Volume-10 ~ Issue-3
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Aetiological Pattern of Amputations in an Emerging University Teaching Hospital, South-South Nigeria.|
|Authors||:||Mukoro George Duke, Ogugua C. Paul, Kombo B. B.|
Abstract: Amputation is greatly feared in developing countries, often due to it psycho-social effect on patients perception in public. Secondly cultural background and thirdly due to the economic burden on the family towards welfare and support ,due to scarce social and public welfare services. Despite these long term effect, amputation is still carried out for most absolute indication due to the presence of these etiological causes persisting in our environment. Considering these facts ,we deem it necessary and pertinent to review the common indications for surgically treated amputation and refashioning in our environment as well as the necessary epidemiology .
Keywords: Diabetes, Amputation, Aetio-pathologic
. Solagberu B. A. The scope of amputations in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Afr J Med, Med Sci 2001; 30(3): 225-7.
. Thanni L. O., Tade A. O. Extremity amputation in Nigeria - a review of indications and mortality. Surgeon. 2007; 5(4): 213- 7
. Olasehinde A. A.,Oginni L. M., Bankole J. O., Adegbehingbe, Oluwadiya K. S. Indications for amputation in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger J Med 2002; 11(3): 118-21
. Ekere A. A.The scope of extremity amputations in a private hospital in South South region of Nigeria. Niger J Med 2003; 12(4): 225-8
. Dada A A, Awoyomi B O. Is the trend of amputation in Nigeria changing? A review of 51 consecutives cases seen at Federal medical centre Ebute Metta, Lagos, Nigeria. Niger Med J 2010;51:167-9
. Ogunlade S. O., Alonge T. O., Omololu A. B. et al . major limb amputation in Ibadan. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2002; 31(4): 333-6
. Obalum D. C., Okeke G. C. Lower limb amputations at a Nigerian private tertiary hospital West Afr J Med 2009; 28(1): 24-7
. Yinusa W., Ugbeye M. E. Problems of amputation surgery in a developing Country. Int Orthop. 2003; 27(2): 121-4.
. Abbas A. D., Musa A. M. Changing pattern for extremity amputations in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Niger J Med 2007; 16(4): 330 -3.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Quality of Operation Notes in Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital, Southern Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Olatoregun, Frank B. O; Alagoa, Paingha J; Mukoro D. George|
Abstract: Background: Operation notes are necessarily a vital part of good note keeping in clinical surgery as they are useful tools in patients management. They are also useful in research, audit of procedures and a sine qua non should medico-legal dispute arise. Ideally operation notes should be written by operating surgeon. This article assesses the quality of operation notes in a young teaching hospital. Method: A total of 99 operation notes were randomly selected from a list of surgical operations between July 2008 and June 2010 of a young teaching Hospital. The operation notes were assessed for expected parameters of a standard operative note against the background of hospital templates and published protocol derived from Good surgical practice by the Royal college of surgeons, Edinburgh, 2008. Available components in the written notes were tabulated. Result: Results showed that all the operative notes were incomplete for all parameters. Deficiencies ranged from 1% for written operative procedure to as high as 96% for tolerance. Other deficiencies were at rates of ;5,7,10, 29, 45, 56 and 58 percentages for name of patient, name of surgeon, admission number, indications, blood loss and positioning respectively. Conclusion. Regular audit of operation notes should be carried out and medical personnel should be properly trained concerning writing of operation notes in a legible, comprehensible and briefly way with the goal of achieving best medical practice.
Keywords: Operation notes, assessment, audit, medico-legal.
. Shah S, Dangol B, Kumari S, Guragain R P. An audit of Operative note at TUTH. Nepalese Journal of Ent, head and neck surgery , Vol 2,No2,issue 2 July-Dec 2011
. General Medical council, Good Medical Practice, GMC 2011
. Lefter LP,Walter SR, Dewhurst F and Turner RWL.An Audit of operative notes:facts and ways to improve.ANZ J.Surg.2008;78:800-2
. Bastia BK.Litigation suits in Otorhinolaryngology, areas of concern, Indian Journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery 2006:58;1;370-3.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Anthropometric variables predicting risk of coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetics|
|Authors||:||Shankarappa C., Lingaraj Jayalakshmi, Mohd Abdul Mateen Sidd|
Abstract: Objective Identifying and prioritizing factors which help in predicting risk of Coronary artery Disease(CAD) in diabetics could play an important role in prevention and early treatment of coronary events. This study was done to find the association of anthropometric obesity indices with Coronary artery Disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetics and to compare the relative importance among the indices. Methods Type 2 Diabetic males on treatment since last 10 years and more than 50 years of age were included.. Subjects with history of hypertension and smoking were also included. The total sample size was 150 individuals with 94 diabetics with CAD as cases and 56 diabetics without CAD as controls. The anthropometric variables were- Body Mass Index(BMI), Waist Circumference(WC), Waist Hip Ratio(WHR), Waist Height Ratio(WHtR) and Conicity Index(CI). Fasting blood glucose(FBG) , HBA1C, Total cholesterol(TCho) and Triglyceride levels(TGL) were also estimated. Correlation coefficient and odds ratio was done for all parameters. Chi square was done for categorical variables. Results. Among anthropometric indices waist height ratio and waist circumference had the greatest predictive value for CAD in diabetics. The odds ratio for BMI was also slightly significant. Waist hip ratio and conicity index were not significant. Among non anthropometric risk factors duration of diabetes , smoking, hypertension and triglycerides showed significant impact on the outcome of CAD.
Key words: anthropometric variables, Coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetics, obesity indices, waist Height ratio , waist hip ratio.
. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 5th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2011. Available from http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas.
. Sandeep Chopra, Soumia Peter. Screening for coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: An evidence-based review. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan-Feb; 16(1): 94–101.
. Harald J. Schneider, Nele Friedrich, Jens Klotsche,Lars Pieper, Matthias Nauck, Ulrich John, et al. The Predictive Value of Different Measures of Obesity for Incident Cardiovascular Events and Mortality. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010 April1;95(4):1777-1785.
. Chin-Hsiao Tseng. Waist-to-height Ratio and Coronary Artery Disease in Taiwanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Obesity .2008; 16 (12): 2754–2759.
. Salim Yusuf, Steven Hawken, Stephanie Ôunpuu, Leonelo Bautista, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Patrick Commerford etal. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. Lancet. 2005Nov; 366: 1640–49.
. Lawrence de Koning,, Anwar T. Merchant,, Janice Pogue and Sonia S. Anand. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. European Heart Journal.2007; 28: 850–856.
. Meerjady Sabrina Flora, Cgn Mascie-Taylor, Mahmudur Rahman . Conicity index of adult Bangladeshi population and their socio-demographic characteristics. ibrahim med. coll. j. 2009; 3(1): 1-8
. Sarah Choi, Edwin Tan. Anthropometric measures and lipid CHD risk factors in Korean Immigrants with Type 2 Diabetes.J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2011 Sep-Oct; 26(5): 414–422.
. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio .Report of a WHO Expert Consultation Geneva, 8–11 December 2008. Available from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501491_eng.pdf.
. Chamukuttan Snehalatha,Vijay Viswanathan,Ambady Ramachandran. Cutoff Values for Normal Anthropometric Variables in Asian Indian Adults Diabetes Care. 2003; 26:1380–1384.
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Abstract: A 19year old primigravida with 12 weeks gestation was admitted in our hospital with bleeding per vagina (PV). She also complained of dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain. Her x-ray chest PA view showed evidence of pneumothorax. Emergency Inter costal drainage (ICD) was placed. . After 24 hours she was posted for dilatation and curettage. General Anaesthesia was administered using injection1 mg butorphanol , 100 mg propofol and 20 mg atracurium. Airway was secured with size 3 laryngeal mask airway (LMA). At the end of the procedure patient was reversed with neostigmine and glycopyrolate and shifted to MICU without any complication
Key words: Dilatation and Curettage, General Anaesthesia,Pneumothorax.Inter costal drainage,Thoracotomy
 Wong MK, Leung WC, Wang JK, Lao TT, Ip MS, Lam WK, et al. Recurrent pneumothorax in pregnancy: What should we do after placing an intercostals drain. Hong Kong Med J. 2006;12:375–80.
 Gorospe L., Puente S., Madrid C., Novo S., Gil-Alonso J. L., Guntinas A. 2002.Spontaneous pneumothorax during pregnancy. South Med J.95: 555-558.
 A. Menon, V. Anikin: Spontaneous Pneumothorax DuringLabour. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2007 Volume 7 Number 2. DOI: 10.5580/434
 Harton JM, Brown AG, Davidson IT. Post partum pneumothorax: two case reports and discussion. International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia. 2000 Oct;9(4):286-9. Books
 Reid CJ, Burgin GA. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical pleurodesis for persistent spontaneous pneumothorax in late pregnancy. Anaesth Intensive Care.( 2000;28:208–10)
 Wright JD, Powell MA, Horowitz NS, Huettner PC, White F, Herzog TJ. Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting with a pneumothorax during pregnancy.Obstet Gynecol. (2002;100:1141–4)
 Yoshioka H, Fukui T, Mori S, Usami N, Nagasaka T, Yokoi K. Catamenial pneumothorax in a pregnant patient. Jpn J ThoracCardiovasc Surg. (2005;53:280–2) Report and review of the literature
 Van Winter JT, Nichols FC, 3rd, Pairolero PC, Ney JA, Ogburn PL., Jr Management of spontaneous pneumothorax during pregnancy: Report and review of the literature. Mayo Clin Proc. (1996;71:249–52)
 Toyoda K, Matsumoto K, Inoue H, Komori M, Fujita M, Hashimoto S, A pregnant woman with complications of lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Intern Med. (2006;45:1097–100)  Sills ES, Meinecke HM, Dixson GR, Johnson AM. Management approach for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax in consecutive pregnancies based on clinical and radiographic findings. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2006;1:35
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence in Healthy Individuals in University Of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (Upth), Port Harcourt|
|Authors||:||Odum E. P., Orluwene C. G.|
Abstract: The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors characterized by insulin resistance. It promotes the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. There has been a consistent increase in its prevalence globally, which has paralleled that of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy individuals in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III; 2005) and World Health Organization (WHO; 1999) definitions. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and prevalence were evaluated in 267 non-diabetic, apparently healthy individuals selected from the hospital environment. According to the ATP III and WHO definitions respectively, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 15.7% and 10.9%. The prevalence increased markedly with age and peaked in the age range of 50-59 years with both definitions. With the ATP III and WHO definitions, sex-specific prevalence rates were 21.5% and 12.5% for females and, 8.9% and 8.9% for males respectively. High blood pressure was the most frequent component of metabolic syndrome with the ATP III definition while obesity was the most frequent component with the WHO definition. The ATP III definition gave a higher prevalence than the WHO definition and thus identifies a greater number of individuals at high risk of CVD and T2D. By managing these individuals at this early stage the public health burden of these diseases can be reduced.
Keywords: Metabolic-syndrome, Prevalence, Adult-Treatment-Panel III, World-Health-Organization, Healthy-individuals, Port Harcourt.
 Desroches S, Lamarche B. The evolving definitions and increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.App PhysiolNutrMetab2007; 32:23-32.
 Nwegbu MM, Jaiyesimi OO. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst apparently healthy Nigerian adults in a hospital setting.J Med MedSci 2012;3:77-82.
 Wahab KW, Sani M, Gbadamosi M, Yandutse M. Frequency and determinants of the metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy adult Nigerians. Tropical Doctor 2008;38:224-226. [
4] Siminialayi IM, Emem-Chioma PC, Odia OJ. Prevalence of Metabolic syndrome in Urban and Suburban Rivers State, Nigeria: International Diabetes Federation and Adult Treatment Panel III Definitions. Niger Postgrad Med J 2010;17:147-153.
 Alebiosu CO, Odusan BO. Metabolic syndrome in Subjects with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.JNatl Med Assoc 2004, 96: 817-821. [
6] Isezuo SA, Ezunu E. Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Metabolic syndrome in Native African Type-2 Diabetic Patients. J Natl Med Assoc 2005; 97: 557-563.
 Unadike BC, Akpan NA, Peters EJ, Essien IO, Essien OE. Prevalence of the Metabolic syndrome among Patients with T2D Mellitus in Uyo, Nigeria. African Journal Of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009;8:7-9.
 Ogbera AO. Prevalence and Gender Distribution of the Metabolic syndrome. Diabetology& Metabolic syndrome 2010;2:1-5.
 Kelliny C, William J, Risen W, Paccaud F, Bovet P. Metabolic syndrome according to different definitions in a rapidly developing country of the African region. CardiovascularDiabetology 2008;7:27-37.
 Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, et al. Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic syndrome: a statement for health care professionals: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005; 112:2735-2752.
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Abstract: Background: VAD is a controllable public health and nutritional problem. Ensuring high supplementation coverage is critical for eliminating VAD. Objectives: i) To assess the coverage of prophylactic Vitamin A in Oil among children aged 9-59 months in Amdanga Block ii) to find out the poorly performing villages (lots) iii)to determine the reasons for non receipt of a megadose. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among the beneficiaries using LQT from December 2012- January 2013. The total and lot sample sizes were 663 and 9 respectively to be covered in 81 villages. The final sample size was 729. Decision value for a lot was set at 2. Data were collected from the Immunization card. The reasons were ascertained following WHO proforma. Results: Only 0.4% received age appropriate doses. Due to lack of supply for the last one year, children who missed ≤2 doses were considered acceptable. The estimated coverage was 67.16%; 59.2% lots had less satisfactory performance. The coverage with valid doses declined from the 1st to the 9th from 57.6% to 0%. Children who missed >2doses were significantly higher among those ≥36 months than <36 months (78.6% vs 21.4%); no significant association was found with gender. Lack of supply was the commonest cause (68.18%) of non receipt of a dose. Conclusion: BCC addressing both beneficiaries and providers is required to mitigate the lack of supply by improving the dietary intake, regular attendance to ICDS centre and early identification of ocular morbidities.
Keywords: Estimated coverage, Lot Quality Technique, Missed dose, Valid dose, Vitamin A supplementation
. Universal Vitamin A Supplementation Programme in India: The need for a re-look. The National Medical Journal Of India , Editorials. 2010;23( 5) :193-196
. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. India. November2006. http://motherchildnutrition.org/.../mcn-vitamin-a-ifa-supplementation.pdf (accessed on 28.05.2013)
. UNICEF 2007. Vitamin A supplementation – A Decade of Progress (New York 2007). http://www.unicef.org/immunization/files/Vitamin_A_Supplementation.pdf (accessed on 15.09.2013)
. Taneja D K. National Nutrition Programmes. Health Policies and Programmes in India. 9th Edition (Doctors Publication, Janata Flats, Delhi, India 2011): 283
. State Bureau of Health Intelligence, Government of West Bengal. Health on the March. 2010-11: 15
. WHO/VRD/TRAM/96.01. Monitoring immunization services using the Lot Quality Technique. Department of vaccines and Biologicals (World health Organization. Geneva 1996): 7-18, 23, 25, 27, 58-59, 83
. Mukhopadhyay DK, Mandal S, Sadhukhan SK, Chakraborty M, Lahiri SK. Vitamin A Deficiency and Coverage under National Programme in a SubHimalayan Rural Community of West Bengal Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling. Indian J. Prev. Soc. Med . 2007; 38(3&4):197-201
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Abstract: Purpose – to determine epidemiological characteristic, predisposing factor, microbiological pattern, and sensitivity pattern and treatment outcome of microbial keratitis. METHOD– The present study was conducted in 100 cases. the patient were analyzed in accordance with demographic profile, predisposing factor, microbiological status of patient in reference to 10% KOH, gram's stain , culture sensitivity and treatment advised in accordance with the diagnosis of the patient. RESULT- During analysis following data were deduced, 52%, 36%, 9% and 3% had bacterial, fungal, viral and mixed flora respectively It was noted that patients involved in agriculture activity or those suffering from trauma inflicted with vegetative material had more risk of developing microbial keratitis that is 44% .Overall culture was positive in 12% of bacterial and mixed infection whereas only 6% of fungal keratitis clinically diagnosed, had culture positivity, whereas viral keratitis was diagnosed clinically only, who showed adequate responses to antiviral treatment. In bacterial keratitis surgical intervention was required in 7.69%, BCL in 9.6%, Perforation occurs in 19.2%, whereas it healed in 59.61% and conjunctival hooding in 3.8%. In fungal keratitis 27.77%, 13.8%, 41.6% and 36.11% respectively and in viral keratitis 11.11% require surgery, 55.55% healed, BCL in 11.11%, 22% pthisical in viral. CONCLUSION – Study shows bacterial keratitis is more common than fungal & viral with male predominance in younger age .trauma by vegetative material or injury is most common risk factor, final diagnosis based on risk factor, clinical feature, response to treatment .Viral keratitis diagnosed clinically. Bacterial keratitis has better prognosis than fungal and viral
Key words: microbial keratitis , microbiological sensitivity pattern and treatment outcome
. Brilliant LB, Pokhrel RP, Grasset NC, Lepkowski JM, Kolstad A, Hawks W et al (1985). Epidemiology of blindness in Nepal. Bull WHO; 63: 375-86.
. Basak SK, Basak S, Mohanta A et al (2005). Epidemiological and microbiological diagnosis of suppurative keratitis in Gangetic West Bengal, Eastern India. Indian J Ophthalm; 53:17-22.
. Chirambo MC, Tielsch JM, Katz J et al (1986). Blindness and visual impairment in SouthernMalawi. Bull WHO; 64: 567-72.
. Erie JC, Nevitt MP, Hodge DO, Ballard DJ (1993). Incidence of ulcerative keratitis in a defined population from 1950 through 1988. Arch Ophthal; 111:1665-71
. Gopinathan U, Sharma S, Garg P, Rao GN et al (2009). Review of epidemiological features, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of microbial keratitis, experience of over a decade. Indian J Ophthal; 57: 273-279.
. Hagan M, Wright E, Newman M, Dolin P et al (1995). Causes of suppurative keratitis in Ghana. Br J Ophthal; 79:1024-28.
. Lavaju P, Khanal B, Amatya R, Patel S (2009). Demographic pattern, clinical features and treatment outcome of patients with infective keratitis in the eastern region of Nepal. Nepjoph; 1(2):101-106.
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Abstract: Objective: Ultrasonographic evaluation of palpable thyroid mass as cystic, solid or mixed, Benign or malignant. To examine the accuracy of Ultrasonographic guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis, sensitivity specificity and positive productivity of thyroid nodules. Methods: This is a prospective study of 100 patients with palpable thyroid nodules who underwent Ultrasonography and finding correlated with diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) over a 2-year period in central India.
Key words: Palpable thyroid nodule, FNAC, USG, Sensitivity, Specificity
. llustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, p. 158, ISBN: 9781437724196
. Kerr L. et al: High-resolution thyroid ultrasound: the value of color Doppler ultrasound Quart 1994: 12:21-43.
. Usha Menon V, Sundaram KR, Unnikrishnan AG, Jayakumar RV, Nair V, Kumar H. High prevalence of undetected thyroid disorders in an iodine sufficient adult south Indian population. J Indian Med Assoc 2009;107:72-7.
. Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, et al. Revised American thyroid association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2009;19:1167-214.
. Ghassi, D. and Donato, A. (2009) Evaluation of the thyroid nodule. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 85, 190-195. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2008.072140
. Cibas, E.S. and Ali, S.Z. (2009) The Bethesda system for reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 132, 658-665. doi:10.1309/AJCPPHLWMI3JV4LA
. Kovacevic, D.O. and Skurla, M.S. (2007) Sonographic diagnosis of thyroid nodules: Correlation with the results of sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, 35, 63-67. doi:10.1002/jcu.20287
. Frates, M.C., Benson, C.B., Charboneau, J.W., Cibas, E.S., Clark, O.H., Coleman, B.G., et al. (2005) Management of thyroid nodules detected at US: Society of radiologists in ultrasound consensus conference statement. Radiology, 237, 794-800. doi:10.1148/radiol.2373050220
. Lin JD, Chao TC, Huang BY, Chen ST, Chang HY & Hsueh C. Thyroid cancer in the thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Thyroid 2005 15 708–717.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Antioxidants in Oral Health and Diseases: Future Prospects|
|Authors||:||Dr. Nimmi Singh, Dr. Rajarshi Guha Niyogi, Dr. Deepak Mishra, Dr. Mamta Sharma, Dr. Devika Singh|
Abstract: Free radicals have been implicated in the etiology of large number of major diseases. They can adversely alter many crucial biological molecules leading to loss of form and function. Such undesirable changes in the body can lead to diseased conditions. Antioxidants are compounds which destroy the free radicals in the body, thereby preventing against harmful oxidation- reduction reactions. The best sources are fruits and vegetables which provide a variety of antioxidants like Vit. A, C, E & carotenoids. Currently available data are compatible with the notion that these vitamins act as chemopreventives against some important cancers, e.g. carotenoids for lung cancer, ascorbic acid for salivary gland cancer, tocopherols for head and neck cancers etc. Thus, a greater consumption of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged as they are the natural sources of these chemopreventive antioxidants. This paper will briefly review the basics of antioxidants and various scientific studies that bear out the promise of antioxidants for oral care & diseases.
Key words: Antioxidants, chemopreventive, free radicals, carotenoids.
. Lien Ai Pham-Huy1 Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health, www.ijbs.org Int J Biomed Sci vol. 4 no. 2 June 2008
. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, et al. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Mini-review. Chem Biol Interact. 2006;160: 1–40.
. Arivind Shetty et al Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology / Jan-Mar 2009 / Volume 21 / Issue 1
. Neelu Shetti Antioxidants: its beneficial role against health damaging free.Radical World Journal of Science and Technology 2011, 1(11): 46-51 ISSN: 2231 – 2587 www. worldjournalofscience.com
. Sumit Bhateja, IJPSR, 2012; Vol. 3(7): 1971-1975 ISSN: 0975
. Iain L, C . Chapple , John B Mathews., (2000).The role of reactive oxygen and antioxidants species in periodontal destruction .Periodontology, 43 :160 -232
. Li Y, Schellhorn HE. New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C. Critical Review. J Nutr 2007;137:2171-84.
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Abstract: We report an outbreak of blood stream infection from a neonatal intensive care unit in the month of April 2013. 10 neonates were clinically diagnosed as septicemia .In all the neonates blood culture was positive for B.cepacia. All the patients had indwelling intravenous catheters. in 4 patients B, cepacia was isolated from the culture of catheter tips. Though we did not identify the source of the organism in other 6 cases, our findings support the hypothesis that cross contamination may be the contributing factor. We recommend that Burkholderia cepacia should always be considered as an emerging cause of gram negative septicemia in neonates & should be treated immediately to reduce the mortality due this multidrugresistant bug.
. Burkholder WH.Sour skin,abacterial rot of onion bulbs.Phytopathology 1950:40, 115- 7.
. Lipuma JJ,CurieBJ, Lum GD,Vandamme PAR.
. Burkholderia,Stenotrophomonas,Ralstonia,Cupriavidus,Pandoraea,Brevudimonas,Comamonas,Delftia, and Acidovorax.In Murray PR, Baron EJ,Jorgensen JH,Pfaller MA, and Yolken RH,editors Manual of Clinical Microbiology,ASM Press,Washington ,DC 2007:749-69.
. Hancock REW,Resistance mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other non-fermenter gram negative bacteria.Clin Infect Dis
. Editorial,Alicia Mangram,William R.Jarvis.Nosocomial outbreaks and pseudooutbreaks,Infection control and hospital epidemiology 1996 University of Chicago press.
. Mukopadhyay C,Bhargava A,Ayyagari A.Two novel clinical presentation of Burkholderia cepacia infection.J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 3904-5.
. Gautam V,Arora A,Madhup SK ,Das A,Vandamme P,Sharma K, et al.Burkholderia cepacia complex in septicemic non-cystic fibrosis cases from two tertiary care hospitals in NorthIndia .Indian J Med Res 2010;131:829-32.
. Gautam V,Ray P,Das A, Vandamme P,Malhotra P,varma S et al.Two cases of Burkholderia cenocepacia in septicaemic patients .Jpn J Infect Dis 2008;61:133-4.
. Gautam V,Ray P,Puri GD, ,Sharma K, Vandamme P,Madhup SK , et al .Investigation of Burkholderia cepacia complex in septicaemic patients in a tertiary care hospitals,India ,Nepal Med Coll J. 2009;11:222-4.
. Gautam V,Ray P, Vandamme P,Chatterjee SS ,Das A, Sharma K, et al.Identification of lysine positive non-fermenting gram negative bacilli (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia complex).Indian J Med Microbiol 2009;27:128-33.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Outcomes of some surgical fixation techniques for supracondylar femoral fractures: a comparative study|
|Authors||:||Dr. William A. Isapure, Dr. Sunil patil|
Abstract: Supracondylar fracture of the femur is a composite injury that poses challenge for the orthopaedist to manage. The potential long-term disability is the culprit behind this problem. Thus, choice of a suitable treatment option for any case of supracondylar femur fracture is a vital task. In our study, a total of 193 patients were enrolled, of which 158 patients were randomly subjected to various operative procedures, viz., fixed angle blade plate method, supracondylar nailing and locking compression plate method. The treatment outcomes depicted that the patients who had undergone locking compression plate established 86.5% of improvement in the movement whereas the patients with supracondylar nail and fixed-angle blade plate methods reported only 56.6% and 53.8% respectively. Besides, 90.4% patients in locking compression plate group resumed to normal activities earlier and only 9.6% were delayed. But, only 47.2% of patients of supracondylar nail method recovered earlier and 52.8% of patients delayed to resume their normal activities. Similarly, only 46.2% of patients engaged in fixed-angle blade plate operative method were reported with early resumption and 53.8% depicted delayed resumption to normal activities. From this comparative study, we inferred that the locking compression plate method provides a better outcome in the treatment of supracondylar fracture of the femur.
Keywords: Supracondylar fracture, Femur, Locking Compression Plate.
. Steven Rabin. Supracondylar Femur Fractures. [Updated 5 apr 2011;Cited 10 Dec 2012] Available at : http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1269699-overview#aw2aab6b2b1aa
. Ortho answer [Internet] 2012 [7 August, 2012; cited 12 Dec 2012] Available at: http://orthoanswer.org/hip/femur-fractures/causes.html
. DiGioia AM III, Rubash HE: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total knee arthroplasty. A literature review and treatment algorithm Clin Orthop 271:135, 1991 . Albert MJ. Supracondylar Fractures of the Femur. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1997 May; 5(3):163-171.
. Bolhofner BR, Carmen B, Clifford P. The results of open reduction and internal fixation of distal femur fractures using a biologic (indirect) reduction technique. J. Orthop. Trauma 1996; 10: 372–7.
. Huang H, Huang P, Su J, Lin S. Indirect reduction and bridge plating of supracondylar fractures of the femur. Injury 2003; 34: 135–40.
. Rademakers MV, Kerkoffs GM, Sierevelt IN et al. Intraarticular fractures of the distal femur: a long term follow-up study of surgically treated patients. J. Orthop. Trauma 2004; 18: 213–19.
. Figueroa FJ, Resendiz FR, Mont JG. Distal femur fractures. Comparative analysis of two different surgical treatments Acta Ortopedica Mexicana 2010; 24(5): Sep.-Oct: 323-329
. Hartin NL, Harris I, Hazratwala K. Retrograde nailing versus Fixed-angle blade plating for Supracondylar femoral fractures: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Arthroplasty Vol. 11 No. 2 1996.
. Moore T, Watson T, Green S et al. Complication of surgically treated supracondylar fractures of the femur. J. Trauma 1987; 27: 402–6.
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Abstract: The study investigated the social class profile of adults with bilateral non-palpablecryptorchidism in NorthernNigeria. Methods: A 5 year retrospective review of adults with bilateral non-palpable testes presenting in 3 tertiary health facilities in Northern Nigeria was done. Social classification was done according to the Registrar General's classification. Patients' presenting complaint, laparoscopy findings and definitive therapy offered were analysed, and presented as tables and percentages. Chi square was used to test for significance in occurrence of cryptorchidism between Social Classes.Results:28 patients' records were available for review. Mean age at presentation was 28.5 years .Social Class II patients constituted 3.6% of the study population, 32.1% were in Social Class III, and 39.3% were in Social Class IV while 25% were in Social Class V (p=0.220).The main reasons for consultation were primary infertility in 42.8% and empty scrotum in 50%. One patient (3.6%) presented with features of metastatic testicular carcinoma. Diagnostic laparoscopy was done in only 45% ofpatients. Treatment consisted of an orchidopexy in 75.9% cases and orchidectomy in 18.5%.Conclusion: There is a difference in occurrence of cryptorchidism betweensocial classes. This can be partly explainedby deprivation and poor socioeconomic conditions in life. Patients may come to the fore when being evaluated for infertility. It is necessary to increase awareness, health educate the populace and elevate socioeconomic status to avoid late presentation.
Key Words: Adults, Cryptorchidism, Social Class.
 Adeoti ML, Fadiora SO, Oguntola AS, Aderounmu AO, Laosebikan DA, Adejumobi OO. Cryptorchidism in a local population in Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2004;23:62-4
 Darzi AA, Aliramaji A, Ramezani MS. Unresolved abdominal mass in an adult cryptorchid testis: a case report. Int J Gen Med 2010;3:395-8
 Osifo OD, Evbuomwan I. Undescended testis in a developing country. A study of management of 71 patients. Afr J PeadiatricSurg.2008;5:11-4
 Socio-economic indicators. Available at www.celsius.Isthm.ac.uk/modules /Socio/se04000.html. Accessed June 30th 2013.
 HERFON, Nigerian Health Review, 2006. Health Reform Foundation of Nigeria. Available at www.herfon.org/resource_centre/nhr.htm .Accessed May 28 2013.
 HERFON, Nigerian Health Review, 2007. Primary Health Care in Nigeria: 30 Years After Alma Ata. Available at www.herfon.org/resource_centre/nhr.htm. Accessed May 28 2013.
 Schellenberg JA, Victora CG, Mushi A, de Savigny D, Schellenberg D, Mshinda H, Bryce J. Inequities among the very poor: health care for children in rural southern Tanzania. J Bio Soc Sci. 1992; 24:143-55.
 Ahmed SM,Toomson G, PetzoldM, Kabir ZN, Socio-economic status overrides age and gender in determining health seeking behavior in rural Bangledash Bulletin of the World Heath Organisation 2005; 83;109-17}
 Tanimola, Akande M, Owoyemi JO.Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour in Anyigba,North-Central, Nigeria Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;3: 47-51
 Hadziselimovic F. Cryptorchidism, its impact on male infertility. Eur Urol 2002; 41:123-3
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Abstract: This is an insight into women's understanding of cervical cancer risk factors, symptomatology, prevention and screening. Quantitative Data was collected using questionnaires administered to 2000 women (aged 20 to 64 years) who were selected by multi-stage sampling technique across the 20 local government areas in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study showed thatthe awareness of cervical cancer and screening was very low (6.5% and 4.8% respectively). The knowledge about cervical and screening was very poor. Only 2.3% of the women could identify a virus as the cause of cervical cancer while 4.1% identified cervical screening as a way to prevent cervical cancer. 97.7% and 97.9% had no or poor knowledge of risk factors and knowledge of symptoms of cervical cancer. 90.5% identified lack of awareness as the barrier to uptake of cervical screening. 1.4% of the women have had cervical screening done.In order to step up the campaign for the control of cervical cancer in Nigeria, it is therefore very important to concentrate much of the effort on creation of awareness and enhancing the knowledge of women about cervical cancer and screening.
Keywords: cervical cancer, cervical screening, barriers.
. WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papilloma virus and Related Cancers in Nigeria. Summary Report 2010. Geneva. World Health Organisation. 2010.
. Marrazzo JM, Koutsky LA, Kiviat NB, Kuypers JM, Stine K. "Papanicolaou test screening and prevalence of genital human papilloma virus among females who have sex with women". American Journal of Public Health. 2001; 91(6): 947-52.
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. Royal Thai College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RTCOG)/JHPIEGO Cervical Cancer Prevention Group. Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach to cervical cancer prevention in rural Thailand: a demonstration project. The Lancet. 2003; 361:814–820.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Knowledge of The Effect of ionizing radiation, Khartoum state medical personnel|
|Authors||:||Maha Esmeal Ahmed Esmeal|
Abstract: Whatever man does, he couldn't reach the degree of perfection because perfection is only ascribed to almighty Allah. However, the continuous and serious follow up, assessment and reassessment are important for any program, particularly if this program impinges the environment. The man employs his qualification to lead a life that makes him capable of providing the needed contribution in serving the homeland.
1-Charles A. Jacobi.Paris Textbook of radiologic technology Sixth Edition Mosby
2-William L.Bloom, JR.Johnl.Hollenbach,
R.T(ARRT)and JamesA .
Morgan,R.T(ARRT) Medical Radiologic Technic Third Edition Thomas
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Giant Liposarcoma Neck: A Case Report|
|Authors||:||Dr. Dhruv Gupta, Dr. Gurpreet Singh, Dr. K. S. Mehta, Dr. Deepika Sharma|
Abstract: Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm that arises from the adipose tissue. Liposarcomas account for 35% to 45% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Liposarcomas are reported in the extremities and retroperitoneum  but the neoplasm rarely arise from head and neck region. Only about 2% of liposarcomas present in the head and neck region and as such there is a limited reporting of these tumors in the literature. Authors are describing a rare case of "Giant Liposarcoma Neck" rare both in terms of site ie. neck and size ie. giant liposarcoma.
Keywords: Giant , Liposarcoma , Mesenchymal , Neck , Retroperitoneum .
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therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 36:311–319
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and surgery. Seminars in Oncology 1997; 24(5): pp 540-546.
. McCulloch TM, Makielski KH, McNutt MA: Head and neck liposarcoma. A histopathologic reevaluation of reported cases. Arch
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 118:1045-1049, 1992.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Management of anterior urethral stricture|
|Authors||:||Sudarshan Babu K. G., Girish H. R., Madhusudan, Amar Kumar J.|
Abstract: The conventional method of repair of anterior urethral stricture with dilatation and Visual Internal Urethrotomy (VIU) resulted in high recurrence. Hence buccal mucosa is used for long term stricture free interval and is an effective measure of preventing stricture recurrence. Objectives: 1) To determine the presentation, aetiology, age distribution and associated symptoms of anterior urethral stricture. 2) To assess and compare the outcome of various modalities of management of anterior urethral stricture. 3) To find out the impact of buccal mucosal urethroplasty on long term symptom free interval and stricture recurrence.
Key words: Anterior urethral stricture, buccal mucosal urethroplasty, dilatation, meatoplasty, visual internal urethrotomy.
 Alan J Wein, Louis R Kavoussi, Alan W Partin, Craig A Peters, Andrew C Novick. Campbell - Walsh Urology. ( USA, Saunders Elsevier Science, 2012) 967 - 982.
 J A Smith Jr. Treatment of benign urethral strictures using a sapphire tipped neodymium: YAG Laser. J Urol. 142(5). 1989. 1221-1222.
 James F Glenn. Urologic Surgery. ( Philadelphia, Toronto, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1983) 689-705.
 Norman S Williams, Christopher J K Bulstrode, P Ronan O'Connell. Bailey and Love's Short practice of Surgery. ( Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2013) 1365-1367.
 R Wisemann. History of Medicine. (Toronto: The Blackstein Co. 1947) 864.
 T J Greenwell, S N Venn, A R Mundy. Changing practice in anterior urethroplasty. Br J Urol. 83. 1999. 631-635.
 E Palminteri, M Lazzeri, G Guazzoni, D Turini, G Barbagli. New 2-stage buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. J Urol. 167. 2002. 130- 132.
 P Gun, S K Closhal. Stricture urethra: Etiology and management. Journal of the Indian Medical Assoc. 1989. 258-261.
 R K Sisngal. Holmium: YAG laser endourethrotomy for treatment of urethral stricture. J Urol. 50(6). 1997 Dec. 875-880.
 A S Katz, K Waterhouse. Treatment of urethral strictures in man by internal urethrotomy. A study of 61 patients. J Urol. 105. 1971. 807-808.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Nutrient foramen in tibia – A study in coastal region of Karnataka|
|Authors||:||Vrinda Hari Ankolekar, Lydia S. Quadros, Antony Sylvan D'souza|
Abstract: The nutrient foramen (NF) of the tibia is located in the proximal third of its diaphysis. With the objective of complementing the information delivered by other authors, we investigated the location, the number of diaphyseal foramina, the distance and position of the foramina in relation to the length of the bone and the proximal epiphysis and the lateromedial diameter and anteroposterior diameter of the bone at the level of NF. For that purpose, we used 50 adult dry tibia of both sexes from the Anatomy department and museum of Manipal University. The mean length of the right tibia was 373mm, left tibia 387mm. Location of the NF was found over the soleal line in 4/26 (15.38%) left tibia and 3/24 (12.5%) right tibia, medial to the soleal line in 4/26 (15.38%) left tibia and 4/24 (16.66%) right tibia. In all the remaining cases, it was lateral to the soleal line. The NF was located in the upper third of the shaft in 23/26 (88.46%) left tibia and 22/24 (91.66%) right tibia, in the middle third 3/26 (11.53%) left tibia and 2/24 (8.33%) right tibia. Mean of maximum diameter of NF was 0.6mm in left tibia and 0.7mm in right tibia. Mean of lateromedial diameter at the level of NF was 28mm in left tibia and 26mm in right tibia. Mean of anteroposterior diameter of the shaft at the level of NF was 88mm on the left tibia and 92mm on the right tibia. Mean of the distance between NF and the highest point of intercondylar eminence was 130mm in left tibia and 134mm in right tibia. The FI of the right tibia was 35.92 and of the left tibia was 34. This data could be useful as reference for surgical procedures of the lower limb.
Keywords: Bones, Diaphysis, Lower limb, Nutrient foramen, Tibia
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