IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 4 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison and analysis of PAPR reduction techniques in OFDM
Country : India
Authors : Peyali Choudhury, Achala Deshmukh
: 10.9790/2834-0450106       logo

Abstract: In this paper, different techniques for reducing Peak To Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is discussed. The performance of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) system is degraded if the peak-toaverage power ratio(PAPR) is high. An OFDM system dynamic range is typically two or four times larger than a single carrier system increasing value of the dynamic range will lead to an increased cost, power consumption of transmitter amplifier and also lead to high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). This is one of the major drawbacks of OFDM system. A serious problem of large PAPR presents when energy-inefficient nonlinear power amplifiers are used. Several techniques have been proposed to reduce PAPR in OFDM system, out of that few are selective mapping (SLM), tone reservation and partial transmit sequence. SLM method could be used to reduce PAPR, however, it causes the BER degradation and increases computational complexity. The good improvement in PAPR given by the present techniques permits the reduction of the complexity and cost of the transmitter significantly.
Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), partial transmit sequence (PTS), peak to average power ratio (PAPR), selective mapping (SLM), tone reservation.

[1] R. W. Bäuml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber, "Reducing the peak-toaverage power ratio of multicarriermodulation by selected
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London, U.K, Nov. 1996, pp. 740–744.
[4] J. A. Davis and J. Jedwab, "Peak-to-mean power control in OFDM,Golay complementary sequences and Reed- Muller codes,"
IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 45, pp. 2397–2417, Nov. 1999.
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Fundamentals, vol. E80-A, pp. 2136–2143, Nov. 1997.
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Toronto, Canada, Sept. 1995, pp. 71–75.
[7] X. Li and L. J. Cimini Jr, "Effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM," in Proc. VTC '97, Phoenix, AZ, May
1997, pp. 1634–1638.
[8] D. Wulich and L. Goldfeld, "Reduction of peak factor in orthogonal multicarrier modulation by amplitude limiting and coding, "
IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, pp. 18–21, January 1999.
[9] D. Kim and G. L. Stüber, "Clipping noise mitigation for OFDM by decision-aided reconstruction," IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 3, pp.
4–6, Jan.1999.
[10] R. Dinis and A. Gusmão, "On the performance evaluation of OFDM transmission using clipping techniques," in Proc. IEEE VTC
'99 Fall,Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sept. 1999, pp. 2923–2928.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Image Inpainting Realization of GUI in JAVA Using Exemplar Method
Country : India
Authors : A. J. Thesiya, D. U. Shah, P. V. Kathiriya, G. B. Vasani, J. L. Vyas
: 10.9790/2834-0450711       logo

Abstract: Image Inpainting technique is of filling in holes in an image to preserve its overall continuity. There are many applications of this technique include the restoration of old photographs and damaged film; removal of labeled text like dates, subtitles, or publicity; and the removal of entire objects from the image like microphones or wires in special effects; also repaire the scratches on pahotograph and image. The older techniques, having a problem, which has been addressed by two classes of algorithms: (I) "texture synthesis" algorithms for generating large image regions from sample textures, and (II) "inpainting" techniques for filling in small image gaps. Image inpainting techniques is the art of restoring the lost or scratch part of image and repaired it by using patch from the same image which is to be inpainted. The tool provides the GUI (Graphic User Interface) by which user can easily select the area which is to be inpaint. Then the tool is automatically inpaint the selected region according to the background information.
Keywords: Exemplar method, Flowchart,Implementation details, Introduction, Previous work

[1] S. Muthukumar, "Analysis of image inpainting techniques with exemplar, poisson, successive elimination and 8 pixel neighborhood
methods," International Journal of Computer Applications IJCA, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 24-28, 2010.
[2] S. CHHABRA, R. LALIT, and S. SAXENA, "An analytical study of different image inpainting techniques," Indian Journal of
Computer Science and Engineering, vol. 3.
[3] A. Criminisi, P. Perez, and K. Toyama, "Object removal by exemplar-based inpainting," in Computer Vision and Pattern
Recognition, 2003. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE Computer Society Conference on, vol. 2, pp. II -721-II-728 vol. 2, IEEE.
[4] P. Elango and K. Murugesan, "Digital image inpainting using cellular neural network," Int. J. Open Problems Compt. Math, vol. 2,
no. 3, pp. 439-450, 2009.
[5] P. Goyal and S. Diwakar, "Fast and enhanced algorithm for exemplar based image inpainting," in Image and Video Technology
(PSIVT), 2010 Fourth Pacific-Rim Symposium on, pp. 325-330, IEEE.
[6] F. Cao, Y. Gousseau, S. Masnou, and P. Perez, "Geometrically guided exemplar-based inpainting," International journal of computer
vision, 2009.
[7] Q. Chen, Y. Zhang, and Y. Liu, "Image inpainting with improved exemplar-based approach," Multimedia Content Analysis and
Mining, pp. 242-251, 2007.
[8] J. Wu and Q. Ruan, "Object removal by cross isophotes exemplar-based inpainting," in Pattern Recognition, 2006. ICPR 2006. 18th
International Conference on, vol. 3, pp. 810-813, IEEE.
[9] Y. Hong, "Object removal using exemplar-based inpainting," 2004.
[10] T. Kwok, H. Sheung, and C. Wang, "Fast query for exemplar-based image completion," Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on,
vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3106-3115, 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Compact UWB antenna with T-Shaped Slots and Staircase Ground Plane for Enhanced Bandwidth
Country : India
Authors : Shashi Kant Dargar, Santosh Bharti , Abha Nyati
: 10.9790/2834-0451217       logo

Abstract: In the coming years, there is great demand for high-speed data transmissions on cost effective basis. In order to achieve the same a new technology known as the Ultra WideBand (UWB) has been used. This technology has revolutionary advantages of an unlicensed service that can be used anywhere, anytime, by anyone. UWB is well known technology for its use in communications and radar applications, unlike traditional systems; this can only operate over a specific range of frequencies. UWB devices operate by employing a series of very short electrical pulses that result in very wideband transmission bandwidths. In addition, UWB signals can run at high speed and low input power. Hence, there is a need to implement characteristics while designing small antennas. The purpose of this work is to propose an inexpensive, light-weight, compact and portable new type ultra-wideband antenna for pulsed applications. The general approach to this design is to feed the antenna by a 50 ohm Sub Miniature A (SMA) cable through a micro strip line. Firstly the model is simulated using AnsoftHigh Frequency Structure Simulation(HFSS) software. This Ansoft HFSS software is mainly used for antenna analysis and design. The software is based on The Method of Moments (MoM) algorithm and therefore quantitative results can be obtained. In an attempt to achieve the best overall performance, experimental simulation results are continually assessed using different parameters so as to get the best results. This was followed by constructing the prototype. The final prototype fabricated showed comparable results of the simulation.
Keywords: Ultra Wideband, Microstrip Antenna, Partial Ground Plane, Monopole antenna,

[1] Seok H. Choi,1 Jong K. Park,1 Sun K. Kim,1 and Jae Y. Park," A new Ultra -Wideband antenna for UWB applications" Microwave
and Optical Technology Letters ,Vol. 40, No. 5, March 5 2004 [399-401].
[2] Mohamed A. Hassanien and Ehab K. I. Hamad "Compact rectangular U-shaped slot micro strip patch antenna for UWB
applications" 2010-IEEE APS, Middle East Conference on Antennas and Propagation (MECAP),Cairo, Egypt, 20.10.2010.
[3] Mei Li, Min Chen, WenquanChe, QuanXue, " UWB Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) with Differential Feeding Technique"
Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB) 2010.
[4] YusnitaRahayu, RazaliNgah, Tharek A. Rahman,""Various Slotted UWB Antenna Design"Sixth International Conference on
Wireless and Mobile Communications 2010.
[5] M. Ojaroudi, Sh. Yazdanifard, N. Ojaroudi, and M. Naser-Moghaddasi, "Small Square Monopole Antenna With Enhanced
Bandwidth by Using Inverted T-Shaped Slot and Conductor-Backed Plane"IEEE Transactions On Antennas And Propagation, Vol.
59, No. 2, February 2011.
[6] Deepak Bhatia1, Dr. Mithilesh Kumar2, and Amitabh Sharma3, "A Beam Scanning UWB Antenna System for Wireless
Applications" International Journal of Electronics Engineering, 3 (1), 2011, pp. 11– 16.
[7] Natarajamani.S, S K Behera&S K Patra,""Compact Slot Antenna For UWB Application and Band-Notch Designs" International
Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks 2010.
[8] Zarreen Aijaz1&S.C.Shrivastava, "Effect of the Different Shapes: Aperture Coupled Microstrip Slot Antenna" International Journal
of Electronics Engineering, 2(1), 2010, pp. 103-105.
[9] D. Orban and G.J.K. Moernaut, "The Basics of Patch Antennas" Orban Microwave Products.
[10] AmriteshKshetrimayum Milan Singh, "Design of square patch micro strip antenna for circular polarization usgin IE3D
Software"Rourkela, Orissa, India 2010.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : License Plate Segmentation Using Connected Component Analysis
Country : India
Authors : V.Karthikeyan, V.J.Vijayalakshmi, P.Jeyakumar
: 10.9790/2834-0451824       logo

Abstract: Vehicle License Plate recognition has turned out to be a vital appliance of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). In view of the fact that license plates can be put back, wrap or simply alter, they are not the eventual result for vehicle identification. The intention is to widen a structure where by Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is digitally take picture and then identified by segmenting the characters from the images confined. In the proposed work a novel moves toward for segmentation of characters of license plate using Connected Component Analysis (CCA). In the beginning stage the identification number of the Vehicle was kept back in focal point and images were captured. The images were then focus to pre-processing which consists of image processing algorithms. These images were further powerfully developed by taking into account making the distance transform. The forgotten time and entropy results give a study for rising the effectiveness and highquality performance of CCA segmentation. The projected work presents a new method for License Plate Characters' Segmentation. The proposed approach is more effective than some of the presented method reported past.
Keywords: ITS- Intelligent Transportation Systems, Connected Component Analysis, Plate detection, Plate Cropping, Character Segmentation Normalization and Quantization.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Designing scheme for Portable ECG System with Real-Time Application
Country : India
Authors : P M Dudhat, N P Joshi, D S Pipalia
: 10.9790/2834-0452531       logo

Abstract: Portable ECG system is used for long term monitoring of patients at the risk of life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The idea of design work is to develop an algorithm for efficient QRS detection with low power consumption. The design will use OMAP 3530 application based processor and DSP core for ECG signal conditioning. After processing data, it will send to the clinical station through USB dongle or over the internet. The QRS detection algorithm uses matched filter to achieve optimized filtering and high SNR. This electronic document justifies the application along with designing scheme.
Keywords: Cardiac Arrhythmias, ECG, OMAP, QRS detection

[1] K. Mankodiya, S.Vogt, A. Kundu, M. Klostermann, J. Pohl, A. Ayoub, H. Gehring, U. G. Holfmann "PORTABLE
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alarm station", 26th annual international Conference of IEEE EMBS, 2004.
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Detection", 26th annual internation conference of IEEE EMBS, 2004
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Monitoring System", University of Basque Country. LSI Department. Donosia-San Sebastian. Spain,
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Novel Based Approach for iris code Recognization Using Gabor Filter
Country : India
Authors : S.Tamilselvi, Dr. C. N. Marimuthu
: 10.9790/2834-0453237       logo

Abstract: Iris recognition is a part of biometric identification methodologies which also include facial, fingerprint, retinal and many other biological traits. They all over a new solution for person identification, authentication and security. Currently users have to carry security badges or know certain pin/pass codes in order to get into secure zones or to log into a computer. Problem with these methods is that users have to remember lots of different passwords and pin codes which therefore tend to be rather easy to guess and crack since users prefer passwords that are easy to remember. Cards can be lost and they can be used by anyone to gain access to a restricted area or to a restricted computer. Biometrics on the other hand provide a certain and easy way of authenticating persons, biometrics are also quite hard to forge and combined with some other method like password they form up a very strong authentication method.
Index terms: iris code, gabour filter, biometrics, feature extraction

[1] Adams Wai-Kin Kong, "Iris code Decompression Based on the Dependence between Its Bit Pairs," IEEE Transactions on Pattern
Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 34, No. 3, March 2012.
[2] Daugman, J. "New Methods in Iris Recognition," IEEE Trans. System, Man, and Cybernetics Part B, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1167 - 1175,Oct. 2007.
[3] Shad .S and Ross .A, "Generating Synthetic Irises by Feature Agglomeration," Proc. Int'l Conf. Image Processing, pp. 317-320,2006.
[4] Z. Sun, T. Tan, Y. Wang, and S.Z. Li, "Ordinal Palm print Representation for Personal Identification," Proc. IEEE CS Conf.Computer
Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 279-284, 2005.
[5] Valentian .T. Ea, A., Rossant .F, Amiel, and A. Amara .F, "Algorithm Implementation for Iris Identification," Proc. 48 th Midwest
Sump. Circuits and Systems, pp. 1207-1210, 2005.
[6] Kong. A, Zhang. D and Kamel. M, "Palm print Identification Using Feature-Level Fusion," Pattern Recognition, vol. 39, pp. 478-487, 2006J. Daugman, "How Iris Recognition Works," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21 -30, Jan. 2004.
[7] Kong. A.W.K. and Zhang .D, "Competitive Coding Scheme for Palm print Verification," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, vol. 1 , pp. 520-523, 2004.
[8] Tan. L. Ma, T, Wang. Y, and Zhang.D, "Efficient Iris Recognition by Characterizing Key Local Variations," IEEE Trans. Image
Processing, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 739-750, June 2004
[9] Sun .Z, Tan .T, and Wang .T, "Iris Recognition Based on Non-Local Comparisons," Proc. Fifth Chinese Conf. Biometric Recognition, pp. 491-497, 2004.
[10] Krichen .E, Mellakh. M.A, Garcia-Salicetti. S, and Dorizzi .B, "Iris Identification Using Wavelet Packets," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pattern
Recognition, vol. 4, pp. 226-338, 2004.
[11] Zhang. P.F, Li. D.S, and Wang .Q, "A Novel Iris Recognition Method Based on Feature Fusion," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Machine
Learning and Cybernetics, pp. 26-29, 2004.
[12] Daugman .J, "The Importance of Being Random: Statistical Principles of Iris Recognition," Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, pp. 279-291, 2003.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A High-Speed 64-Bit Binary Comparator
Country : India
Authors : Anjuli, Satyajit Anand
: 10.9790/2834-0453850       logo

Abstract: A high-speed 64-bit binary comparator is proposed in this brief. Comparison is most basic arithmetic operation that determines if one number is greater than, equal to, or less than the other number. Comparator is most fundamental component that performs comparison operation. This brief presents comparison of modified and existing 64-bit binary comparator designs concentrating on delay. Means some modifications are done in existing 64-bit binary comparator design to improve the speed of the circuit. Comparison between modified and existing 64-bit binary comparator designs is calculated by simulation that is performed at 90nm technology in Tanner EDA Tool.
Keywords - Binary comparator, digital arithmetic, high-speed.

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Throughput improvement for cell edge users
Country : India
Authors : Pinal N. Parlekar, Nirmal S. Kothari, Prof. Mary Grace Shajan
: 10.9790/2834-0455155       logo

Abstract:Users at the cell edge in a cellular network suffer from low data rate due to low SINR Cooperative transmission schemes which are used in wireless networks to improve the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we study the downlink capacity of edge users in a cellular network and see whether base station cooperation improves the spectral efficiency. The base-stations coordinate their transmission to the two cell-edge users in order to improve their Signal-to-interference-noise ratio (SINR) and throughput. Selective Cooperation, where the selection criterion is based on throughput, is proposed. The capacity achieved through Cooperation is shared equally among the cell-edge users. Results show that, the proposed hybrid scheme provides a better result compared to full-time cooperation.
Keywords-spectral efficiency,data rate,cell edge user,Capacity

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Microstrip Antenna for WLAN Application Using Probe Feed
Country : India
Authors : Amit Kumar, Prof.P.R.Chadha
: 10.9790/2834-0455659       logo

Abstract: Microstrip patch antennas have been widely used in a various useful applications, due to their low weight and low profile, conformability, easy and cheap realization. A low profile patch antenna for WLAN application is proposed in this paper. This proposed antenna is made by using the probe feeding and aperture coupled feeding methods. This antenna is designed in order to improve the impedance bandwidth and obtain the circular polarization without using truncated corners in patch. The impedance bandwidth will be increased by making slots onto the patch. This unequal parallel slots patch antenna is the modified structure of E patch antenna and U slot Patch antenna. This patch antenna provides a bandwidth of around 16.4% with 1.5 VSWR. The simulation process has been done through high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The properties of antenna such as bandwidth , S parameter, VSWR have been investigated. This paper also aims at comparing between different feeding methods.
Keywords – Aperture coupling, HFSS,Microstrip patch antenna, Probe feed, Return Loss, VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio).

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design and Simulation of RF MEMS Capacitive type Shunt Switch & its Major Applications
Country : India
Authors : Poonam Verma, Surjeet Singh
: 10.9790/2834-0456068       logo

Abstract: This article details about the design of a K-band RF-MEMS capacitive type shunt switch and some of its major applications. The electrostatic and electromagnetic analyses of the designed structure have been performed using MATLAB and commercially available EM solvers. FEM and MOM both tools have been used extensively for full-wave analysis. Two major applications (SPDT switch and reconfigurable Antenna) have been studied here. The design is based upon 675 μm thick high resistive Silicon (ρ > 8KΩ-cm).
Keywords - Coplanar waveguide, MEMS Shunt switch, Reconfigurable Antenna, RF MEMS, Single Pole double throw (SPDT)

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