IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 5 - Issue 4

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Different Approach for Spatial Prediction and Transform Using Video Image Coding
Country : India
Authors : D.Menaka, Student of M.E (VLSI DESIGN), Dr.C.N Marimuthu
: 10.9790/2834-0540106      logo

Abstract: A novel approach to jointly optimized spatial prediction the choice of the subsequent transform in video and image compression. In this paper we improve the performance, reduce cost and high complexity .In proposed method we use the Singular value decomposition it is well known that the images, often used in variety of computer applications, are difficult to store and transmit. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to use a data compression technique where an image is viewed as a matrix and then the operations are performed on the matrix. In this paper, image compression is achieved by using singular value decomposition (SVD) technique on the image matrix. The advantage of using the SVD is the property of energy compaction and its ability to adapt to the local statistical variations of an image. Further, the SVD can be performed on any arbitrary, square, reversible and non reversible matrix of m x n size. In this paper, SVD is utilized to compress and reduce the storage space of an image. In addition, the paper investigates the effect of rank in SVD decomposition to measure the quality in terms of compression ratio and PSNR.

Index terms: Image compression, SVD (Singular Value Decomposition), De blocking filter, Blocking artifact, Video image.

[1]. Jingning Han,Ankur Saxena, Vinay Meloke, and Kenneth Rose ―Jointly Optimal spatial prediction and Block transform for videoand image coding,‖ IEEE Trans on image
[2]. Han.J, Saxena .A, and Rose .K, ―Towards jointly optimal spatial prediction and adaptive transform in video/image coding,‖ in Proc. IEEE ICASSP, Mar. 2010, pp. 726–729.
[3]. Xu .K, Wu .K, and Zhang .W, ―Intra-predictive transforms for block based image coding,‖ IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 3030–3040, Aug. 2009.
[4]. Ye .Y and Karczewicz .M, ―Improved H.264 intra coding based on bi-directional intra prediction, directional transform, and adaptive coefficient scanning,‖ in Proc. IEEE ICIP, Oct. 2008, pp. 2116–2119.
[5]. Zeng .B and Fu .J, ―Directional discrete cosine transforms—A new framework for image coding,‖ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 305–313, Mar. 2008.
[6]. Yueh .W. C, ―Eigen values of several tridiagonalmatrices,‖ Appl.Math. E-Notes, vol. 5, pp. 66–74, Apr. 2005.
[7]. Wiegand .T, Sullivan .G. J, Bjontegaard .G, and Luthra .A, ―Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard,‖ IEEE Trans.
Circuits Syst.Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 560–576, Jul. 2003.
[8]. Malvar. H. S, Hallapuro. A, Karczewicz. M, and Kerensky .L, ―Low complexity transform and quantization in H.264/AVC,‖ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 598–603, Jul. 2003.
[9]. Marpe .D, George .V, Cycon. H. L, and Barthel. K. U, ―Performance evaluation of Motion-JPEG2000 in comparison with
H.264/AVC operated in pure intra coding mode,‖ in Proc. SPIE, Oct. 2003, vol. 5266, pp. 129–137.
[10]. Strang .G, ―The discrete cosine transform,‖ SIAM Rev., vol. 41, no. 1,pp. 135–147, Mar. 1999.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Column decoder using PTL for memory
Country : India
Authors : M.Manimaraboopathy, S.Sivasaravanababu, S.Sebastinsuresh A. Rajiv
: 10.9790/2834-0540714      logo

Abstract: Nowadays memory forms an important and necessary part of every system. In order to make the system more compact and faster, optimization of memory in terms of area, power and speed is to be made. In this paper column decoder has been implemented to minimize the power and area. The memory architecture is simulated using Laker-ADP schematic tool. The number of sense amplifiers required for MxN memory is reduced in ratio 4:1.

Keywords: Laker-ADP schematic tool, decoder, memory

[1] Jan M. Rabaey, Anantha Chandraprakasan, Borivoje Nikolic, "Digital integrated circuits, a design perspective," second edition.
[2] Allen & Holberg "CMOS Analog Circuit Design" Second edition, Oxford University press, 2003.
[4] Ingvar Carlson, "Design and Evaluation of High Density 5T SRAM Cache for Advanced Microprocessors," Master's thesis performed in Electronic Devices, Ingvar Carlson Reg nr: LiTH-ISY-EX-3481-2004, 23rd March 2004
[5] Ramon Canal CTD – Master, "Memory Structures," CANS Slides based on: Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design, D. Harris

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Antenna Design and Comparison of Micro ICCLMA with Circular and Rectangular Patch
Country : India
Authors : S.Rajeswari, C.Rekha
: 10.9790/2834-0541529      logo

Abstract: In this paper, a high gain small size antennas are micro ICCLMA (Inductively Coupled Capacitively Loaded monopole antenna) with circular patch and micro ICCLMA with rectangular patch is presented. These different types of patch antenna topologies were designed with same dimensions to produce higher gain. We begin with the comparison between the antenna designs, requirements and continue with a discussion issues and simulation results. Each antenna topology is then discussed including the limitations and advantages of each. In fact, each technique is uniquely designed to produce size reduction and higher gain antennas. Among two antennas the micro ICCLMA with circular patch provides higher gain as compared to other micro ICCLMA with rectangular patch. The antenna design simulation results were done by using CST Microwave Studio. The gain of micro ICCLMA with circular patch is 46.03 dB. Keywords - Antenna radiation patterns, lumped elements, monopole antennas, patch antennas, vertically polarized antennas.

[1] Jungsuek Oh and Kamal SarabandI (2012)," Low Profile, Miniaturized Inductively Coupled Capacitively Loaded Monopole Antenna", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 57, no.1,pp. 1206-1213.
[2] Hong W, Behdad N, and Sarabandi K (2004) "Size reduction of cavity backed slot antennas", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 54, pp. 1461–1466.
[3] Behdad N and Sarabandi K (2004), "Bandwidth enhancement and further size reduction of a class of miniaturized slot antennas", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 52, pp. 1928–1935.
[4] Goubau G (1976), "Multielement monopole antennas", in Proc. Workshop on Electrically Small Antennas ECOM, Ft., Monmouth, NJ, pp.63–67.
[5] Rowell C .R and Murch R. D (1997), "A capacitively loaded PIFA for compact mobile telephone handsets", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol.45, pp. 837–842.
[6] Hala Elsadek (2011), "Microstrip Antennas for Mobile Wireless Communication Systems" CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license, in subject Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
[7] Steven R.Best (2011), "A Discussion on Electrically Small Antennas Loaded with High Permittivity and Permeability Materials", The MITRE Corporation.
[8] Kulbir Singh, Vinit Grewal, Rajiv Saxena (2009), "Fractal Antennas: A Novel Miniaturization Technique for Wireless Communications", ECED, Thapar University, Patiala, India; National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India; Jay Pee Institute of Engineering and Technology, Raghogarh, Guna, M.P, India.
[9] Brad A. Kramer (2007), "Size reduction of an UWB low-profile spiral antenna", Ohio State University, Electrical Engineering.
[10] Minh-Chau Huynh (2004), "Wideband compact antennas for wireless communication applications", Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Computational Time Analysis of Signal Processing Algorithm-An Analysis
Country : India
Authors : Gokul P*, Karthikeyan T* , KrishnaKumar R.* Malini S.**
: 10.9790/2834-0542130      logo

Abstract: Current manufacturing systems, including dedicated transfer lines and flexible manufacturing systems, do not provide adequate and most economical solutions for products with variable market demands. One of the crucial problems in manufacturing is the machine tool failure due to loss of surface material in cutting operations like drilling and milling. Proceeding with a damaged tool may result in unfit fabricated work piece. On the other hand, it is unnecessary to change the cutting tool if it is still able to continue cutting operation. Hence, an effective diagnosis mechanism is necessary for the automation of machining processes so that production loss and downtime can be avoided. This study concerns with the development of a tool wear condition-monitoring technique. Tool Wearing Monitoring technique can be established based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic scheme explains Tool wearing Monitoring based on Signal processing by obtaining statistical parameters derived from thrust force, machine sound and vibration signals were used as inputs to fuzzy process and their output values serves as the input parameters to the second stage. The second stage with a remarkable threshold function, then assess the condition of the tool. Index Terms- FFT, Singular Spectrum Analysis, Tool Wearing Monitoring.

[1] BrankaVucetic&Jinhong Yuan ‗Space TimeProcessing'

[2] MohinderJankiraman, ‗Space Time Codes & MIMO Systems'

[3] John G. Proakis. ―Digital Communication‖, Tata McGraw Hill, New York.

[4] S.M.Alamouti, ‗A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communication' IEEE J.Selected Areas Communication, Volume 16,pp 1451-1458, Oct 1998.

[5] S. Bittner, E. Zimmermann, and G. Fettweis, ―Low Complexity SoftInterference Cancellation for MIMOSystems,‖ in IEEE VehicularTechnology Conference (VTC), 2006.

[6] J. Tellado, L.M.C. Hoo, and J.M. Cioffi, ―Maximum- LikelihoodDetection of Nonlinearly Distorted Multicarrier Symbols by IterativeDecoding,‖ IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 51, no. 2, pp.218–228, 2003

[7] A. Burg, M. Rupp_, N. Felber, W. Fichtner, ―Practical Low Complexity Linear Equalization for MIMO-CDMA Systems‖ IEEE proceedings of the 37thAsilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, Nov 2003.

[8] The MathWorksInc.,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Embedded Real-Time Biometric Recognition System for Defense system
Country : India
Authors : Muthuselvi M, PG Scholar, Mr.Manikandan S, Asst...Professor
: 10.9790/2834-0543135    logo

Abstract: In this project, we propose a real-time embedded finger-vein recognition system for authentication on mobile devices. The system is implemented on an embedded platform and equipped with a novel finger-vein recognition algorithm. The proposed system consists of three hardware modules: image acquisition module, embedded main board, and human machine communication module. The structure diagram of the system is 1. The image acquisition module is used to collect finger-vein images. The Embedded main board including the Microcontroller chip, memory (flash), and communication port is used to execute the finger-vein recognition algorithm and communicate with the peripheral device. The human machine communication module (LED or keyboard) is used to display recognition results and receive inputs from users.

Index Terms: finger-vein recognition; biometrics; mobile Devices; DSP

[1] A. K. Jain, S. Pankanti, S. Prabhakar, H. Lin, and A. Ross, "Biometrics: a grand challenge", Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), vol. 2, pp. 935-942, 2004.

[2] P. Corcoran and A. Cucos, "Techniques for securing multimedia content in consumer electronic appliances using biometric signatures," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol 51, no. 2, pp. 545-551, May 2005.

[3] Y. Kim, J. Yoo, and K. Choi, "A motion and similarity-based fake detection method for biometric face recognition systems," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol.57, no.2, pp.756-762, May 2011.

[4] D. Wang , J. Li, and G. Memik, "User identification based on fingervein patterns for consumer electronics devices", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 799-804, 2010.

[5] H. Lee, S. Lee, T. Kim, and Hyokyung Bahn, "Secure user identification for consumer electronics devices," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol.54, no.4, pp.1798-1802, Nov. 2008.

[6] D. Mulyono and S. J. Horng, "A study of finger vein biometric for personal identification", Proceedings of the International Symposium Biometrics and Security Technologies, pp. 134-141, 2008.

[7] Z. Liu, Y. Yin, H. Wang, S. Song, and Q. Li ,"Finger vein recognition with manifold learning", Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol.33, no.3, pp. 275-282, 2010.

[8] Y. G. Dai and B. N. Huang, "A method for capturing the finger-vein image using non uniform intensity infrared light", Image and Signal Processing, vol.4, pp.27-30, 2008.

[9] X. Sun, C. Lin, M. Li, H. Lin, and Q. Chen, "A DSP-based finger vein authentication system", Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, pp.333-336, 2011.

[10] B. B. Mandelbrot, Fractals: Form, Chance and Dimension, San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1977.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effect of multipath fading channel in MC-MC-CDMA communication syst
Country : Algeria
Authors : Aboura Lamia Touria, Djebbari Ali
: 10.9790/2834-0543645      logo

Abstract: Multi Code Multi Carrier CDMA (MC-MC-CDMA) is the combination of multiple access technique, CDMA, multi code and the OFDM technique. This system is suitable for high rate transmission and multirate services as required in the fourth generation wireless cellular system (4G). In this paper, the analysis of the effect of the multipath Nakagami fading channel with different multipath intensity profile (MIP) on MC-MC-CDMA system is presented. The SNIR (Signal-to-Noise plus Interferences Ratio) and the bit error rate (BER) performance are derived.

Keywords– fading parameter, MC-MC-CDMA system, MIP, Nakagami fading channel

[1] M. Kim, B. C. Shin, Y. J. Kim, J. K. Kim and I. Han, Throughput improvement scheme in multicode CDMA, Electronics Letters,
vol 34, 1998, pp. 963-964.
[2] D. W. Hsiung and J. F. Chang, Performance of multicode CDMA in a multipath fading channel , IEEE Commun., vol. 147, 2000,
[3] G. V. S. Raju and J.Charoensakwiroj, Orthogonal codes performance in multicode CDMA, 2003 IEEE Int. Conf. on Systems, Man
and Cybernetics, vol. 2, 2003, pp. 1928-1931.
[4] S. Hara and R. Prasad, Overview of Multicarrier CDMA, IEEE Commun. vol. 35, no. 12, 1997, pp. 126-133.
482-1: London, 2003).
[6] E. Sourour , M. Nakagawa, Performance of orthogonal multicarrier CDMA in a multipath fading channel, IEEE Trans. Commun.,
vol. 44,1996, pp. 356-367.
[7] J. H. Park, J. E. Kim, S. Y. Choi, N. S. Cho and D. S. Hong, Performance of MCCDMA systems in non-independent Rayleigh
fading, IEEE Int. Commun.Conf., Vancouver, BC Canada, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 06-10.
[8] K. W. Ryu, J. O. Park and Y. W. Park, Performance of multicarrier CS/CDMA in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels,
2003 Spring IEEE 57th Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conf., vol. 2, 2003, pp. 1258-1262.
[9] T. Kim, J. Kim, J. G. Andrews, and T. S. Rappaport , Multi-code Multicarrier CDMA: Performance Analysis, in Proc.IEEE Int.
Conf. Comm., vol.2, June 2004, pp.973-977.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Network Formation, Addressing And Routing Protocol for Path-Connected-Cluster Wireless Sensor Network
Country : India
Authors : Sulakshana.V, Ramesh.D
: 10.9790/2834-0544650      logo

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks are currently being employed in a variety of applications such as medical, military, home and industry. Sensor node deployment plays a vital role in WSNs to optimize the network performance. Protocol Zigbee is used in such networks. But the zigbee protocol has its own limitations. This paper we propose to Path-Connected-Cluster (PCC) topology and Distributed algorithm. This PCC includes Formation, addressing and routing. It's used to mitigate the concerns in node deployment. The networks which adopted PCC are called as PCC-WSN (Path Connected Cluster Wireless Sensor network). The Distributed algorithm is used to optimize the throughput and time delay of the entire network. This also known as PPR (PUSH PULL RELIABLE) algorithm. Keywords - Address assignment, protocol designs, routing, wireless sensor networks, ZigBee

[1] F. Salvadori, M. de Campos, P. S. Sausen, R. F. de Camargo, C. Gehrke, C. Rech, M. A. Spohn, and A. C. Oliveira, "Monitoring in industrial systems using wireless sensor network with dynamic power management," IEEE Trans. In strum. Meas., vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 3104–3111, Sep. 2009.

[2] H. Karkvandi, E. Pecht, and O. Yadid-Pecht, "Effective lifetime-aware routing in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Sensors J., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 3359–3367, Dec. 2011.

[3] C.-T. Cheng, C. K. Tse, and F. C. M. Lau, "A clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on social insect colonies," IEEE Sensors J., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 711–721, Mar. 2011.

[4] C.-T. Cheng, C. K. Tse, and F. C. M. Lau, "A delay-aware data collection network structure for wireless sensor networks,"IEEE Sensors J., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 699–710, Mar. 2011.

[5] A. Chen, T. H. Lai, and D. Xuan, "Measuring and guaranteeing quality of barrier-coverage in wireless sensor networks," in Proc. ACM Int. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Netw. Comput., 2008, pp. 421–430.

[6] A. Mainwaring, J. Polastre, R. Szewczyk, D. Culler, and J. Anderson, "Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring," in Proc. ACM Int. Workshop Wireless Sensor Netw. Appl., 2002, pp. 88–97.

[7] R. Casas, A. Marco, I. Plaza, Y. Garrido, and J. Falco, "ZigBee-based alarm system for pervasive healthcare in rural areas," IET Commun., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 208–214, Feb. 2008.

[8] S. Kulkarni, A. Iyer, and C. Rosenberg, "An address-light, integrated MAC and routing protocol for wireless sensor networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 793–806, Aug. 2006.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : JPEG Encoder using Discrete Cosine Transform & Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform
Country : India
Authors : Radha Krishna A.N. , G.Shruthi
: 10.9790/2834-0545156      logo

Abstract: In the past decade, the advancement in data communications was significant during explosive growth of the Internet, which led to the demand for using multimedia in portable devices. Video and Audio data streams require a huge amount of bandwidth to be transferred in an uncompressed form. The objective of this paper is to minimize the number of bits required to represent an image and also the accuracy of discrete interpolation by using DCT. Here we followed JPEG standard for compression by using DCT because of its energy compaction property. The original image is taken through a series of steps, which include initial input, DCT, Quantization and Encoding. For different quality factors, the compression ratios were also calculated.

Keywords: Compression Ratio, DCT , Huffman Coding, JPEG Encoder, Quality factor, Quantization, Zig Zag.

[1] W. B. Pennebaker and J. L. Mitchell, ―JPEG – Still Image Data Compression Standard,‖ Newyork: International Thomsan Publishing, 1993.

[2] G. Strang, ―The Discrete Cosine Transform,‖ SIAM Review, Volume 41, Number 1, pp. 135-147, 1999.

[3] R. J. Clark, ―Transform Coding of Images,‖ New York: Academic Press, 1985.

[4] A. K. Jain, ―Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing,‖ New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1989.

[5] A. C. Hung and TH-Y Meng, ―A Comparison of fast DCT algorithms,‖ Multimedia Systems, No. 5 Vol. 2, Dec 1994.

[6] G. Aggarwal and D. D. Gajski, ―Exploring DCT Implementations,‖ UC Irvine, Technical Report ICS-TR-98-10, March 1998.

[7] J. F. Blinn, ―What's the Deal with the DCT,‖ IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, July 1993, pp.78-83.

[8] Spiliotopoulos V, Zervas N.D, Androulidakis C.E, Anagnostopoulos G, and Theoharis S, ―Quantizing the 9/7 Daubechies Filter Coefficients for 2D-DCT VLSI Implementations," in 14th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 227-231.
[9] Larry Rowe, ―Image Quality Computation," Available Online: http://bmrc. berkeley. Edu / courseware/cs294 / fall97 / assignment/ psnr.html.

[10] Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, ― Digital Image Processing‖ Addison-Wesley, Fifth Indian Reprint – 2000.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Broadband Truncated Rectangular Microstrip Antenna with E - Shaped Ground Plane
Country : India
Authors : Rajesh Kumar Verma *, P. K. Singhal
: 10.9790/2834-0545760      logo

Abstract: A new design of rectangular microstrip antenna to enhance the bandwidth and reduce the size is presented. The proposed geometry consist of a truncated radiating patch and an E – shaped ground plane. The impedance BW determined is 37 % of the center frequency at 3.86 GHz. Size of the proposed geometry is also reduced by 13 % as compared to a conventional patch without any geometry on ground plane.. The microstrip antenna is fed by a coaxial probe to achieve linear polarization. The proposed geometry provides a band of 1420 MHz (3.15 GHz to 4.57 GHz) that is suitable for certain frequencies of S band as well as of C band applications. Also, the proposed geometry provides a peak directivity 7.29 dBi, gain 5.84 dBi, axial ratio 42.08 dB, aperture efficiency 88.56 %, radiation efficiency 94.76 % for a band (3.15 GHz to 4.57GHz). All the simulations are carried out using Zeland IE3D simulation software.

Keywords : Broadband , Truncated , Compactness , MSA

[1]. Balanis C. A., "Antenna Theory: A Review," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 7–23, January 1992.

[2]. Bahl I. J. and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1980.

[3[. Collin R. E., Antennas and Radiowave Propagation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985.

[4]. James J. R. and P. S. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of Microstrip Antennas, Vols. I and II, Peter Peregrinus, 1989.

[5]. Jordan E. and K. Balmain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, Prentice-Hall,New York, 1968. [6]. Kraus J. D., Antennas, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.

[7]. Kumar G. and K. P. Ray,Broadband Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, 2002.

[8]. Sarkar, S., Majumdar, A. D., Mondal, S.,Biswas, S.,Sarkar, D. Sarkar, P. P., "Miniaturization of rectangular microstrip patch antenna using optimized single-slotted ground plane". Microwave and Optical Technology Letters,53,2011: pp.111–115.

[9]. Wong K.L.,C.L. Tang, and J.Y. Chiou , "Broad-Band Probe-Fed Patch Antenna With a W-Shaped Ground Plane", IEEE Transactions On Antennas And Propagation, Vol. 50, No. 6, June 2002 .

[10]. Wong K.L and J.Y. Sze , "Slotted rectangular microstrip antenna for bandwidth enhancement," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 48, No. 8, pp.1148-1152, August, 2000

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Energy Efficient Multihop Hierarchical Routing in Wireless sensor Networks
Country : India
Authors : V.Chandrasekaran, Dr.A.Shanmugam
: 10.9790/2834-0546165      logo

Abstract: Wireless sensor networking is an emerging technology that promises a wide range of potential applications in both civilian and military areas. The most important issue faced in all wireless sensor networks is its energy consumption. A cluster-based routing method is more energy-efficient than a flat routing method as it can only send specific data for user requirements and aggregate similar data by dividing a network into a local cluster. However, previous clustering algorithms have some problems in that the transmission radius of sensor nodes is not realistic and multi-hop based communication is not used both inside and outside local clusters. Traditional routing protocols have greatly lost its importance. In this paper we proposes an Energy Efficient Multihop Hierarchical Routing named E2MHR. It is a multi-hop routing protocol to reduce the energy consumption and increase the network life time in all sensor nodes. Keywords - Wireless Sensor Networks, Multihop routing, Energy Efficiency.

[1] Akyildiz.I, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, A survey on sensor networks", IEEE Communications Magazine), 2002, 102-114.
[2] Akkaya. K , M. Younis , A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks", Ad-hoc Networks, Elsevier. 2003
[3] Chandrasekaran.V, Shanmugam.A, 2012 "A review on hierarchical cluster based routing in Wireless sensor networks" Journal of Global Research in Computer Science, vol. 3, no. 2,2012 pp. 12–16.
[4] Heinzelman W.B. et al., "Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", Hawaii,International Conference on System Science,Volume 2. 2000
[5] Heinzelman W. B. et al., "An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks", IEEE, Volume 1. 2002.
[6] Younis O. and Fahmy S., "HEED: A Hybrid, Energy- Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, 2004 , pp. 660-669.
[7] Ramanathan R. and Hain R.. 2000 Topology Control of Multihop Wireless Networks Using Transmit Power Adjustment. InProceedings Infocom 2000
[8] Rappaport T., 1996 "Wireless Communications: Principles & Practice", Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[9] Wei, C., Zhi, C., Fan, P. & Ben Letaief, K. ,2009. Asor: An energy efficient multi-hop opportunistic routing protocol forwireless sensor networks over Rayleigh fading channels, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 8(5): 2452–2463.
[10] Tavli, B. & Heinzelman, W. Mh-trace: Multihop time reservation using adaptive control for energy efficiency, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 22(5),2004, 942–953.

IOSR Journal Publish Online and Print Version Both