IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 3 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Improved Bernsen Algorithm Approaches For License Plate Recognition
Country : India
Authors : Madhuri Latha.G, Chakravarthy.G
: 10.9790/2834-0340105       logo

Abstract: An Improved Bernsen Algorithm approaches for License Plate Recognition (LPR) applied to the intelligent transportation system. LPR is an image processing technology used to identify the vehicles by their license plates. License plate recognition is mainly based on two methods. One is License plate detection method which is based on Improved Bernsen Algorithm and the other is license plate character recognition method. The proposed LPR algorithm consists of three modules: 1) Locating the license plates; 2) Segmenting the characters; and 3) Identifying the license characters. The algorithm was tested with 100 images, such as an Indian vehicle images using different backgrounds. The experimental results show the algorithm can divide the character of plate effectively.
Keywords: Bernsen algorithm, character recognition, feature extraction, License Plate Recognition.

[1] Ying Wen, Yue Lu, IEEE, Jingqi Yan, Zhenyu Zhou, Karen M. von Deneen, and Pengfei Shi, " An Algorithm for License Plate
Recognition Applied to Intelligent Transportation System" IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION
[2] Jing-Ming Guo and Yun-Fu Liu "License Plate location and character segmentation with Feedback self learning and Hybrid
Binarization techniques", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MAY 2008
[3] Q. Zuo and Z. Shi, "A real-time algorithm for license plate extraction based on mathematical morphology," J. Image Graph., vol. 8,
no. 3, pp 281–285, 2003.
[4] Halina Kwasnicka and Bartosz Wawrzyniak, "License plate localization and r ecognition in camera pictures", AI-METH 2002,
November 13-15, 2002.
[5] Y. P. Huang, C. H. Chen, Y. T. Chang, and F. E Sandnes, "An intelligent strategy for checking the annual inspection status of
motorcycles based on license plate recognition," Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 9260–9267, Jul. 2009.
[6] D. N. Zheng, Y. N. Zhao, and J. X. Wang, "An efficient method of license plate location," Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 26, no. 15,
pp. 2431–2438, Nov. 2005.
[7] J. B. Jiao, Q. X. Ye, and Q. M. Huang, "A configurable method for multi-style license plate recognition," Pattern Recognit., vol.
42, no. 3, pp. 358–369, Mar. 2009.
[8] V. Abolghasemi and A. Ahmadyfard, "An edge based color-aided methodfor license plate detection," Image Vis. Comput., vol. 27,
no. 8, pp. 1134–1142, Jul. 2009.
[9] S. Luis, M. Jose, R. Enrique, and G. Narucuso, "Automatic car plate detection and recognition through intelligent vision
engineering," in Proc.IEEE 33rd Int. Carnahan Conf. Security Technol., 1999, pp. 71–76.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Patch Antenna Array Fault Modeling and Its Monitoring
Country : India
Authors : Umesh Kumar, Rajiv Kapoor
: 10.9790/2834-0340611       logo

Abstract :The On/Off faults are among the most prominent hazards observed in antenna arrays. They behave like a catalyst towards steady degradation of the circuit's performance. This paper is regarding fault monitoring in the microstrip patch antenna array [1][6]. The fault modeling, included here is single and double fault models of the patch antenna array of 8 elements. There is a marked deviation in the parametric properties of the array because of On/Off faults. By observation and analysis of these trends, the detection of fault in the array is simplified to a great extent. We aim at identification of On/Off faults in a faulty array structure by observation of its characteristic properties (like S- parameters and Radiation Pattern) and their analysis using Matrix Comparison Method and Scaled Conjugate Gradient Back Propagation Algorithm in Artificial Neural Network.
Key words: Patch antenna, patch array antenna feed, S-parameter, radiation pattern, characteristic impedance, neural network.

[1] H. Entschladen, U. Nagel ,"Microstrip patch array antenna",IEEE Trans.1984,PP. 931-933.
[2] K.A. Carver and J.A. Mink, "Microstrip antenna technology", IEEE transactions on Antennas & Propagation, VOL. 29, January
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to practice".
Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Broadband Rectangular Ring Slot Microstrip Antenna with High Return Loss and Also Compare with Rectangular Msa
Country : India
Authors : Satyendra Swarnkar, Jeetendra Rai, Dr. D.C. Dhubkarya
: 10.9790/2834-0341214       logo
Abstract:A rectangular MSA and ring slot MSA with circular polarization radiation. The antenna has a high return loss, where the return loss is compare with its experimental value. The experimental results of both antennas compared with each others, the proposed antenna is able to achieve the return loss above -10db.t.
[1] Thomas A. Milligan "2nd addition Modern antenna design"pp: 318-354.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Analysis Of Bandwidth Enhancement Of Microstrip Patch Antennas Using Various Geometries
Country : India
Authors : S.S.Yavalkar, R.T.Dahatonde, Dr.S.S.Rathod, Dr.S.B.Deosrkar
: 10.9790/2834-0341518       logo

Abstract:This paper discusses the comparative study of bandwidth (BW) enhancement technique of Microstrip Patch Antenna (MSA) using various geometries. A simple Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMSA) was designed and simulated using Zeland's Method of Moment (MoM) based EM simulation package IE3D and its various parameters such as return loss, VSWR and input impédance were obtained. Then shape of this RMSA was modified by cutting various slots in it at appropriate positions. Increase in operational BW of MSA was observed.
Key words: Rectangular Micro strip Antenna, Modified Shapes, BW Enhancement, Antenna Design.

[1] Kumar G. and Ray K.P.,Broadband Microstrip Antenna,Artech House Publication,pp.1-291,2003.
[2] Kin Lu Wong, Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas,John Wiley & Sons,pp.45-79,2002.
[3] Bhartia P., Millimeter-Wave Microstrip and Printed Circuit Antennas, Artech House,pp.1-10,1991.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : To Study the Effect of BER and Q-factor in Intersatellite Optical Wireless Communication System
Country : India
Authors : A. K. Jaiswal, Anil Kumar, Santosh Tripathi, Amarendra Kumar Chaudhary
: 10.9790/2834-0341921       logo

Abstract:The system performance plays a great role in analyzing the characteristics of optical wireless communication link. This paper describes the effect of BIT ERROR RATIO and QUALITY FACTOR in communication system. The effect of diameter antennae with received power and distance is also analyzed in this paper. The value of antennae diameter varies from 20 cm to 40 cm and distance between satellites varies from 0 km to 5000 km. The optical received power can be associated with the receivers sensitivity where increasing the received power would results in increasing the sensitivity
Key words:Intersatellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC), Q-factor, BER.

[1] For example, M. Yasumoto, H. Hayama, and T. Enomoto, "Promising new fabrication process developed for stacked LSIs," IEEE
Int. Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 816−819, Dec. 1984.
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Meeting, pp. 879−882, Dec. 1999.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Country : India
Authors : Kumar.Keshamoni, Mr. M. Harikrishna
: 10.9790/2834-0342227       logo

Abstract:This paper illustrates the performance advantages of 3D integrated circuits with two specific examples, namely 3D-FPGA and 3D-SRAM. Three-dimensional Chip (3D IC, 3D-IC, or 3-D IC) is a chip in which two or more layers of active electronic components are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit. The semiconductor industry is pursuing this promising technology in many different forms, but it is not yet widely used. Through strategic modification of the architectures to take advantage of 3D, significant improvement in speed and reduction in power consumption can be achieved. The unprecedented growth of the computer and the Information technology industry is demanding Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits with increasing functionality and performance at minimum cost and power dissipation. VLSI circuits are being aggressively scaled to meet this Demand, which in turn has some serious problems for the semiconductor industry. Additionally heterogeneous integration of different technologies in one single chip (SoC) is becoming increasingly desirable, for which planar (2-D) ICs may not be suitable.3-D ICs are an attractive chip architecture that can alleviate the interconnect related problems such as delay and power dissipation and can also facilitate integration of heterogeneous technologies in one chip (SoC). The multi-layer chip industry opens up a whole new world of design. With the Introduction of 3-D ICs, the world of chips may never look the same again
Key words:SoC, SRAM, FPGA, isolating, Stacking, LBL, architecture, 2D-IC, inter-layer, ASIC

[1] ShlomiArnon, Optimization of Urban Optical Wireless Communication systems, ieee transactions on wireless communications, vol.
2, no. 4, july 2003
[2] Chien-Chung Chen , Chester S. Gardner , Impact of Random Pointing and Tracking Errors on the Design of Coherent and
Incoherent Optical Intersatellite Communication Links, IEEE Transaction On Communication, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1989
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[4] Kuldeep Singh , Dr.Manjit Singh Bhamrah, Investigation on Aperture Diameter of Telescope in Intersatellite Optical Wireless
system., Vol. 2, Issue 3, May-Jun 2012, pp. 1666-1670.
[5] Anthony Acampora, Scott H. bloom, Srikanth Krishnamurthy, UniNet:A Hybrid Approach for Universal Broadband Access Using
Small Radio Cells Interconnected by Free-Space Optical Links, IEEE JOURNAL On Selected Areas In Communication, Vol..16,
No. 6, August 1998
[6] Aida HasfizaHashim, Farah Diana Mahad, Sevia M. Idrus and Abu Sahmah, M. Supa'at, Modeling and Performance Study of
InterSatellite Optical Wireless Communication System, University of Photonics Technology Centre, Faculty of Electrical
Engineering Malaysia ,2010.
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Link Workshop. November 2003

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Development of Control Algorithm for Ring Laser Gyroscope
Country : India
Authors : P. Shakira Begum, N. Neelima
: 10.9790/2834-0342834       logo

Abstract:RING LASER GYRO (RLG) is a sensor to sense angular information very precisely. It uses the principle of sagnac effect. In order to get excellent performance from a ring laser gyro, Intensity of laser beams, path length of the cavity and also the dithering mechanism needs to be ultra stable and maintained consistently. Hence control algorithms and hardware is implemented in RLGs for these three controls. Most of the algorithms implemented are linear algorithms and simple in nature. It is felt to use non linear algorithms based on the dynamics of the RLG to improve the performance of an RLG. So in this project it is proposed to study the principles involved in an RLG control and simulate the dynamics for understanding the non-linearities and finally design new control algorithms for controlling RLG. MATLAB/ LABVIEW is proposed to be used for realizing these algorithms and finally implement them in DSP.
Key words:RLG, PLC, DPLC, PZT, DAC.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Synthesis of Linear and circular array antennas using gatool
Country : India
Authors : T. Jaya Kumar, Mrs. M. S. Anuradha
: 10.9790/2834-0343540       logo

Abstract:The main aim of this paper is to reduce the first four side lobe levels (SLLs) of the linear and circular array antennas using gatool, which is the one of the simplest and efficient tool in MATLAB®. This is employed in Radars and communications in order to reduce jamming effects, EMI and heavy clustering effects. Here amplitude of the elements of the antennas is taken as variables to control. And finally the design currents are given and sum and difference pattern plots for different number of elements for linear and circular array antennas. Simulation results are presented for above with rectangular plots. Successful applications show that gatool can be used as a general tool for pattern synthesis of arbitrary arrays.
Key words:arbitrary arrays, EMI, gatool, sum and difference patterns, and simulation

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