IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)

Volume 7 - Issue 1

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Metaheuristic Approach Based on Neighbourhood Search for Solving P-Median Problem
Country : India
Authors : Srinivas Reddy.D, A. Govardhan, SSVN Sarma
: 10.9790/0661-0710105       logo
Abstract:Now a day there is much more amplified curiosity in combinatorial optimization. The p-median problem which is a facility location problem, deals with discrete data and hence it is characterized as a combinatorial optimization problem. It is NP-Hard in nature that ascertains the specified number of locations as facilitators which serves the maximum locations. The p-median problem will be productive in several applications areas such as mounting marketing strategies in Management Sciences and recognition of server positions in computer networks. A new Metaheuristic approach with Neighbourhood Search (NS) technique has been proposed in the present paper which unveil all possible combinations with the elements in the neighbourhood of individual elements in the solution and recognizes the optimal solution i.e., which serves the maximum locations so that the sum of the total distance from the each element to the facilities is minimized. The proposed metaheuristic approach is an iterative one which contains two phases. Construction phase is the first phase that structure the initial solution and based on the initial solution the second phase explore for the optimal solution based on NS approach and then the probable solution space is computed to obtain the optimal solution.
Keywords: Metaheuristic, neighbourhood, local search, neighbourhood search, hybridization.
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[6] B. Geothals and M. J. Zaki, Advances in Frequent Item set Mining Implementations: Introduction to FIMI03, Proceedings of the
IEEEICDM workshop on Frequent Item set Mining Implementations, 2003.
[7] G. Grahne and J. Zhu, Efficiently using prefix-trees in mining frequent item-sets, Proceedings of the IEEEICDM Workshop on
Frequent Itemset Mining Implementations, 2003.
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conference on Management of Data, pp. 1-12, 2000.
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Mathematics, 37 (1979), pp.539-560

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Establish and Operate A District-Level Disease Surveillance Unit
Country : India
Authors : Rajesh Kumar
: 10.9790/0661-0710609       logo
Abstract:Integrated Disease Surveillance programme is a decentralized, state based surveillance programme in the country. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. It is also expected to provide essential data to monitor progress of on-going disease control Programme and help allocate health resources more efficiently. All outbreaks cannot be predicted or prevented. However, precautionary measures can be taken within the existing health infrastructure and service delivery to reduce risks of outbreaks and to minimize the scale of the outbreak if it occurs. The effectiveness with which national programmes are implemented and monitored, the alertness for identification of early warning signals and the capacity for initiating recommended interventions in a timely manner are important to achieve the above objectives.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Imprecise Software Requirements: A Software Development Risk
Country : India
Authors : Kirandeep Kaur , Rekha Rani , Bharti Jyoti
: 10.9790/0661-0711012       logo
Abstract:Software Engineering is a profession to provide high quality software to the customers. It is a systematic approach to analysis, design, implementation, maintenance and re engineering of software. But there are many risks involved in creating high quality software like imprecise requirement gathering, poor management, gold plating, lack of proper communication within the team etc. Risks have no exact values. They are based upon uncertainties. A major contributor to project failure is the failure to spend the time at the beginning of the project to clearly define the product requirements before beginning product development i.e. gathering imprecise requirements.
Keywords:Software Engineering, Software Risk, Imprecise requirements.
[1] Shradhanand, Amarjeet Kaur, Dr. Satbir Jain, "Use of fuzzy logic in software development", Vol. 8, No. 2, pp: 238-244, 2007.
[2] Prajakta Chandrakant Dhote, "Handling ambiguous data during requirements verification using fuzzy logic", International Journal
of Computer Science and Communication, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp: 105-107, 2011.
[3] Alexandre Bern, Satya Jaya Aparna Pasi, Uolevi Nikula, Kari Smolander., "Contextual Factors Affecting the Software Development
Process – An Initial View", pp:1-8.
[4] Abhijit Chakraborty, Mrinal Kanti Baowaly, Ashraful Arefin, Ali Newaz Bahar., " The Role of Requirement Engineering in
Software Development Life Cycle", Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, ISSN : 2079-8407 , Vol.
3, No. 5, pp: 723-729, 2012.
[5] Lachana Raimingwong, "A Review of requirements processes, Problem and models", International Journal of Engineering Science
and Technology (IJEST), ISSN: 0975-5462, Vol. 4, No.06, 2012.
[6] Subhash K.Shinde , Varunakshi Bhojane , Pranita Mahajan., "NLP based Object Oriented Analysis and Design from Requirement
Specification", International Journal of Computer Applications, ISSN:0975 – 8887, Vol. 47, No.21, 2012.
[7] Saima Amber, Narmeen Shawoo, Saira Begum., "Determination of Risk During Requirement Engineering Process", Journal of
Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, ISSN: 2079-8407, Vol. 3, NO. 3, pp: 358-364, 2012.
[8] Namrata Kapoor, Nitin Bhatia, Sangeet Kumar, "Software risk analysis using fuzzy logic", international journal of computer
information system , Vol. 2, No.2, 2011.
[9] Eric S. K. Yu and John Mylopoulos, "Understanding "Why" in Software Process Modelling, Analysis, and Design", 16th
International Conference Software Engineering, pp: 1-10, 1994.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Efficient Detection of Ddos Attacks by Entropy Variation
Country : India
Authors : V.Sus hma Reddy, K.Damodar Rao, P.Sowmya Laks hmi
: 10.9790/0661-0711318       logo
Abstract:Distributed Denial- of- Service (DDoS) attacks are a critical threat to the Internet. It is extremely hard to trace back the attackers because of memory less feature of the internet routing mechanisms. As a result, there is no effective and efficient method to deal with this issue .In this paper, traces back of the attackers are efficiently identified and also to protect the data from the attackers using entropy variations. In the existing system, some approaches have been suggested to identify the attackers such as probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM), Deterministic Packet Marking (DPM). These two approaches are not efficient because it requires injecting marks into individual packets in order to trace back the attackers. In PPM; it can only operate in a local range of internet. In DPM, it requires all the internet routers to be updated for packet marking. Scalability is also a big problem in both PPM and DPM. In order to overcome the above drawbacks, a method based on Entropy Variation is used which is a measure changes of randomness of flows at a router for a given interval. We propose a novel trace back method for DDoS attacks that is based on entropy variations between normal and DDoS attack traffic, which is fundamentally different from commonly used packet marking techniques. This method is used to identify the attackers efficiently and supports a large scalability. In the proposing system, this method is applied to block the attackers in a wide area of network which was much efficient and protect the data from the attackers.
Keywords:DDOS, IPtraceback, Entropy Variation, Flows.
[1] K. Park and H. Lee, "On the Effectiveness of Probabilistic Packet Marking for IP Traceback under Denial of Service Attack,"
[2] S.Yu and W.Zhou, "Entropy-Based Collaborative Detection of DDoS Attacks on Community Networks," Proc. Sixth Ann.
IEEEInt'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm., pp. 566-571, 2008.
[3] Hoai-Vu Nguyen and Yongsun Choi," Proactive Detection of DDoS Attacks Utilizing k-NN Classifier in an Anti-DDos
Framework"proc. IEEEINFOCOM 2010.
[4] Anusha. J,"Entropy Based Detection of DDOS Attacks"IJSEC-2011.
[5] G. Jin and J. Yang, "Deterministic Packet Marking Based on Redundant Decomposition for IP raceback," IEEE Comm. Letters,vol.
10, no. 3, pp. 204-206, Mar. 2006.
[6] K. Lu et al., "Robust and Efficient Detection of DDoS Attacks for Large-Scale Internet," Computer Networks, vol. 51, no. 9, pp.
5036-5056, 2007.
[7] R. Chen, J. Park, and R. Marchany, "A Divide-and-Conquer Strategy for Thwarting Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks,"IEEE
Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 577-588, May 2007.
[8] "IP Flow-Based Technology," ArborNetworks,, 2010.
[9] A. Belenky and N. Ansari, "IP Traceback with Deterministic Packet Marking," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 162-164.
[10] M.T. Goodrich, "Probabilistic Packet Marking for Large-Scale IP Traceback," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Privacy Protection in Cloud computing by using Cryptographic Technique.
Country : India
Authors : Rajapraveen. k. n, Dr. N. K. Prasanna kumari
: 10.9790/0661-0711921       logo
Abstract:Cloud computing technology is very useful in present day to day life, this cloud computing techniques uses the internet and central remote servers to the maintain data as well as applications. Cloud computing permits consumers and businesses to use such applications without getting any installation and can access their data (or) files from any other computer using internet service. Cloud computing Technology provides vast and better efficient computing by centralizing data storage, processing. The work of cloud computing is to store, create, and manipulate data through Web based services ,due to the flexi services by cloud computing it is growing in popularity. But when coming to privacy factor, the question arises these cloud computing services can able to protect the privacy of their consumers, What are the necessary measurements and what precautions we can do for the improvement of privacy .to enhance the privacy in cloud computing cryptographic techniques are more useful.
Keywords:cryptographic protection in cloud computing, privacy in cloud computing, privacy protection with cryptographic technique in cloud computing
[1] Sun Microsystems, Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture, 2009
[2] CHAPPELL, D.2009. Introducing the Azure Services Platform. David Chappell & Associates.
[3] cloud computing
[4] Dave Dittrich, Network monitoring/Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), University of Washington
[5] M. Bellare, A. Desai, E. Jokipii, and P. Rogaway. A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Encryption: Analysis of the DES
Modes of Operation. Proceedings of the 38th Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, IEEE, 1997.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : An Adaptive Secure Fuzzy Multicast communication in Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Country : India
Authors : B. G. Obula Reddy, Dr. Maligela Ussenaiah
: 10.9790/0661-0712232       logo
Abstract:Multicast protocols in MANETs must consider control overhead for maintenance, energy efficiency of nodes and routing trees managements to frequent changes of network topology. Now-a-days Multicast protocols extended with Cluster based approach. Cluster based multicast tree formation is still research issues. The tree reconstruction of cluster-based multicast routing protocol will take place if any link of the trees has malfunction or the nodes move out of the link, therefore, its robust performance is unsatisfactory. The mobility of nodes will always increase the communication delay because of re-clustering and cluster head selections. In our previous proposal, reported on simulation-based experiments evaluating two different approaches clustering to multicast communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), namely AFMR and CBRP. One of the chief contributions of this work is our objective analysis of these two multicast routing protocol categories in order to characterize their behavior under a wide range of MANET mobility. In this paper, we evaluate mainly security level based in AFMR, named SAFMR and compare it with Cluster-based On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (CODMRP) and Cluster-based routing protocol (CBRP).
Keywords:Fuzzy Clustering, AFMR, SAFMR, CBRP, Kalman Filter, Location Management.

[1] Shekhar H M P, Arun Kumar M A, and K S Ramanatha,(2005) ―Mobile agents aided multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks‖ Advanced Communication Technology, 2005, ICACT 2005.

[2] Zaiba Ishrat, (2011) ‖ Security issues, challenges & solution in MANET‖ in International Journal of Computer Sci ence & Technology Vol. 2, Iss ue 4, Oct . - Dec. 2011

[3] R. Pandi Selvam and V.Palanisamy, (2011) ―AN EFFICIENT CLUSTER BASED APPROACH FOR MULTI-SOURCE MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS‖ International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.3, No.1, January 2011

[4] XUE-MEI SUN, WEN-JU LIU, ZHI-QIANG ZHANG and YOU ZHAO,(2006) ―CODMRP: Cluster-based On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol ―Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2006. WiCOM 2006

[5] XUE-MEI SUN, WEN-JU LIU, ZHI-QIANG ZHANG and YOU ZHAO,(2006)‖ CODMRP: Cluster-based On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol‖ Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2006. WiCOM 2006.

[6] Bey-Ling Su, Ming-Shi Wang and Yueh-Ming Huang,(2008) ―Fuzzy logic weighted multi-criteria of dynamic route lifetime for reliable multicast routing in ad hoc networks‖ Expert Systems with Applications: An International Journal Volume 35 Issue 1-2, July, 2008

[7] Muhammad Arshad Ali and Yasir Sarwar,(2011) ―Security Issues regarding MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks): Challenges and Solutions‖ in School of Computing, Blekinge Institute of Technology March 2011

[8] Roberto Carlos Hincapi, Blanca Alicia Correa and Laura Ospina,(2006) ―Survey on Clustering Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks‖ January 20, 2006; revised April 18, 2006.
[9] Jing Nie, JiangchuaWen, Ji Luo, Xin He and Zheng Zhou, (2006) ―An adaptive fuzzy logic based secure routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks‖ on Fuzzy Sets and Systems Volume 157, Issue 12, 16 June 2006.

[10] Rui Huang and Gergely V. Z aruba,(2006) ―Location Tracking in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Particle Filter‖ Journal of Discrete Algorithms Volume 5 Issue 3, September, 2007..

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Optimization of Emergency Response System Using Cellular Network
Country : India
Authors : Prof. Prina Shah, Prof. Zunnun Narmawala
: 10.9790/0661-0713339       logo
Abstract:VANET is a specific class of Ad-hoc network. Applications of VANET vary from safety applications like warning signals, keeping safe distance among vehicles to non-safety applications like traffic congestion, route information, Internet access. Timely help in emergencies like fire, medical etc. is of utmost importance. Response time can be reduced if Emergency Response Vehicle (ERV) can be routed through city roads such that minimal time is taken. We focus on estimating traffic on the roads so that optimum route in terms of time taken can be found. We aim to do it without modifying/adding any infrastructure. Nowadays, almost every person while travelling carries mobile phones. If location of these phones can be traced then traffic can be estimated. There are many localization techniques which are useful to give accurate location information of any Mobile Node like GPS, dead reckoning, Cellular networks. But, penetration of GPS enabled phones with active GPS is very less. So, this paper aims to estimate traffic using cellular networks, which uses in-built infrastructure and is cost effective. From traffic estimates and length of the routes, optimal route is chosen using a unique formula.
Keywords:Emergency Response System, Ad hoc networks, Localization, GPS, Cellular Network
[1] J. F. Bull, "Wireless geolocation," in IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, December 2009.
[2] E. F. N. A. A. L. Azzedine Boukerche, Horacio A.B.F. Oliveira, "Vehicular ad hoc networks: A new challenge for localization-based
systems," in Science Direct, 2008.
[3] M. I. Silventoinen and T. Rantalainen, "Mobile station emergency locating in gsm," in IEEE Personal Wireless Communications,
pp. 232 – 238, 1996.
[4] A. V. Emiliano Trevisani, "Cell-id location technique, limits and benefits: an experimental study," in IEEE Mobile Computing
Systems and Applications, pp.51 – 60, December 2004.
[5] M. M. Christopher Drane and C. Scott, "Positioning gsm telephones," in IEEE Communications magazine, pp. 46 – 54,59, 1998.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : Security Improvement of Xml Files Using Structure Modification
Country : India
Authors : Daxesh Panchal, Prof A.S. Dhabariya
: 10.9790/0661-0714046       logo
Abstract:XML is an extensible markup language, with its influential explanatory, scalable, ordered, platformindependent features are widely used in the presence of a large number of e-commerce and e-business data exchange.XML is also broadly used in current distributed systems. The security of the XML based communication, and the Web services themselves, is of great implication to the overall security of these systems. Moreover, in order to assist interoperability, the security mechanisms should preferably be based on established standards. Encryption provides confidentiality by protecting sensitive information from being read by intruders. In this paper, we present one approach for encrypting xml file using separation of xml data and content of xml element.
Keywords:Security, XML, Web services, SOA, distributed systems
[1] D. Eastlake, J. Reagle, D. Solo, F. Hirsch, and T. Roessler, "XML SignatureSyntax and Processing (Second Edition),"W3C
Recommendation, 2008.
[2] D. Eastlake and J. Reagle, "XML Encryption Syntax and Processing," W3C Recommendation, 2002.
[3] XML Security by Claudio A. Ardagna, Ernesto Damiani, Sabrina De Capitani di Vimercati, and Pierangela Samarati.
[4] XML and Web Services Security Standards Nils Agne Nordbotten.
[6] A Stream-based Implementation of XML Encryption by Takeshi Imamura, Andy Clark, Hiroshi Maruyama.
[8] Understanding Web Services: XML, WSDL, SOAP, and UDDI. By Newcomer, E.

Paper Type : Research Paper
Title : A New Efficient Digital Signature Scheme Algorithm based on Block cipher
Country : India
Authors : Prakash Kuppuswamy, Peer Mohammad Appa,Dr. Saeed Q Y Al-Khalidi
: 10.9790/0661-0714752       logo
AbstractThe digital signature technique is essential for secure transactions over open networks. It is used in a variety of applications to ensure the integrity of data exchanged or stored and to prove to the recipient the originator's identity. Digital signature schemes are mostly used in cryptographic protocols to provide services like entity authentication, authenticated key transport and authenticated key agreement. This architecture is related with secure Hash Function and cryptographic algorithm. There are many other algorithms which are based on the hybrid combination of prime factorization and discrete logarithms, but different weaknesses and attacks have been developed against those algorithms. This Research paper presents a new variant of digital signature algorithm which is based on linear block cipher or Hill cipher initiate with Asymmetric algorithm using mod 37.
Keywords:Digital Signature, Block cipher, Factorization, MD5, ECC.
Journal Papers:
[1] Mr. Hemant Kumar, Dr.Ajit Singh, An Efficient Implementation of Digital Signature Algorithm with SRNN Public Key
Cryptography, IJRREST, June 2012.
[2] Aqeel Khalique, Kuldip Singh Sandeep Sood, Implementation of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, International
Journal of Computer Applications, May 2010.
[3] Sushila Vishnoi, Vishal Shrivastava, International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology, ISSN: 2231-2803, 2012.
[4] W.Diffie and M. E. Hellman, New directions in cryptography, IEEE Transactions on information theory, vol.22,1976.
[5] Douglas Stinson, Cryptography Theory and Practice, by CRC Press, 1995.
[6] A. J. Menezes, P.C.V. Oorschot and S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of applied cryptography, CRC Press, 1996.
Proceedings Papers:
[7] P. Kitsos, N. Sklavos, and O. Koufopavlou, An efficient implementation of the digital signature algorithm, Electronics, Circuits
and Systems, 2002.
[8] W.C.Cheng, C.-F.Chou and L.Golubchik, Performance of Batch-based Digital Signatures , 10th IEEE International Symposium
on Modeling, 2002.
[9] S. Even, O. Goldreich, and S. Micali, On-line/off-line digital signatures, presented at Proceedings of CRYPTO‟89 conference,
[10] R.Gennaro and P.Rohatgi, How to sign digital streams, presented at Proceedings of CRYPTO'97, Santa Barbara, CA, 1997.