IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 5 - Issue 5

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Smartdust Network for Tactical Border Surveillance Using Multiple Signatures
Country : India
Authors : Seema.C.Mohan, S.Arulselvi
: 10.9790/2834-0550110      logo

Abstract: The paper aims at designing a system for border surveillance using the concept of smartdust technology. Smartdusts are small dust like wireless sensor motes with multiple on-board sensors and microcontroller. In real time, thousands of such smartdust motes must be deployed in a large area. The motes can form a network among them and has wireless connection to outside world. Onboard hardware include a variety of sensors for vibration/seismic, magnetic, acoustic and thermal signature recognition, a microcontroller for processing these sensor values and a radio transceiver for communication over a wireless network. In this experimental project, we have designed one central monitoring mote and two smartdust motes using ARM controller, IEEE radio transceiver and sensors.The central monitoring mote also displays the tracking history of intrusion on enabling a switch.

Keywords: Advanced RISC Machine (ARM), Cortex microcontroller software interface standard (CMSIS), Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C), MEMS accelerometer, Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI),Smartdust mote.

[1] Doug Steel, Smartdust, UH ISRC Technology briefing, March 2005.

[2] Pratap.P, Kallberg J.M, Thomas L.A,Challenges of remote border monitoring, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST)

[3] Nohara, T.J;A commercial approach to successful persistent radar surveillance of sea, air and land along the northern Border, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST) [4] Neumann, C.; Weiss, G.; Wahlen, A.; Brehm, T:Ground Surveillance With Mmw Radar For Border Control And Camp Protection Applications, EuropeanMicrowave Conference, 2007.
[5] Pratap, P.; Kallberg, J.M.; Thomas, L.A;Challenges Of Remote Border Monitoring, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST)

[6] Girard, A.R.; Howell, A.S.; Hedrick, J.K;Border Patrol And Surveillance Missions Using Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles, 2004. CDC. 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control

[7] Owen, Arch; Duckworth, Gregory; Worsley, Jerry, Optasense: Fibre Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing For Border Monitoring, 2012 EuropeanIntelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC)

[8] ShyamSadasivan, An introduction to the ARM Cortex-M3 Processor, October 2006, Open journal
[9] Cortex-M3 Technical reference manual from ARM, 2010,
[10] NXP Semiconductors, KMA199E, Programmable sensor, Rev.01-18, October 2007,

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Restoration of Images Corrupted by High Density Salt & Pepper Noise through Adaptive Median Based Modified Mean Filter
Country : India
Authors : R.Nisha, P.Jeenath Nabela, M.Sudheekshitha ,B.Madhusudhana Reddy
: 10.9790/2834-0551115      logo

Abstract: In this paper an efficient algorithm is proposed for removal of salt & pepper noise from digital images. Salt and pepper noise in images is present due to bit errors in transmission or introduced during the signal acquisition stage. It represents itself as randomly occurring white and black pixels. This noise can be removed using standard Median Filter (SMF), Progressive Switched Median Filter (PSMF) under low density noise conditions. Decision Based Algorithm (DBA) and Modified Decision Based Unsymmetric Trimmed Median Filter (MDBUTMF) do not give better results at high noise density. So, in this project, this drawback will be overcome by using Adaptive Median based Modified Mean Filter (AMMF). This proposed algorithm shows better Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and clear image than the existing algorithm.

Keywords- Median filter, Progressive Switched Median Filter, Decision Based Algorithm, Modified Decision Based Unsymmetric Trimmed Median Filter

[1] N.C Gallagher Jr and G.W. Wise, A theoretical analysis of the properties of median filter, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-27, 1981, pp.1136- 1141.

[2] T. Huang, G. Yang, and G. Tang, A fast two dimensional median filtering algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, Signal [3] Z. Wang and D. Zhang, Progressive switching median filter for the removal of impulse noise from highly corrupted images, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II, vol. 46, 1999, pp. 78–80.

[4] K. S. Srinivasan and D. Ebenezer, A new fast and efficient decision based algorithm for removal of high density impulse noise, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 14, no. 3, 2007, pp. 189–192.

[5] V. Jayaraj and D. Ebenezer, A new switching based median filtering scheme and algorithmfor removal of high-density salt and pepper noise in image, EURASIP Journal Advanced Signal Processing, vol. 2010, February 2010.

[6] T. Chen and H. R. Wu, Adaptive impulse detection using centre weighted median filters, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 8, no. 1, 2001, pp. 1–3.

[7] R. C. Gonzalez, and Woods R.E, Digital Image Processing. (Addison-Wesley, Boston, 2005.)

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Study On The Improvement Of Bandwidth Of A Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna
Country : India
Authors : P.Bharath, C.Dharmaraj , B.Srinu
: 10.9790/2834-0551622      logo

Abstract: Microstrip antennas or patch antennas are popular for their attractive features such as low profile, low weight, low cost, ease of fabrication and integration with RF devices. Micro strip antennas have been found favorable because they are inexpensive to manufacture and compatible with monolithic microwave integrated circuit designs (MMIC). They are usually employed at UHF and higher frequencies because the size of the antenna is directly tied to the wavelength at the resonance frequency. A Microstrip or patch antenna is a narrowband, wide-beam antenna fabricated by etching the antenna element pattern in metal trace bonded to an insulating dielectric substrate with a continuous metal layer bonded to the opposite side of the substrate which forms a ground plane. The most commonly employed microstrip antenna is a rectangular patch. The major disadvantages of Microstrip antennas are lower gain and very narrow bandwidth. Microstrip patch antennas have some drawbacks of low efficiency, narrow bandwidth (3-6%) of the central frequency. Millimeter wave technology being an emerging area is still much undeveloped. As micro strip antennas have found wide variety of application areas, a number of techniques are evolved to improve its limited bandwidth. A good approach to improve the bandwidth is increasing the thickness of substrate supporting the micro strip patch. However problems exist on the ability to effectively feed the patch on a thick substrate and the radiation efficiency can degrade with increasing substrate thickness. A substantial research needs to be done in this area as its applications are numerous. The radiation patterns and S11 performance are used for the analysis of the different configurations. In the present endeavor a rectangular patch antenna is designed on thick substrate and simulated using MATLAB software and configuration on different dielectric susbstrates was used .

Keywords - bandwidth, dielectric constant, Microstrip antennas, substrate thickness .

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[5]. Constantine A. Balanis. 2005. ANTENNA THEORY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN. 3rd Edition. John Wiley and sons.
[6]. V Zachou. 2004. Transmission line model Design Formula for Microstrip Antenna with Slots. IEEE.
[7]. Prabhakar H.V. 2007. U.K. ELECTRONICS LETTERS. 2nd August. 43(16). Jani Ollikainen and Pertti Vainikainen. 1998 Radiation and Bandwidth Characteristics of Two Planar Multistrip Antennas for Mobile Communication Systems. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 2: 1186-1190.
[8]. I.J. Bahl and P. Bhartia. 1982. Microstrip Antennas. Artech House Inc. IN.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey on Single image Super Resolution Techniques
Country : India
Authors : Rujul R. Makwana, Nita D. Mehta
: 10.9790/2834-0552333      logo

Abstract: Super-resolution is the process of recovering a high-resolution image from multiple low-resolutionimages of the same scene. The key objective of super-resolution (SR) imaging is to reconstruct a higher-resolution image based on a set of images, acquired from the same scene and denoted as 'low-resolution' images, to overcome the limitation and/or ill-posed conditions of the image acquisition process for facilitating better content visualization and scene recognition. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of existing super-resolution techniques and highlight the future research challenges. This includes the formulation of an observation model and coverage of the dominant algorithm – Iterative back projection.We critique these methods and identify areas which promise performance improvements. In this paper, future directions for super-resolution algorithms are discussed. Finally results of available methods are given.

Keywords: Super-resolution, POCS, IBP, Canny Edge Detection

[1] Assaf Zomet, Alex Rav-Acha, Shmuel Peleg, "Robust Super-Resolution" ,ISBN 0-7695-1272-0/01 $10.00 (C) 2001 IEEE.
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[4] C. V. Jiji and Subhasis Chaudhuri, 2006, "Single-Frame Image Super-resolution through Contourlet Learning", EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing, VOL.2006, Article ID 73767, pp 1-11.
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[7] Xueting Liu, Daojin Song, Chuandai Dong and Hongkui Li, 2008, "MAP-Based Image Super-resolution Reconstruction", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 37, pp 208-211.
[8] Kamal Nasrollahi, " A Computer Vision Story On Video Sequences: From Face Detection to Face Super Resolution using Face Quality Assessment", Faculty of engineering and science, IEEE Member, AALBORG UNIVERSITY 2011.
[9] BORMAN, S., AND STEVENSON, R. 1998. Super-resolution from image sequences – A review. In Proceedings of the 1998 Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, IEEE, Notre Dame, IN, USA, 374–378.
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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Digital Implementation of Artificial Neural Network for Function Approximation and Pressure Control Applications
Country : India
Authors : Sangeetha T , Meenal C
: 10.9790/2834-0553439      logo

Abstract: The soft computing algorithms are being nowadays used for various multi input multi output complicated non linear control applications. This paper presented the development and implementation of back propagation of multilayer perceptron architecture developed in FPGA using VHDL. The usage of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for neural network implementation provides flexibility in programmable systems. For the neural network based instrument prototype in real time application. The conventional specific VLSI neural chip design suffers the limitation in time and cost. With low precision artificial neural network design, FPGA have higher speed and smaller size for real time application than the VLSI design. The challenges are finding an architecture that minimizes the hardware cost, maximizing the performance, accuracy. The goal of this work is to realize the hardware implementation of neural network using FPGA. Digital system architecture is presented using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL)and is implemented in FPGA chip. MATLAB ANN programming and tools are used for training the ANN. The trained weights are stored in different RAM, and is implemented in FPGA. The design was tested on a FPGA demo board.

Keywords- Backpropagation, field programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware implementation, multilayer perceptron, pressure sensor, Xilinx FPGA.

[1] M. Paliwal and U. A. Kumar, "Neural networks and statistical techniques: A review of applications," Expert Systems With Applications,vol. 36, pp. 2–17, 2009

[2] R. Gadea, R. C. Palero, J. C. Boluda, and A. S. Cortes, "FPGA implementation of a pipelined on-line back propagation," J. VLSI SignalProcess., vol. 40, pp. 189–213, 2005.

[3] A. R. Ormondi and J. Rajapakse, FPGA Implementations of Neural Networks. New York: Springer, 2006

[4] M. Tommiska, "Efficient digital implementation of the sigmoid function for reprogrammable logic," in Proc. IEE Comput. Digital Tech., 2003, vol.150, pp. 403–4

[5] E. Sanchez, "FPGA implementation of an adaptable-size neural network," in Proc. Int. Conf. ANN, 1996, vol. 1112, pp. 383–388 [6] J. Li and D.Liang,"A survey of FPGA-based hardware implementation of ANNs," in Proc. Int. Conf. Neural Networks Brain, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 915–91

[7] R. Gadea, J. Cerda, F. Ballester, and A. Mocholi, "Artificial neural network implementation on a single FPGA of a pipeline on-line backpropagation," in Proc. Int. Symp.Syst. Synthesis, 2000, pp. 225–230

[8] P. Ferreiraa, P. Ribeiroa, A. Antunes, and F. M. Dias, "A high bit resolution FPGA implementation of a FNN with a new algorithm for the activation function," Neurocomputing, vol. 71, pp. 71–77, 2007.

[9] S.Tatikonda and P.Agarwal, "Field programmable gate array (FPGA) based neural network implementation of motion control and fault diagnosis of induction motor drive," in Proc. IEEE Conf. Ind. Tech., 2008, pp. 1–6.

[10] A. Mellit, H.Mekki, A. Messai, and H. Salhi, "FPGA-based implementation of an intelligent simulator for stand-alone photovoltaic system," Expert Systems With Applications, vol. 37, pp. 6036–6051, 2010

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design, Implementation and Control of a Humanoid Robot for Obstacle Avoidance using 8051 Microcontroller
Country : India
Authors : Sachin M U , Pravin Gaonkar
: 10.9790/2834-0554050      logo

Abstract: In this paper, the design, implementation and control of a humanoid robot, which enables human-like walk and a path planning of humanoid robot for obstacle avoidance by using infrared sensors (IRs) is proposed. As the focus is to obtain human-like walk, the robot is designed to resemble human proportions. Based on the obtained information from IR sensors, a software flow proposed to decide the behaviour of robot so that the robot avoids obstacles and goes to the destination. Furthermore the hardware and software necessary to obtain a fully autonomous system is developed and implemented. Human-like walk was not obtained on the real system, due to system limitations. If a new interface to the DC-motors in the servos was developed, and a faster on-board computer was chosen, human-like walk should be possible.

Keywords- Humanoid robot, Autonomous mobile robot, Obstacle avoidance, IR sensors, servo motors, 8051 Micro controller.

[1] RC Servo user manual-7,Cytron technology.
[6] Introduction to Servomotor Programming manual pdf.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Implementation of XOR Based Pad Generation Mutual Authentication Protocol for RF Link
Country : India
Authors : Ramya K, Asst.Prof Priyadarshini G
: 10.9790/2834-0555155      logo

Abstract: In RF link, without security the messages exchange between the two devices are monitoring by an eavesdropper. So the exclusive-OR (XOR) based pad generation protocol is used to safely transfer the data to the other point with necessary security and it maintaining confidentiality. This protocol produce the cover coding pad to mask the access password before the datas are transmitted. A specially designed pad generation will be implemented in digital domain to solve the insecurity problem in data communication RF link. This protocol developed under regulation of ISO 18000 – 6 type C protocol also known as EPC C1G2 RFID protocol. The linear feed back shift register (LFSR) generate the pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) and it is used as data source to the pad generation function. The Xilinx 13.x software is used for synthesize and modelsim SE6.0 is used for simulating the result. The pad generation algorithm has been implemented in FPGA Spartan 3 PQ208-4 board to verify the result.

Keywords- Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation, mutual authentication, RF link, security, Zigbee.

[1]. Class 1 Generation 2 UHF Air interface Protocol Standard. [Online]. Available:
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[3]. P. Peris-Lopez, J. C. Hernandez-Castro, J. M. Estevez-Tapiador, and A. Ribagorda, Practical attacks on a mutual authentication scheme under the EPC Class-1 Generation-2 standard, Comput Commun., vol.32, no.7–10, May 2009, 1185–1193.
[4]. D. M. Konidala, Z. Kim, and K. Kim, A simple and cost effective RFID tag–reader mutual authentication scheme, in Proc. Int. Conf. RFID Sec, Jul.2007, 141–152.
[5]. Y.J. Huang, C.C. Yuan, M. K. Chen, W. C. Lin, and H. C. Teng, Hardware implementation of RFID mutual authentication protocol, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 5, May 2010, 1573–1582.
[6]. H.-Y. Chien, SASI: A new ultra lightweight RFID authentication protocol providing strong authentication and strong integrity, IEEE Trans. Dependable Secure Comput., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 337–340, Oct.–Dec. 2007.
[7]. H. Tanaka, K. Ohnishi, H. Nishi, T. Kawai, Y. Morikawa, S. Ozawa, and T. Furukawa, Implementation of bilateral control system based on acceleration control using FPGA for multi-DOF haptic endoscopic surgery robot, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 3, Mar. 2009, 618–627.
[8]. J. U. Cho, Q. N. Le, and J. W. Jeon, An FPGA-based multiple-axis motion control chip, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 3, Mar. 2009, 856–870.
[9]. M.-H. Lee, K.-K. Shyu, P.-L. Lee, C.-M. Huang, and Y.-J. Chiu, Hardware implementation of EMD using DSP and FPGA for online signal processing, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 6, Jun. 2011, 2473–2481.
[10]. P. Cole and D. Ranasinghe, Eds., Networked RFID Systems Lightweight Cryptography — Raising Barriers to Product Counterfeiting (1st e Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[11]. S. Piramuthu, Lightweight cryptographic authentication in passive RFID-tagged systems, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. C, Appl. Rev. ,vol. 38, no. 3, May 2008, 360–376.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Comparison of Uncoded OFDM & Uncoded Adaptive OFDM System Over AWGN Channel
Country : India
Authors : Swati M. Kshirsagar, A.N. Jadhav
: 10.9790/2834-0555659      logo

Abstract: Adaptive OFDM (AOFDM) is the important approach to fourth generation of mobile communication. Adaptive modulating scheme is employed according to channel fading condition for improving the performance of OFDM. This gives improved data rate, spectral efficiency & throughput. OFDM is flexible to adapt modulation schemes on subcarriers according instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we compare Bit Error Rate (BER),Mean Square Error(MSE), Spectral Efficiency, Throughput performance of uncoded OFDM & uncoded adaptive OFDM with BPSK,QPSK & QAM modulation over AWGN channel.

Keywords - AOFDM, BER , MSE, Spectral Efficiency, Throughput

[1] A.Sohail and M.N.Jafri, "Adaptive OFDM over Frequency Selective and Fast Fading Channel Using Blockwise Bit Loading
Algorithm", IEEE International Conferenece on Wireless and Optical Communication Networks,pp. 1-4, July 2007.
[2] A.Cyzlwik, "Adaptive OFDM for wideband radio channels", Global Telecommunications Conference, vol 1, pp713-718, Nov
[3] X She ,Z.Zhang,S.Zhou,Yan Yao, "Adaptive Turbo Coded Modulation for OFDM Transmissions ", Proceedings of ICCT.pp.1491-
[4] K.M.Hadi , R.Tripathi and K.Kant, " Performance of Adaptive Modulation in Multipath Fading Channel",The 8th International
Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, ICACT, vol. 2, pp.1277- 1282, 20-22 February 2006.
[5] L. Khalid and A. Anpalagan, "Threshold-Based Adaptive Modulation with Adaptive Subcarrier Allocation in OFCDM-Based 4G
Wireless Systems," IEEE VehicularTechnology Conference, pp.1-6, Sept. 2006.
[6] S.Sampei and H.Harada, "System Design Issues and Performance Evaluations for Adaptive Modulation in New Wireless Access
Systems", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol .95, no.12, pp. 2456-2471,Dec 2007.
[7] B. Le Flock, M. Alard, and C. Berrou, "Coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 83, no. 6,
June l995.
[8] T.S.Rappaport,Wireless Communications Principles & Practice ( II nd Edition .Pentice-Hall, January 2002).
[9] J.G.Prokis,Digital Communications ( Mc-Graw Hill , New York NY, IV th Edition ,2000).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition: An adaptive method for noise reduction
Country : India
Authors : Megha Agarwal, R.C.Jain
: 10.9790/2834-0556065      logo

Abstract: Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data analysis technique, is used to denoise non-stationary and non-linear processes. The method does not require any pre & post processing of signal and use of any specified basis functions. But EMD suffers from a problem called mode mixing. So to overcome this problem a new method known as Ensemble Empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) has been introduced. The presented paper gives the detail of EEMD and its application in various fields. EEMD is a time–space analysis method, in which the added white noise is averaged out with sufficient number of trials; and the averaging process results in only the component of the signal (original data). EEMD is a truly noise-assisted data analysis (NADA) method and represents a substantial improvement over the original EMD.

Keywords –Data analysis, Empirical mode decomposition, intrinsic mode function, mode mixing, NADA

[1]. N. E. Huang, Z. Shen, S. R. Long, M. C. Wu, H. H.Shih, Q. Zheng, N.C. Yen, C. C. Tung, and H. H. Liu. "The Empirical Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Spectrum for Non-linear and Non stationary Time Series Analysis". Proceedings of the Royal Society London A., 1998 454,903–995
[2]. P. Flandrin, G. Rilling and P. Gon¸calv`es, "Empirical mode decomposition as a filter bank", IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11 (2004) 112–114.
[3]. Z. Wu and N. E. Huang, "Ensemble empirical mode decomposition: a noise-assisted data analysis method," Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–41, 2009
Journal Papers:
[4]. 4.Kang-Ming Chang "Arrhythmia ECG Noise Reduction by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition‟Sensors 2010, 10, 6063-6080; doi:10.3390/s100606063

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Digital Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Real Time Position Control Applications
Country : India
Authors : Umarani P , Vasanthmohan S
: 10.9790/2834-0556670      logo

Abstract: Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) systems have emerged as one of the most promising areas for Industrial Applications. The highly growth of fuzzy logic applications led to the need of finding efficient way to hardware implementation. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is the most important tool for hardware implementation due to low consumption of energy, high speed of operation and large capacity of data storage. In this paper, instead of an introduction to fuzzy logic control methodology, we have demonstrated the implementation of a FLC through the use of the Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code. FLC is designed for position control of BLDC Motor. VHDL has been used to develop FLC on FPGA. A Mamdani type FLC structure has been used to obtain the controller output. The controller algorithm developed synthesized, simulated and implemented on FPGA Spartan 3E board.

Keywords – BLDC Motor, FLC, Hardware Implementation, Spartan3 FPGA, VHDL

[1]. S. Assilian and E.H. Mamdani,―An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with Fuzzy Logic Controller‖, Int. Journal on Man machine studies. Vol. 7,pp. 1-13,1975.
[2]. R. Palm, ―Scaling of Fuzzy Controller using the cross correlation‖, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., Vol. 3, pp. 116-123, Feb. 1995
[3]. Sameep and Kuldip S. Rattan, ―Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller on an FPGA using VHDL‖, 22nd International Conference
(NAFIPS), pp. 110-115, March 2003.
[4]. H. X. Li and H. B. Gatland, ―Conventional Fuzzy Control and its enhancement‖, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cyber., Vol. 26, pp. 791- 797, 1996.
[5]. Andrew Kusiak,"Fuzzy Logic", The University of Iowa, Iowa City 2004.
[6]. Yodyium Tipsuwan and Mo-Yuen Chow, ―Fuzzy logic Microcontroller Implementation For DC Motor Speed control‖, IEEE, pp. 1271-1276, 1999
[7]. Kwon, C.J., Han, W.Y., Kim, S.J. and Lee C.G., Speed controller with adaptive fuzzy tuning for BLDC motor drive under load
variations. SICE Annual Conference, 3118-3121, 2003
[8]. Daijin Kim, ―An Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller on the Reconfigurable FPGA System‖, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 703-715, June 2000.
[9]. Philip T. Voung, Asad M. Madni and Jim B. Vuong, ―VHDL Implementation for a Fuzzy Logic Controller‖, World Automation
Congress (WAC), July 24-26, 2006.
[10]. Clive Max field, Design Warrior Guide to FPGAs, Elsevier publications 2004.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis of Various Symbol Detection Techniques in Wireless MIMO System With MQAM Modulation Over Rayleigh Fading Channel
Country : India
Authors : Badal S.Mali, Prof. Milind S. Shah
: 10.9790/2834-0557176      logo

Abstract: Wireless communication is one of the most effective areas of technology development of our time. Wireless communications today covers a very wide array of applications. In this paper, we study the performance of general MIMO system, the performance of Zero Forcing (ZF), Linear Least Square Estimator (LLSE), V-BLAST/ZF, V-BLAST/LLSE of 4x4, 4x6 & 4x8 with 4-QAM & 16-QAM modulation in i i d Rayleigh fading channel. We seen that SER performance of 4x8 antennas and 4-QAM modulation scheme outperforms others. Result shows that for higher modulation schemes SER performance degrades as well as SER performance increases for higher no of receiver antennas.

Keywords - Multi Input Multi Output, Zero-forcing receiver, Linear Least Square Estimation, V-BLAST.

[1] D.Tse and P. Viswanath, "Fundamentals of Wireless Communications." Cambridge Press. 1074- 1080,2005. Journal papers:

[2] Neelam Srivastav, "Diversity Schemes for Wireless Communication –A Short Review" Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology,Islamabad Pakistan.Vol.15.No.2.

[3] Sana Ullah, Mohammed Jashim Uddin, "Performance Analysis of Wireless MIMO System by Using Alamouti's Scheme and Maximum Ratio Combining Technique Muhamma."

[4] Lizhong Zheng, Member, IEEE, and David N. C. Tse, Member, IEEE "Diversity and Multiplexing: A Fundamental Tradeoff in Multiple-Antenna Channels", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY 2003.

[5] Nirmalendu Bikas Sinha, R. Bera, M. Mitra, "Capacity and V-Blast techniques for MIMO Wireless Channel" , Journal of Theoretical and Applied information Technology, 2010.
[6] Sang Goo Kim*, Dongweon Yoon*, Zhengyuan Xu**, and Sang Kyu Park* * Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea ** Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Riverside, CA, USA "Performance Analysis of the MIMO Zero-Forcing Receiver over Continuous Flat Fading Channels".

[7] Alberto Zanella, Member, IEEE, Marco Chiani, Senior Member, IEEE, and Moe Z. Win, Fellow, IEEE, " MMSE Reception and Successive Interference Cancellation for MIMO Systems With High Spectral Efficiency:" IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, MAY 2005.

[8] Bengt Holter, Geir E.Øien, Kjell J. Hole, and Henrik Holm Norwegian, "Limitations in Spectral Efficiency of a Rate-Adaptive MIMO System Utilizing Pilot-Aided Channel Prediction" University of Science and Technology, Department of Telecommunications O.S.Bragstads plass 2B, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway.

[9] Matilde Sánchez-Fernández, Member, IEEE, Eva Rajo-Iglesias, Member, IEEE, Óscar Quevedo-Teruel, Student Member, IEEE, and M. Luz Pablo-González , "Spectral Efficiency in MIMO SystemsUsing Space and Pattern Diversities Under Compactness Constraints:" IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MAY 2008.


Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Enhance the Throughput of Wireless Network Using Multicast Routing
Country : India
Authors : Ramya, Vadivel
: 10.9790/2834-0557783      logo

Abstract: Wireless Mesh Network is designed static or limited mobility environment .In multicast routing for wireless mesh networks has focused on metrics that estimate link quality to maximize throughput andtoprovide secure communication. Nodes must collaborate in order to compute the path metric and forward data.Node identify the novel attacks against high- throughput multicast protocols in wireless mesh network.. The attacks exploit the local estimation and global aggregation of the metric to allow attackers to attract a large amount of traffic These attacks are very effective based on high throughput metrics. The aggressive path selection is a double-edged sword: It is maximizes throughput, it also increases attack effectiveness. so Rate guard mechanism will be used.Rate guard mechanism means combines Measurement-based detection and accusation-based reaction techniques.The attacks and the defense using ODMRP, a representative multicast protocol for wireless mesh networks, and SPP, an adaptation of the well-known ETX unicast metric to the multicast setting.

Keywords— Wireless mesh network,high throughput metrics, secure multicast routing,metric manipulation attacks, Byzantine attacks

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Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Survey of Reactive Routing Protocols for MANET
Country : India
Authors : Chintan Patel , Prof. Vyomal N. Pandya , Prof. Milind Shah
: 10.9790/2834-0558492      logo

Abstract: A MANET is a collection of mobile nodes by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without any network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand) routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. DSR and AODV are reactive route discovery algorithms where a mobile device of MANET connects by gateway only when it is needed. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying performance metrics. These simulations are carried out using the ns-2 network simulator.

Keywords – AODV, DSR, MANET, NS-2, Reactive routing protocols, Survey.

[[1] Sunil Taneja, Ashwani Kush and Amandeep Makkar, "Experimental Analysis of DSR, AODV using Speed and Pause time", International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 5, December 2010, 453-458, ISSN: 2010-0248.
[2] Anil Kumar Sharma and Neha Bhatia, "Behavioral Study of MANET Routing Protocols by using NS-2", International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 12, April 2011, 100-104, ISSN (Online): 2230-7893,

[3] Dhananjay Bisen, Preetam Suman, Prof. Sanjeev Sharma and Rajesh Shukla, "Effect of Pause Time on DSR, AODV and DYMO Routing Protocols in MANET", Manuscript received November 20, 2009.

[4] Manijeh Keshtgary and Vahide Babaiyan, "Performance Evaluation of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in MANET", Manijeh Keshtgary et al. / International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), Vol. 4(2), Feb. 2012, 248-254, ISSN: 0975-3397.
[5] Baldev Ram Mali and N.C. Barwar, "Effect of Mobility on Performance of MANET Routing Protocols under Different Traffic Patterns", IP Multimedia Communications, A Special Issue from IJCA -, 19-24.

[6] C. Siva Ram Murthy and B. S. Manoj, "Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architectures and Protocols", Prentice Hall, PTR, 2004.

[7] Sachin Dnyandeo Ubarhande, "Performance Evolution of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using NS2", International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Vol.3, Issue 5, May 2012, 1-5, ISSN: 2229-5518.

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