sequences in the Presence of Intersymbol
Interference," IEEE trans. Inform. Theory, Vol. IT-18, pp. 363-378, May 1972.
[4]. Pierre R. Chevillat and Evangelos Elefthrious, "Decoding of Trellis-Encoded Signals in the presence of Intersymbol Interference and
Noise," IEEE Transaction on communications, vol 37. No.7, July 1989
[5]. M. Vedat Eyboglu and Shahid U. H. Qureshi, "Reduced –State Sequence Estimation for Coded Modulation on Inter –symbol
Interference Channels," IEEE Journal on Selected Area in communications, Vol. 7, No. 6, Aug 1989.
[6]. Niranjan. B. S. ,Vanaja Shivakumar ,International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1Issue 5, July-
-2012 ISSN: 2278-0181
[7]. Proakis J. G., Digital Communications New York: McGraw- Hill,1989, 3nd ed.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Image Encription and Decription Based On Aes &Rc4
Country : India
Authors : Naga Suman Arepalli, S. Srividya
: 10.9790/2834-0324650       logo

Abstract: In the today world, security is required to transmit confidential information over the network Security is also demanding in wide range of applications. Cryptographic algorithms play a vital role in providing the data security against malicious attacks. But on the other hand, they consume significant amount of computing resources like CPU time, memory, encryption time etc. Normally, symmetric key algorithms (same key use For encryption and decryption) and asymmetric key algorithms (different key use for both encryption and decry piton) as they are very fast in nature. Symmetric algorithms are classified as block cipher (AES) and stream ciphers (RC4) algorithms. In this paper, we compare the AES (block cipher) algorithm with different modes of operation and RC4 (stream cipher) algorithm in terms of CPU time, encryption time, memory utilization and throughput at different settings like variable key size and variable data packet size and develop both block diagram.
Key words:Encryption, Decryption, Block and Stream Ciphers, AES, RC4

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44.5 45 46 9 3 0.9
[6] Scott, R.F., Itsik, M. and Adi, S. (2001) 'Weakness in the key scheduling algorithm of RC4', 8thAnnual Workshop in Selected
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