IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering(IOSR-JECE)

Volume 5 - Issue 6

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Evaluation of Basic Segmented Algorithms for Brain Tumor Detection
Country : India
Authors : Suchita Yadav , Sachin Meshram
: 10.9790/2834-560813  logo

Abstract: In the field of computers segmentation of image plays a very important role. By this method the re-quired portion of object is traced from the image. In medical image segmentation, clustering is very famous method . By clustering, an image is divided into a number of various groups or can also be called as clusters. There are various methods of clustering and thresholding which have been proposed in this paper such as otsu , region growing , K Means , fuzzy c means and Hierarchical self organizing mapping algorithm. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is a method of clustering which allows one piece of data to belong to two or more clusters. This method (developed by Dunn in 1973 and improved by Bezdek in 1981) is frequently used in pattern recognition. As process of fuzzy c mean is too slow, this drawback is then removed. In this paper by experimental analysis and performance parameters the segmentation of hierarchical self organizing mapping method is done in a better way as compared to other algorithms. The various parameters used for the evaluation of the performance are as follows: segmentation accuracy (Sa) , area (A), rand index (Ri),and global consistency error (Gce) .

Keywords - area (A), Fuzzy C means, global consistency error (Gce) , HSOM, K means , Otsu , rand index (Ri), Region Growing , segmentation accuracy (Sa) , and variation of information (Vi).

[1] Arjan Simonetti , "Investigation of brain tumor classification and its reliability using chemometrics on MR spectroscopy and MR imaging data",2004.

[2] Noworolski , S.M.; Nelson, S.J.; Henry, R.G.; Day, M.R.; Wald, L.L.; Star-Lack, J.; Vigneron, D.B. Magnetic resonance in medi-cine 1999, 41, 21-29.

[3] T.Logeswari1 and M.Karnan2,"An improved implementation of brain tumor detection using segmentation based on soft compu-ting",Journal of Cancer Research and Experimental Oncology Vol. 2 pp. 06-014, March, 2010.

[4] B.Sathya and R. Manavalan ,"Image Segmentation by Clustering Methods: Performance Analysis", IJCA vol 29-No.11,September 2011.

[5] Rafael C.Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods,"Digital Image Processing",Second Edition,Prentice Hall of India Private Limited ,New Delhi – 2007.

[6] OtSu NA. "Threshold selection method from aray level histogram". IEEE Trans. On system, man, and cybernetics. Vol. 9. No. 1. Pp. 62-66, 1979.

[7] Krishna Kant Singh and Akansha Singh, "A study of Image Segmentation Algorithms for Different Types Of Images", IJCSI Inter-national Journal of Computer Science Issues 201

[8] Mrs. Bharati R. JipKate et al., A comparative Analysis of Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and K-Means Clustering Algorithm", IJCER / May-June, 2012 / Vol. 21 / Issue No. 3 / 737-739.

[9] M. Sezgin and B. Sankur (2004). "Survey over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation". Journal of Electronic Imaging 13(1) : 146-165.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Effects of EM Radiation on Living System
Country : India
Authors : P.gauthamipriyadarshini, C.H.R.Phani kumar
: 10.9790/2834-561418      logo

Abstract: Electrical excitability and signaling frequently associated with rapid responses to environmental stimuli, as well as in some algae and some higher plants. The presence of electrical signal, such as action potentials (AP) in plant cells suggested that plant cells, too, make use of ion channels to transmit information over long distances. In the light of rapid progress in plant biology during the past decade, the assumption the electrical signals donot only trigger rapid leaf movements in sensitive plant such as mimosa pudica, the electromagnetic radiations may also cause effect on mechanical and electrical stimulis. Summarizing recent progress in the field of electromagnetic radiation on plants, the present review will focus on the mechanical and electrical stimuli of plants.

Keywords – Electromagnetic radiation, Electrical signal, Mimosa pudica, Mechanical and electrical stimulis.

[1]. Jensen, Evelyn L., Lawrence M. Dill, and James F. Cahill Jr. "Applying behavioral-ecological theory to plant defense: Light-dependent movement in Mimosa pudica suggests a trade-off between predation risk and energetic reward." The American Naturalist 177.3 (2011): 377-381.

[2]. Jackson, Douglas J., et al. "Portable high-voltage power supply and electrochemical detection circuits for microchip capillary electrophoresis."Analytical chemistry 75.14 (2003): 3643-3649.


[4]. Kocher, Mark J., and Robert L. Steigerwald. "An AC-to-DC converter with high quality input waveforms." Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on 4 (1983): 586-599.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design, Electrostatic and Eigen Frequency Analysis of Fixed–Fixed Beam MEMS Resonator
Country : India
Authors : Deepak Kumar, A. Vimala Juliet
: 10.9790/2834-561923      logo

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to design of fixed–fixed MEMS Resonator. The beam of resonator is made up of poly-silicon. This paper also presents the electrostatic and Eigen frequency analysis of MEMS resonator. The resonator used in oscillator which can be fabricated on chip. It can also be used as Switch. The size of crystal oscillator is in order of centimeter but the size of MEMS Resonator is in order of microns, so by replace a crystal oscillator by MEMS Resonator, we can reduce the size of the system. The dc voltage is given to the beam of resonator for electrostatic analysis & Eigen frequency analysis in different modes.

Keywords - MEMS Resonator, fixed-fixed beam, mechanical restoring force

[1] Frederic Nabki, Karim Allidina, Faisal Ahmad, Paul-Vahe Cicek, Mourad N. El Gamal, "Highly Integrated 1.8 GHz Frequency Synthesizer Based on a MEMS Resonator" IEEE Journal of solid-state circuits, Vol. 44, No. 8, August 2009, 2154-2168.

[2] G.Meenakshi sundaram, Mahesh Angira, Kamaljit Rangra "Design and Simulation of two port RF MEMS Resonator" International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI -2012), Jan. 10 – 12, 2012, Coimbatore, INDIA.

[3] Vivek Harshey, Amol Morankar, Dr. R.M. Patrikar "MEMS Resonator for RF Applications" Proceeding of the 2011 COMSOL Conference in Banglore, INDIA.

[4] C. T.-C. Nguyen, "Vibrating RF MEMS for low power communications (invited)," Proceedings, 2002 MRS Fall Meeting, Boston,Massachusetts, Dec. 2-6, 2002, pp. J12.1.1-J2.1.12.

[5] Gabriel M.Rebeiz " RF MEMS Theory , Design and Technology" John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

[6] Joep Jacques Marie Bontemps "Design of a MEMS-based 52 MHz Oscillator" Universiteitsdrukkerij Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, The Netherlands-2009

[7] Ravi Patni, Mohit Joshi, Sameer Mehra, and Akhilesh Mohan "Design of Piezoelectric Aluminum Nitride MEMS Resonator"Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2011 Vol I WCECS 2011, October 19-21, 2011, San Francisco, USA.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Speed and Position Control of Train Sytem Using GPS
Country : India
Authors : Arshiya , Kehkeshan Jalall S, Sufia banu
: 10.9790/2834-562428      logo

Abstract: The passengers face some problems regarding the arrival time of the train and they go on asking the ticket checkers about the arrival. This creates trouble to the ticket checker to keep answering thousands of passengers who are boarding the train. The GPS (Global Positioning System) gives the position of any object on which it as placed with respect to the latitude and longitude of the earth. This technique would be helpful in tracking the exact location of the train and as well the speed of the moving object. Some of the human activities causing accidents include railway level crossing during the approach of train, misplaced fish plates and high speed at places where speed should actually be less. So the system designed here which is called as ATCS (Advanced train control system) helps in reducing the accidents to an extent.

Keywords – NMEA format, GPS, RBC track switch, Tarang (Zigbee transceiver), Microcontroller, Level crossing.

[1] Dai, Ling-Long ; Wang, Zhaocheng ; Yang, Zhi-Xing , Time-Frequency Training OFDM with High Spectral Efficiency and Reliable Performance in High Speed Environments, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Volume: 30 , Issue: 4, 695 - 707
[2] BuBing, Wang, XiShi, Wu, XinYao, Wireless data transmission for high-speed train control, Vehicular Technology Conference, 2000. IEEE-VTS Fall VTC 2000. 52nd , Vol : 6, Pg : 2998 -3001
[3] Mei, T. X. ; Li, H., , Monitoring train speed using bogie mounted sensors — Accuracy and robustness, IET International Conference on Railway Condition Monitoring, 2008 , Pg:1 – 6
[4] Wei, ShangGuan ; Cai Bai-gen ; Gou Chen-xi ; Chen Jian-qiu ; Wang Jian, ,Research on key techniques of high-speed train control system simulation & testing, International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA) 2010 , Page(s): 1695 – 1700
[5] Bing, Bu ; Xishi, Wang, The effect of speed on error rate in wireless train control Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 2000, vol.4, Pg : 2484 - 24

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Embedded Web Server based Interactive data acquisition and Control System
Country : India
Authors : Miss.Pulate S.V.,Mrs.Diggikar A.B.
: 10.9790/2834-562933    logo

Abstract: Design of on-line embedded web server is a one of the difficult task of many real time data acquisition and control system applications. The global system of interconnected computer networks is called as World Wide Web which uses the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to aid billion of users worldwide and enables the user to interface many real time embedded applications like data acquisition,Industrial automations and safety measures etc,. This paper tells the design and development of on-line Interactive Data Acquisition and Control System (IDACS) using ARM9 based embedded web server. It is permitted to a network, intelligent and digital distributed control system. Single chip IDACS method increses the processing speed of a system and also avoids the problem of poor real time and reliability.This system uses ARM9 Processor and RTLinux. Web server application is ported into an ARM processor using embedded 'C' language. Web pages are designed in Hyper text markup language (HTML).

Keywords - Embedded ARM9 Processor, RTLinux RTOS, Embedded web server, IDACS.

[1] K.JackerandJ.Mckinney,"TkDAS- A data acquisition system using RTLinux, COMEDI, and Tcl/Tk," inProc. Third Real Time Linux Workshop, 2001. [Online].Available: The Real TimeLinuxFoundation:

[2] E.Siever, A.Weber, S.Figgins, and R.Love, CA:O'Reilly, "Linux in a Nutshell,",2005.

[3] J. E. Marca, C. R. Rindt, M. Mcnally, and S. T. Doherty, "A GPS enhanced in-vehicle extensible data collection unit," Inst. Transp.Studies, Univ. California, Irvine, CA, Uci-Its-As-Wp-00-9, 2000.

[4] Y. C.Wu, J. R. Luo, and J. Z. Shan, "Development of the central timing system on the EAST Tokamak," IEEE Trans. Nuclear science, Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 789–792, 2007.

[5] F. Acernese, P. Amico, M. Alshourbagy, F. Antonucci, S. Aoudia, P.Astone, S. Avino, D. Babusci, G. Ballardin,"Data Acquisition System of the Virgo Gravitational Waves Interferometric Detector,"IEEE Trans. Nuclear science , Vol. 55, No. 1, pp.225-232, February 2008

[6] D. Vijendra Babu, P. Subramanian and N. Ravi Kanan, "Microblaze and Uclinux Based Data Acquisition on Spartan 3E " Proc. Of International Conference on VLSI Design and Embedded Systems,pp1-4, 2008.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Characteristics analysis of silicon carbide based 1-D Photonic crystal with 2 layered unit cell using MATLAB
Country : India
Authors : Avik Chakraborty
: 10.9790/2834-563440      logo

Abstract: Silicon carbide based 1-D Photonic crystals with 2 layered unit cell are analyzed in this paper. The transmission characteristics of photonic crystals are computed by transfer matrix method and performance of such photonic crystals of different material combinations are also compared, and after comparison some one able to know the characteristics such as pass band width, stop band width, centre band gap of a light wave of a particular wave length traveling through this 2 layered unit cell photonic crystal in nano meter range where one layer of this unit cell must be made of semiconductor material named silicon carbide (SiC).

Key word: 1-D photonic crystal, transmission coefficient, light wave.

[1] J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, R. D. Meade, "Photonic Crystals Molding the Flow of Light", Princeton University Press, 2008.

[2] J. W. Haus, "Photonic Band gap Structures" in nanometer structures: Theory, Modelling and Simulation (Ed: A. Lakhtakia), PHI, New Delhi, 2007, P. 45.
[3] "Photonic crystal",

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A Review of BSS Based Digital Image Watermarking and Extraction Methods
Country : India
Authors : Dr. Sangeeta Jadhav
: 10.9790/2834-564145      logo

Abstract: The field of Signal Processing has witnessed the strong emergence of a new technique, the Blind Signal Processing (BSP) which is based on sound theoretical foundation. An offshoot of the BSP is known as Blind Source Separation (BSS). This digital signal processing techniques have a wide and varied potential applications. The term blind is indicative of the fact that both the source signal and the mixing procedures are unknown. One of the more interesting applications of BSS is in field of image data security/authentication where digital watermarking is proposed. Watermarking is a promising technique to help protect data security and intellectual property rights. The plethora digital image watermarking methods are surveyed and discussed here with their features and limitations. Thus literature survey is presented in two major categories-Digital image watermarking methods and BSS based techniques in digital image watermarking and extraction.

Keywords – BSP, BSS, Mixing Coefficient, Digital Image Watermarking, Watermark Extraction.

[1] J.J. Eggers, R. Bauml, R Tzschoppe and J Huber, "Applications of Information hiding &digital watermarking" ECDL WS Generalized Documents Yr 2001,pp1-6.
[2] Wong Hon Wah, " Image Watermarking and data Hiding Techniques" Ph D Thesis , Hong-Kong Univ. ,Yr2003,pp1-70.
[3] Dr GN Swamy and B. Surekha, " A Spatial Domain Public Image Watermarking" International Journal of Security and Its Applications, Vol,5 No. 1,Yr 2011,pp 1-11.
[4] S. Radharani and Dr. ML valarmathi , " A Study on Watermarking Schemes for Image Authentication" International Journal of Computer Applications(0975-8887),vol-2-No 4, Yr 2010,pp 24-31.
[5] Peter Foris and DusanLevicky, "Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Based on Combination of HVS Models" Radio Engineering Vol-18,No-3 Sep 2009,pp 317-323.
[6] Rajesh KannanMegalingam,MithunMuralidharan Nair, Rahul Srikumar ,VenkatKrishnanBalsubramanian and VineethSarma, VenugopalSarma," A Comparitive Study on Performance of Novel Robust Spatial Domain Digital Image Watermarking with DCT based watermarking" International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering Vol-2,No-4, Yr 2010,pp 1793-8201.
[7] Hua Yuan and Xiao-Ping Zhang, "A Multiscale Fragile watermarkBased on the gaussian Mixture Model in the Wavelet Domain " IEEE proceedings of ICASSP,Yr-2004, pp III-413-416.
[8] M. Hamad Hassan. And S.A.M. Gilani, " A Semi -Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication" World Academy of Science ,Engg. And Technology, Yr-2006, pp 36-38.
[9] JanuszKusyk and Ahmet M. Eskicioglu, "A Semi- Blind Logo Watermarking Scheme for Color Images by Comparison and Modification of DFT Coefficients",
Google Search:
[10] Xinde Sun and Shukui Bo, " A Blind digital Watermarking for Color Medical Images Based on PCA" IEEE, Yr-2010, pp421-427

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Industrial Process Management Using LabVIEW
Country : India
Authors : S.Venkatlakshmi, S.Vivekanandhan, S.Revathi, E.M.Shakthi Arul, C.Paramasivam (Assistant Professor)
: 10.9790/2834-564656    logo

Abstract: Nowadays process management is a tedious task in the industry. We plan to propose a LabVIEW based intelligent multi parameter monitoring system designed using RS232 and Microcontroller aids in the measurement and control of various Global Parameters. For data collection in the industry is a difficult task in real time execution of events with industrial process control and automation. We proposed two slaves for measuring various industrial parameters to monitor and control industrial process. Data acquired from each slave is processed and sent to Master that compile data received from different slaves and send this information to the system configured with LabVIEW platform. This enables us to view and track the online changes encountered in the particular parameter of all the parameters. One of the main advantages of this proposal is, it allows us to view all the parameter readings simultaneously on the front panel in LabVIEW. The Graph drawn on the front panel keeps on tracking the changes on the parameter. The parameters supported by this project includes: current, voltage, temperature, frequency, light intensity, logic switches, water level identifier, and alarm. This Project can be implemented in any of the process industries where there is a need for Simultaneous and fast acquiring of data and control.

Keywords: LabVIEW, RS232, Micro-controller, data acquisition

[1] Mukesh Kumar, Sanjeev Sharma, Mansav Joshi "Design of Real Time Data Acquisition with Multi Node Embedded Systems" International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 42– No.11, March 2012

[2] Basil Hamed "Design & Implementation of Smart House Control Using LabVIEW" International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-1, Issue-6, January 2012

[3] LabVIEW Software 2009 by National Instruments,

[4] Amiya Ranjan Panda, Utpal Mandal, Hare Krishna Ratha " Integrated Monitoring of Encoder Status Parameters and GUI based Remote Control Panel Using Lab view", 3rd International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 43– No.3, April 2012.

[5] Baosheng Yang, Jianxin Li , Qian Zhang "G Language Based Design of Virtual Experiment Platform for Communication with Measurement and Control" on 2012 International Workshop on Information and Electronics Engineering (IWIEE)

[6] Wen Xinling, Zhao Cheng,"Design and Simulation of Voltage Fluctuation Rate Monitor System Based on Virtual Instrument Technology" in 2012 International Conference on Future Electrical Power and Energy Systems.

[7] Mukesh Kumar and Mansav Joshi, "Design and Implementation of Embedding Web Server for Real Time Data Acquisition and Logging System" 4th International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE 2012), Mumbai, India, January 14-15, 2012.

[8] LabVIEW Graphical Programming by Gary W johnsion (TMH).

[9] Zhou Hongfu; Xiao Xinyan; Tang Yong, "Serial Communication Interface Design Based on Lab VIEW and VC Mix Programming", 8th International Conference on Electronic Measurement & Instruments, (ICEMI2007) PP44-49, (in English) (ISTP/EI, INSPEC).

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Performance Analysis and Comparative Study of Cognitive Radio Spectrum Sensing Schemes
Country : India
Authors : Prabhat Prakash Singh, Divya Kumar
: 10.9790/2834-566473  logo

Abstract: In cognitive radio, spectrum sensing is an emergent technology to find available and unused spectrum for increasing spectrum utilization and to overcome spectrum scarcity problem without harmful interference to licensed users. Cooperative spectrum sensing is used to give reliable performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm probability as well as in order to reduce fading, noise and shadowing effects on cognitive radio users. In this paper according to detection performance and complexity various cooperative spectrum sensing schemes have been discussed. We have analyzed spectrum sensing with different fusion rules and their comparative behavior has also been studied. Furthermore, we introduced AND-OR fusion rules in 2-bit and 3-bit hard combination schemes. Keywords - Cognitive radio, cooperative spectrum sensing, energy detector, spectrum sensing, hard combination

[1] Federal Communications Commission, Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, FCC Document ET Docket No. 02-155, Nov. 2002.
[2] Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Cognitive Radio, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Std.No.03-322, Dec.2003.
[3] J. Mitola, Cognitive Radio: An Integrated Agent Architecture for Software Defined Radio, Ph.D. Thesis, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden, 2000.
[4] S. Haykin, Cognitive Radio: Brain-Empowered Wireless Communications, IEEE J. Select. Areas Comm., vol. 23, no. 2, Feb. 2005, pp. 201-220.
[5] A.Sahai and D.Cabric, A Tutorial on Spectrum Sensing: Fundamental Limits and Practical Challenges, IEEE DySPAN2005, Baltimore, MD, Nov.2005.
[6] H. Urkowitz, Energy Detection of Unknown Deterministic Signals, in Proc. Of IEEE, vol. 55, April 1967, pp. 523-531.
[7] F. F. Digham, M. S. Alouini, and M. K. Simon, On the Energy Detection of Unknown Signals over Fading Channels, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 55, no. 1, Jan. 2007.
[8] D. Cabric, S.M. Mishra, and R.W. Brodersen, Implementation Issues in Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios, IEEE Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, vol. 1, Nov. 2004, pp. 772-776.
[9] H. Tang, Some Physical Layer Issues of Wide-Band Cognitive Radio Systems, IEEE Int. Conf. on Wireless Networks, Comm.. and Mobile Computing, Nov. 2005, pp. 151-159.
[10] R. Tandra and A. Sahai, Fundamental Limits on Detection in Low SNR under Noise Uncertainty, IEEE Int. Conf. on Wireless Networks, Comm.. and Mobile Computing, vol. 1, June 2005, pp. 464-469.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparison of TCP congestion control mechanisms Tahoe, Newreno and Vegas
Country : India
Authors : Digvijaysinh B Kumpavat, Prof. Paras S Gosai, Prof. Vyomal N Pandya
: 10.9790/2834-567479    logo

Abstract: The widely used reliable transport protocol TCP, is an end to end protocol designed for the wireline networks characterized by negligible random packet losses. This paper represents exploratory study of TCP congestion control principles and mechanisms. Modern implementations of TCP contain four intertwined algorithms: slow start, congestion avoidance, fast retransmit, and fast recovery. In addition to the standard algorithms used in common implementations of TCP, this paper also describes some of the more common proposals developed by researchers over the years. We also study, through extensive simulations, the performance characteristics of four representative TCP schemes, namely TCP Tahoe, New Reno and Vegas under the network conditions of bottleneck link capacities for wired network.

Keywords - Congestion avoidance, Congestion control mechanisms, Newreno, Tahoe, TCP, Vegas

[1] Kai Xu, Ye Tian, Nirwan Ansari, Improving TCP performance in integrated wireless communications networks, Elsevier Computer Networks 47, 2005, 219-237

[2] T. Henderson, S. Floyd and A. Gurtov, The Newreno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm, RFC 6582, April 2012, 1-16 [3] Lawrence S. Brakmo and Larry L. Peterson, TCP Vegas: End to End Congestion Avoidance on a Global Internet, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas In Communication ,13 (8), October 1995, 1465-1480

[4] W. Stevens, TCP Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance, Fast Retransmit, and Fast Recovery Algorithms, RFC 2001, January 1997, 1-7 [5] Van Jacobson, Congestion Avoidance and Control. Computer Communications Review, 18 (4), August 1988, 314-329.

[6] G. Hasegawa, M. Murata, and H. Miyahara, Fairness and stability of the congestion control mechanism of TCP, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM'99, March 1999, 1329–1336.

[7] Paul Meeneghan and Declan Delaney, An Introduction to NS, Nam and Otcl scripting, Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 2004-05.

[8] B. Sikdar, S. Kalyanaraman and K. S. Vastola, Analytic Models for the Latency and Steady-State Throughput of TCP Tahoe, Reno, and SACK, IEEE/ACM Transactions On Networking, 11(6), December 2003, 959-971.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Design of MEMS capacitive accelerometer with different perforated proof- mass for enhancement of performance
Country : India
Authors : Kamran Akhtar, Dr.A. Vimala Juliet
: 10.9790/2834-568087      logo

Abstract:This work represents a study of perforated proof mass of a micro fabricated accelerometer with different perforation shapes, by application of load stress and displacement is measuredto know the deflection and flexibility of the proof mass. Perforation shapes of proof mass of capacitive accelerometer affects the sensitivity and other performance parameters of accelerometer.Eigen frequency analysis is done to know the stress and displacement distribution on vibrating proof mass which are used to measure and compare the sensitivity and mechanical strength of proof mass. As a result of this study it has been found that the proof mass with perforation shape of nozzle/diffuser is the most efficient perforation shape to get better performance from an capacitive micro fabricated accelerometers.

Keywords:- Accelerometer, Eigen frequency, MEMS, perforation.

1] Inn am etal"School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shilim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul, South Korea "School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science", Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.2004

[2] Isaac G.Macwanet al "Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Bridgeport", Bridgeport, CT 06604. 2005

[3] BanibrataMukherjeeet al, "Department of Electrical Engineering Institute of Technology, Kharagpur",Kharagpur-721302.

[4] Jiri et al "Sensor for automotve Technology"Wiley-VCH GmbH &Co, 2003

[5] G.K.Fedder,"SimulationofMicroelectromechanicalsystem"Ph.D thesis University of California Berkeley.

[6] E.Peeters,S. Vergote,B.Puers and W.Sansen,"A highly symmetrical capacitive micro-accelerometer with singledegree-of-freedom response"J.Miceomech. Microeng

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Comparative Analysis of Varios Diversity Techniques for Ofdm Systems
Country : India
Authors : Reena M.Tech., Sahasha Namdeo M.Tech
: 10.9790/2834-568896      logo

Abstract: In this paper, three transmit diversity techniques are proposed that use extra transmit antennas to obtain additional diversity. An analytical expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate at the output of a three-branch maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining and selection diversity system is given. The three branches are assumed to be Rayleigh fading, correlated with the BPSK modulation. Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio and bit-error-rate after selection, equal gain combining and maximal ratio combining were made in Rayleigh fading channels and compared with the analytical results. Also presented are the exact analytical average probabilities of bit error for coherent binary phase-shift keying for three-branch maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining and selective diversity for Rayleigh fading channel. All these three branches is compared on the basis of signal to noise ratio and bit error rate with the increasing no. of receiver. This work confirms the benefits of choosing the maximal ratio combining instead of equal gain combining and selection diversity by measuring the performances of these three branches for SNR and BER.


[2] IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 16, NO. 8, OCTOBER 1998" A simple Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications " Siavash M. Alamouti, Senior Technical Leader, Alta Business Unit of Cadence Design Systems, Sunnyvale, CA.

[3] IEEE,Abdulkareem Adinoyi, Yijia Fan, Halim Yanikomeroglu, H. Vincent Poor, and Furaih Al-Shaalan "Performance of Selection Relaying and Cooperative Diversity".

[4] IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2001" Optimum Selection Diversity for BPSK Signals in Rayleigh Fading Channels" Young Gil Kim and Sang Wu Kim, Senior Menber, IEEE

[5] International Journal of Advanced in Compter Science and Software Engineering " Diversity – A Fading Reduction Technique" Nikita Sachdeva, Deepak Sharma MMU Mullana.

[6] IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, 2004 (TO APPEAR) "Performance Analysis of Combined Transmit Selection Diversity and Receive Generalized Selection Combining in Rayleigh Fading channels" Xiaodong Cai, Member, IEEE, and Georgios B. Giannakis, Fellow, IEEE
[7] Vehicular Technology Conference, 2006. VTC-2006 Fall. 2006 IEEE 64th "BER Analysis of BPSK Modulation Over the Weibull Fading Channel with CCI "25-28 Sept. 2006.
[8] D. B. Smith and T. D. Abhayapala are with Wireless Signal Processing, National ICT Australia (NICTA) Locked Bag 8001, Canberra, ACT, 2601 "Maximal Ratio Combining Performance Analysis in Practical Rayleigh Fading Channels".

[9] IEEE David B. Smith and Thushara D. Abhayapala "Maximal Ratio Combining Performance Analysis in Spatially Correlated Rayleigh Fading Channels". [10] International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 21– No.6, May 2011, "SER Analysis of OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channel"

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Designing and Performance Evaluation of 64 QAM OFDM System
Country : India
Authors : Sahasha Namdeo, Reena Rani
: 10.9790/2834-5697105    logo

Abstract: In this report, the performance analysis of 64 QAM-OFDM wireless communication systems affected by AWGN in terms of Symbol Error Rate and Throughput is addressed. 64 QAM (64 ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) is the one of the effective digital modulation technique as it is more power efficient for larger values of M(64). The MATLAB script based model of the 64 QAM-OFDM system with normal AWGN channel and Rayleigh fading channel has been made for study error performance and throughput under different channel conditions. This simulated model maximizes the system throughput in the presence of narrowband interference, while guaranteeing a SER below a predefined threshold. The SER calculation is accomplished by means of modelling the decision variable at the receiver as a particular case of quadratic form D in complex Gaussian random variables. Lastly comparative study of SER performance of 64 QAM-OFDM simulated & 64 QAM-OFDM theoretical under AWGN channel has been given. Also performance of the system is given in terms of throughput (received bits/ofm symbol) is given in a plot for different SNR.

Keywords –64 QAM, BPSK, OFDM, PDF, SNR.

[1] Pussadee Kiratipongvooth, "Bit Error Probability of Cooperative Diversity for M-ary QAM OFDM-based system with Best Relay Selection" , International Conference on Information and Electronics Engineering 2011IPCSIT vol.6 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore

[2] Abhijyoti Ghosh, "Comparative BER Performance of M-ary QAM-OFDM System in AWGN & Multipath Fading Channel", International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), Vol. 4 No. 06 June 2012

[3] Ebrahim Bedeer, "Adaptive Bit Allocation for OFDM Cognitive Radio Systems with Imperfect Channel Estimation", 2012 IEEE

[4] Mitalee Agrawal , "BER Analysis of MIMO OFDM System for AWGN & Rayleigh Fading Channel" , International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 34– No.9, November 2011

[5] M. Di Renzo, F. Graziosi, and F. Santucci, "On the cumulative distribution function of quadratic-form receivers over generalized fading channels with tone interference," Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 2122 –2137, jul. 2009.

[6] F. J. Lopez-Martinez, E. Martos-Naya, J. F. Paris, and A. J. Goldsmith, "BER Analysis for MIMO-OFDM Beamforming with MRC under Channel Prediction and Interpolation Errors," in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. GLOBECOM 2009, pp. 1–7, 2009.

[7] F. J. Lopez-Martinez, E. Martos-Naya, J. F. Paris, and U. Fernandez-Plazaola, "Generalized BER Analysis of QAM and its Application to MRC under Imperfect CSI and Interference in Ricean Fading Channels," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 59, pp. 2598–2604, June 2010.

[8] F. J. Lopez-Martinez, E. Martos-Naya, J. F. Paris, and J. T. Entrambasaguas, "BER analysis of direct conversion OFDM systems with MRC under channel estimation errors," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 14, pp. 423–425, May 2010.

[9] F. J. Lopez-Martinez, E. Martos-Naya, K. K. Wong, and J. Entrambasaguas, "Closed- Form BER Analysis of Alamouti-MRC Systems with ICSI in Ricean Fading Channels," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 1, no. Accepted for publication, pp. 1–3, 2011.

[10] F. J. Lopez-Martinez, E. Martos-Naya, J. F. Paris, and J. Entrambasaguas, "Exact Closed-Form BER Analysis of OFDM Systems in the presence of IQ imbalances and ICSI," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 2nd round of reviews, pp. 1–7, 2011.

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