IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 4 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Mm Waves Role in Satellite Communication
Country : India
Authors : Dhruva Teja Jangam, V.Chaitanya Reddy, T.S.R.Prasad, T.Ravi
: 10.9790/2834-0440104       logo

Abstract: Millimeter Wave satellite communications are discussed with only modest site separation and switched diversity .Various aspects of MM Wave communication link at 35 GHz ,60 GHz and 94 Ghz frequencies for satellite applications are discussed in the paper. Link calculations are carried out and possible hardware configurations are sketched out briefly in respect of Ground Satellite and Inter Satellite Communications Links
Keywords: Satellite communication, Satellite Spacing, Millimeter wave communication

[1] Gerard Maral ,―Satellite Communication System ‖,John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2002.
[2] Paul Christopher, ―Millimeter Waves for Broadband Satellite Communication, 75- 98
[3] GHz;‖ Proc. Ka and Broadband Conference, Isle of Ischia, Oct. 2003

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison of IRIS Image Compression using JPEG 2000 and SPIHT algorithm
Country : India
Authors : Shoba Krishnan, Pushkar M.Sathe
: 10.9790/2834-0440509       logo

Abstract: Biometric recognition is a common and reliable way to authenticate the identity of the person. Iris recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-recognition techniques on images of the irides of an individual's eyes. With the growing employment of the iris recognition systems and associated research to support this, the need for large databases of iris images is growing. If the required storage space is not adequate for these images, compression is an alternative. JPEG standard cannot fulfil the advanced requirements of today's digital imagery. Digital imaging has become an integral part of the Internet and JPEG 2000 is a powerful new tool that provides power capabilities for designers and users of networked image applications. SPIHT algorithm is a very efficient technique for wavelet image compression. This is based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). SPIHT is an improved and extended version of Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW) coding algorithm. In this paper parameters like compression ratio, signal to noise ratio, average bit rate are obtained for both these algorithms and compared.
Keywords: Biometric recognition, Compression, Discrete Transform, Entropy Coding, Quantization

[1] "Methods in IRIS recognition" in NCECC-09
[2] J.Daugman, "How Iris Recognition Works" Proceedings of 2002 International Conference on Image Processing, Vol.1, 2002.
[3] J. Daughman. "New methods in IRIS recognition" IEEE transactions on systems. Vol.37, No.5, October 2007
[4] M. Antonini, M. Barlaud, P. Mathieu, and I. Daubechies, "Image coding using the wavelet transform," IEEE Trans. Image
Processing, pp. 205-220,
[5] Visual Evaluation of JPEG 2000 Color Image Compression Performance, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 N1583, Mar. 2000.
[6] The JPEG 2000 Still image compression standard by Athanassios Skodras, Charilaos Christopoulos, and Touradj Ebrahimi
[7] A simplified SPIHT algorithm by Jun-Ren Ding and Jar-Ferr Yang, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 31, No. 4,
pp. 715-719.
[8] Said, A., and Pearlman, W. A., 1996, "A New, Fast, Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees," IEEE Transactions Circuits and
Systems on Video Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 243-250.
[9] CASIA Iris Image Database.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review on Differential Lines and Its Study Based On Differential S Parameters
Country : India
Authors : Ashish Lohana, Sulabha Ranade, Jyoti Varavadekar
: 10.9790/2834-0441016       logo

Abstract: In this paper a brief review of differential signalling is given and it is studied why using single ended standard S parameters does not give us a complete understanding of a Differential line and thus comes a new mixed mode S parameters that helps us understand the common mode to differential mode conversion and vice versa, in a simplified manner. Also conversion method from single ended S parameters to Approximate and True Mixed mode S parameters is studied in brief and derived.
Keywords: Differential port, Differential signaling, Even and Odd mode Impedance, Mode conversion, Single ended S parameters.

[1] H. Johnson, M. Graham, High-speed signal propagation Advanced black magic Prentice-Hall, 2002.
Journal Papers:
[2] Bruce Archambeault, Associate Editor, Member IEEE, Design Tip – EMC Considerations for Differential (Balanced) Lines
[3] David E. Bockelman, Member, IEEE, and William R. Eisenstadt, Senior Member, IEEE, Pure-Mode Network Analyzer for On-
Wafer, Measurements of Mixed-Mode S-Parameters of Differential Circuits, Ieee Transactions On Microwave Theory And
Techniques, Vol. 45, No. 7, July 1997.
[4] Garth Sundberg, Member of the Technical Staff Technology, Research, and Development, Grasp The Meaning Of Mixed- Mode
S-Parameters. Microwaves and RF, vol. 40, pp. 99-104, May 2001.
[5] Wolfgang Maichen and Bo Krsnik, A Practical Guide to Lossy Differential Lines, Teradyne, Inc.
Proceedings Papers:
[6] Allan Huynh, Pär Håkansson and Shaofang Gong, Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential
Signals Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University Norrköping,, Bredgatan 33, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Efficient Hand-Geometry System for Biometric Identifications
Country : India
Authors : Pranoti Das, Sachin Meshram
: 10.9790/2834-0441719       logo

Abstract: In this paper we propose an efficient hand geometry based system to recognize individuals. Hand geometry used in this verification system utilizes some hand geometry features which cannot vary with small variation of palm position. In this work, users can place their hands freely without the need for pegs to fix the hand placement. This reduces the inconvenience to the users. Our system consists of a database where all the information about the authenticated user is stored. It extracts the features from a test image and compares it with the stored information on the database. The results are encouraging and confirm the utility of our system.
Keywords: Biometrics, Hand-Geometry, Identification, Robust, Verification

[1] Nongluk Covavisaruch, Pipat Prateepamornkul, Puripant Ruchikachorn and Piyanaat Taksaphan, Personal Verification and
Identification Using Hand Geometry, ECTI Transactions on Computer and Information Technology, Vol.1,No.2, 2005,134-140
[2] Anil K. Jain, Arun Ross and Sharath Pankanti, A Prototype Hand Geometry-based Verification System, Proc. of 2nd international
Conference on Audio and Video-based Biometric person Authentication (AVBPA), Washington D.C.,1999,166-171
[3] Vivek Yadav, Design of a Hand Geometry Based Verification System, Thapar University, Patiala, India, 2010
[4] J.Jobin, Joseph Jiji, Y.A.Sandhya, Saji.Soni, P.L.Deepa, Palm Biometrics Recognition and Verification System, International Journal
of advanced Research in Electrical Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,Vol.1,Issue 2,2012, 41-48
[5] Jugurta Montalvao, Lucas Molina and Janio Canuto, Robust Hand Image Processing for Biometric Applications, Springer-Verlag
London Limited, 2010,397-407
[6] D. Sampada, V.H.Patil, Person Identification using Peg Free Hand Geometry Measurement, international Journal of Engineering
Science and Technology (IJEST), Vol.4, No.6, 2012

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : GaN/AlGaN Hetero-junction Terahertz
Country : India
Authors : Sudeshna Dey, Moumita Mukherjee
: 10.9790/2834-0442023       logo

Abstract: A simulation study is carried out on the hetero-structure complementary (p+-p--p-n+) IMPATT oscillator for Terahertz power generation. It is observed that hetero-structure GaN/AlGaN IMPATT may generate a pulsed power density of ~8x1010 Wm-2 with an efficiency of 11%, whereas it's flatly doped counterpart is capable of delivering a pulsed power density of only 3x1010 Wm-2 with 7% efficiency. The total parasitic series resistance, RS, including that due to the un-depleted region in device and also the effects of ohmic contact resistances, has been found to be a major problem that reduces the negative resistance significantly and thus it has a affects the THz performance and oscillation of the device. The study reveals that the value of RS decreases by ~50% as the structure, semiconductor material pair as well as doping profile of the diode changes suitably from conventional to the proposed hetero-structure p+-p--p-n+ type , by incorporating a 300A0 Al0.4Ga0.6N layer in the p-drift region. This first study will be a useful guide in the THz-sector to meet the ever-increasing demand of semiconductor THz-sources for application in Imaging or in improvised explosive device (IED) detection.
Keywords: Al0.4Ga0.6N hetero-structure; complementary IMPATT; Parasitic-resistance; THz-source.

[1] M. Mukherjee, N. Mazumder and S. K. Roy, "Photosensitivity analysis of Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide Terahertz IMPATT
oscillators: Comparison on theoretical reliability and study on experimental feasibility", IEEE Trans. Device and Materials Reliability,
vol. 8, issues 3, pp. 608-620, 2008.
[2] J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W.Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, Appl. Phys. Lett., to be
[3] M.G. Adlerstein, L.H. Holway, S.L. Chu, "Measurement of series resistance in IMPATT diodes", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED- 30, p. 179, 1983
[4] S. K. Roy, J.P. Banerjee and S. P. Pati ," A Computer analysis of the distribution of high frequency negative resistance in the depletion layer of IMPATT Diodes", Proc.4th Conf. on Num. Anal. of Semiconductor Devices (NASECODE IV) (Dublin) (Dublin: Boole), pp. 494-500, 1985.
[5] Electronic Archive:

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Embedded Ethernet Interface Using Arm Processor
Country : India
Authors : Raghava Bhonagiri, Prof.K.Subba Rao
: 10.9790/2834-0442428       logo

Abstract: Currently device with microcontroller has been widely used in industrial field. However, a large number of devices don't have the network interface and the data from them can not be transmitted in network. A design of ARM processor-based embedded Ethernet interface is presented. In the design, an existing SPI serial device can be converted into a network interface peripheral to obtain compatibility with the network. The design mainly consists of SPI communication module, processor module and Ethernet interface module. In the design, embedded real time operating system μC / OS-П is transplanted into the microcontroller LM3S8962 and the data can be transmitted between remote SPI serial devices and host computer. After the design is completed, the system is tested and the results show that Ethernet is connected between the host and ARM Cortex and the terminal data can be transmitted via Ethernet.
Keywords: ARM processor; interface; Ethernet; SPI

[1] CHEN Guo-ju, "Design of a monitoring system based on ARM and Ethernet applied" 2009.YU Cheng-bo, LIU Jie, and TAO Hongyan, "Research on remote monitor technology of equipment," 2002.
[2] YU Cheng-bo, LIU Jie, and TAO Hong-yan, "Research on remote monitor technology of equipment," 2002.
[3] LIU Hong-li, "The Research and Experiment of the Embedded System μC /OS-II on PC," 2009.
[4] ZHANG Shi, DONG Jianwei, SHE Lihuang, "Design and development of ECG monitor's software system," 2007.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Nano Films in the Building of Dssc
Country : India
Authors : D. Maheswari, P. Venkatachalam
: 10.9790/2834-0442933       logo

Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) promise a short energy- payback time and offer a potential lowcost alternative to conventional photovoltaic devices based on semiconductors. This work describes the effort which has mainly been developed on DSSC solar cells with suitable dye for light harvesting and interfacial electron transfer processes with nano crystalline wide band-gap semiconductors. The photo anode preparation has been done by means of TiO2 nano films by sol gel method using TTIP as precursor, and coated in ITO plate by doctor blading technique. The mesoporous TiO2 thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. A novel unique combination of electrolyte is used (0.6 M of EMII, BMII and PMII, 0.1 M LiI, 0.05 M I2 in acetonitrile). The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16μm-thick TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.83% under the light of intensity of 100 mWcm-2.
Keywords: Electrolyte, Indigo Dye, Sol-gel, TiO2, XRD,

[1] B.O'Regan,M.Gratzel, "A low cost high efficiency solar cell based on dye- sensitized colloidal TiO2 films", Nature 353(1991)737–
[2] M.K.Nazeeruddin,A.Kay,I.Rodicio,R.Humphry-Baker,E.Muller,P.Liska,N.Vlachopoulos,M.Gratzel, "Conversion of light to
electricity by cis-X2-bis (2,20- bipyridyl-4,40-dicarboxalate) ruthenium (II) charge transfer sensitizers on nanocrystalline TiO2
electrodes", J.Am. Chem. Soc.115 (1993) 6382–6390.
[3] B.Y. Wei, H.M. Lin, C.C. Kao, A.K. Li, "Effect of calcinations on photo catalytic activity of TiO2 nanopowders", J. Mater. Sci.
Eng. 35 (2003) 64–69.
[4] Y.Li,J.Hagen, W. Schaffrath, P. Otschik, D. Haarer, "Titanium dioxide films for sensitized photovoltaic cells derived from a sol–gel
process", Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 56 (1999) 167–174.
[5] M.Gratzel, "Dye sensitized solar cell", Photoelectrochemicalcells, Nature414 (2001)338–344.
[6] E.W. McFarland, K. Tang, "A photovoltaic device structure based on internal TiO2 solar cells by chlorophyll derivatives", J.
Phys. Chem. 98 (1994).
[7] M. Sakanoue, Y. Kinoshita, Y. Otsuka, and H. Imai, "Photocatalytic activities of rutile and anatase nanoparticles selectively prepared from an aqueous solution", Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 115, no. 1348, pp. 821–825, 2007.
[8] M. H. Habibi, N. Talebian, and J.-H. Choi, "The effect of annealing on photocatalytic properties of nanostructured titanium dioxide
thin films", Dyes and Pigments,vol. 73, no.1, pp. 103–110, 2007.
[9] H. Han, X. Zhao, J. Liu, "Enhancement in photoelectric conversion properties of the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells based
on the hybrid TiO2 electrode", Journal of The Electrochemical Society 152 (2005) A164–A166
[10] C. Grimes, G. Mor, O. Varghese, M. Paulose and K. Shankar, "A review on highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2nanotube arrays: Fabrication, material properties, and solar energy applications", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 90, (2006) pp. 2011-2075.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Speech Emotion Recognition: A Review
Country : India
Authors : Dipti D. Joshi, Prof. M. B. Zalte
: 10.9790/2834-0443437       logo

Abstract: Field of emotional content recognition of speech signals has been gaining increasing interest during recent years. Several emotion recognition systems have been constructed by different researchers for recognition of human emotions in spoken utterances. This paper describes speech emotion recognition based on the previous technologies which uses different methods of feature extraction and different classifiers for the emotion recognition are reviewed. The database for the speech emotion recognition system is the emotional speech samples and the features extracted from these speech samples are the energy, pitch, linear prediction cepstrum coefficient (LPCC), Mel frequency cepstrum coefficient (MFCC). Different wavelet decomposition structures can also used for feature vector extraction. The classifiers are used to differentiate emotions such as anger, happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, neutral state, etc. The classification performance is based on extracted features. Conclusions drawn from performance and limitations of speech emotion recognition system based on different methodologies are also discussed.
Keywords: Classifier, Emotion recognition, Feature extraction, Feature selection

[1] Jia Rong, Gang Li , Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen "Acoustic feature selection for automatic emotion recognition from speech", Elsevier ,
Information Processing and Management volume 45 (2009)
[2] M. E. Ayadi, M. S. Kamel, F. Karray, "Survey on Speech Emotion Recognition: Features, Classification Schemes, and Databases",
Pattern Recognition 44, PP.572-587, 2011.
[3] Y. Li and Y. Zhao, "Recognizing Emotions in Speech Using Short- Term and Long-Term Features," Proc. Int'l Conf. Spoken
Language Processing, pp. 2255-2258, 1998.
[4] B. Vlasenko, B. Schuller, A. Wendemuth, and G. Rigoll,"Combining Frame and Turn-Level Information for Robust Recognition of
Emotions within Speech," Proc. Int'l Conf. Spoken Language Processing, pp. 2225-2228, 2007.
[5] je hun jeon, rui xia, yang liu," sentence level emotion recognition based on decisions From subsentence segments", ICASSP 2011,
978-1-4577-0539-©2011 IEEE
[6] Vogt, T. Andre, E. "comparing feature sets for acted and spontaneous speech in view of automatic emotion recognition", proc.
ICME 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands 2005
[7] J. Sidorova, " Speech Emotion Recognition" DEA report Universitat Pompeu Fabra, July 4, 2007
[8] P.Shen, Z. Changjun, X. Chen, "Automatic Speech Emotion Recognition Using Support Vector Machine", International Conference
On Electronic And Mechanical Engineering And Information Technology, 2011
[9] S. Mallat, "A wavelet tour of signal processing", NewYork, Academic Press, 1999
[10] A. Nogueiras, A. Moreno, A. Bonafonte, Jose B. Marino, "Speech Emotion Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model", Eurospeech, 2001

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Compact CPW- Fed Antenna for ULTRA WIDEBAND Applications
Country : India
Authors : S. kareemulla, Prabhakar S. Manage, N. Gunavathi
: 10.9790/2834-0443743       logo

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of compact and simple, CPW-fed antenna with 10dB return loss (VSWR <2) band (3.08~10.6 GHz) band for ULTRA WIDEBAND applications. The antenna consists of ground plane, rectangular slot and polyhedron-shaped exciting stub. This antenna is designed on a substrate with dielectric constant r  =4.4 and with size 24mmx19mmx1.6mm. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as 2D radiation patterns, VSWR, return loss, gain and bandwidth are obtained and all meets of the acceptable antenna standards. The simulation results of this antenna are analyzed by using Method of Moment (MOM) from ZELAND IE3D version 12.0 software.
Keywords: CPW- fed antenna, Polyhedron shape, Compact size, UWB applications

[1] First Report and Order (FCC 02-48). Action by the Commission February 14, 2002.New Public Safety Applications and
Broadband internet access among uses envisioned by FCC authorization of Ultra-Wideband Technology
[2] S. Belrose. The Sounds of a Spark Transmitter: Telegraphy and Telephony. Adventures in CyberSound.
[3] Dr. Robert J. Fontana. A Brief History of UWB Communications. Multispectrum Solutions, Inc.
[4] V. H. Rumsey, "Frequency Independent Antennas," 1957 IRE National Convention Record, pt. 1, pp. 114-118.
[5] J.D. Dyson, "The Unidirectional Equiangular Spiral Antenna," IRE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. AP-7, pp. 329-334, October
[6] Ross, G.F., 1968, A time domain criterion for the design of wideband radiating elements, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 16,
No. 3, p. 355.
[7] Dr. Tarance W. Barrett. History of Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar & Communications: Pioneers and Innovators
[8] IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vols. AP-17, No. 3, May 1969; Vol. AP-22, No. 1, January 1974; and Vol. AP-
31, No. 6, Part II, November 1983.
[9] G. M. Zhang, J. S. Hong, B. Z. Wang, Q. Y. Qin, J. B Mo, andD. M. Wan, "A novel multi folded UWB antenna fed by CPW,"J. of
Electromagn.Waves and Appl., Vol. 21, No. 14, pp. 2109-2119, 2007.
[10] Saou-wen Su, and Kin-Lu Wang, "Printed band-notched ultra wideband quasi-dipole antenna," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol.
48, No 3, pp. 418-420, March 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna using MEMS Technology
Country : India
Authors : E.Ramola, Dr.T.Pearson
: 10.9790/2834-0444451       logo

Abstract: This project proposes the design of a Reconfigurable Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using MEMS Technology A Reconfigurable Microstrip patch antenna of operating frequency in the range of 5-8 GHz(CBand), for the application of wireless communication has been designed. The term Reconfigurability refers that it adaptively changes its characteristics. A MEMS-based switch is inserted in the patch to control its configuration. Patch antenna using switchable slots shows different resonant features with different states (ON &OFF) of the switch. When the switch is in the OFF mode, the electric currents on the patch have to flow around the slot, resulting in a relatively long length of the current path. Therefore, the antenna resonates at a low frequency. In contrast, when the switch is in the ON mode, some of the electric currents can go directly through the switch. In this case, the average length of the current path is shorter, so that the antenna has a higher resonant frequency. The antenna was designed and analyzed using ANSOFT HFSS.
Keywords: Reconfigurable Antenna, Frequency Diversity, Patch Antenna, Switchable Slot

[1] A Reconfigurable Stacked Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite and Terrestrial Links by Mohammod Ali, IEEE transactions on
vehicular technology, vol. 56, no. 2, march 2007
[2] A Novel Patch Antenna with Switchable Slot (Pass): Dual-Frequency Operation with Reversed Circular Polarization by Nanbo
Jin,Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii , IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, vol. 54, no. 3, march 2006
[3] A Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Switchable Slots for Circular Polarization Diversity by Rahmat Samii & Yang, IEEE
Microwave And Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 2002
[4] A Wideband E-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna For 5–6 Ghz Wireless Communications by B.-K. Ang and B.-K. Chung ,Progress
In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 75, 397–407, 2007

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : DFT Based MMSE Equaliser in MIMO-OFDM
Country : India
Authors : Richa Chouhan, Rahul Dubey, S G Kerhalker
: 10.9790/2834-0445258       logo

Abstract: MIMO-OFDM is considered as a fast growing technology now days. OFDM is a multi carrier modulation technique in which the carriers are Orthogonal to each others as a result of which it provides high bandwidth efficiency and multiple carriers share the data among themselves. During the research equalizer is always a matter of strategies. When a signal is transmitted over a radio channel, it is subject to reflection, refraction and diffraction and also the type of modulation technique selected at transmitter. In this paper Bit Error Rate performance of OFDM under Rayleigh fading channel is analysed, and compared with Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel.

[1] E. M. Mohamed, D. Kinoshita, K. Mitsunaga, Y. Higa, and H.Furukawa, ―MIMO based Wireless Backhaul‖, ICUMT-2010,
pp.202-209, IEEE.
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antennas, Wireless Personal Commun., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 311–335, Mar. 1998.
[3] Sikarwar. N, "IMPROVEMENT IN BER PERFORMANCE BY MMSE EQUALIZER WITH MIMO OFDM", International Journal for Research in Science & Advanced Technologies, Vol .1, ISSN: 2319-2690.
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Conference, pp 653-657, 2001.
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transmission,"IEEE Trans. On Comm., 12, pp.2136-2148, Dec 2002.
[6] P.Banelli, "‟OFDM signal in fading channels" IEEE Trans, on wireless comm. vol.2, no. 2, pp.284-293,mar.2003.
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comm. Vol. 1 no.4. pp.721-732.oct2002.
[8] Kuchi, K, "MMSE-Prewhitened-MLD Equalizer for MIMO DFT- precoded-OFDMA", Wireless Communications Letters, IEEE,
pp.328-331, May-2012.