Volume-11 ~ Issue-2
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||"Adapting to terminologies involved in host immune response"|
|Authors||:||Ranjith Raveendran, Sameera G Nath|
Abstract: The innate immunity can sense the exogenous pathogen motifs referred to as pathogen associated molecular patterns(PAMPs), as well as other signals associated with infection, such as host components like endogenous products released from dying or damaged cells were called damage associated molecular patterns(DAMPs). Thus the immune response is induced not only by exogenous microbial infection, but also by endogenous sterile tissue damage and degeneration. Based on the common recognition system and the similar inflammatory response, some authors use the term "alarmins" to categorize endogenous DAMPs as separate from pathogen-derived molecules. In this review the authors attempt to familiarize the periodontal community with the terminologies involved in host immune response.
Keywords: alarmins, DAMPs,immunity, PAMPs, periodontal pathology
 T Kawai , S Akira , The roles of TLRs, RLRs and NLRs in pathogen recognition. Int Immunol 21(4),2009,317-37.
 Janeway CA, Jr. Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 54(1),1989,1-13.
 Yanai H, Savitsky D, Tamura T, Taniguchi T. Regulation of the cytosolic DNA-sensing system in innate immunity: a current view. Curr Opin Immunol 21(1),2009,7-22.
 Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA, Jr. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 388(6640),1997,394-7.
 Yoshioka H, Yoshimura A, Kaneko T, Golenbock DT, Hara Y. Analysis of the activity to induce toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4-mediated stimulation of supragingival plaque. J Periodontol. 79,2008,920–928.
 Carty M, Bowie AG. Recent insights into the role of Toll-like receptors in viral infection. Clin Exp Immunol;161(3):397-406.
 Bruns AM, Horvath CM. Activation of RIG-I-like receptor signal transduction. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol;47(2):194-206.
 Botero JE, Parra B, Jaramillo A, Contreras A.Subgingival human cytomegalovirus correlates with increased clinical periodontal parameters and bacterial coinfection in periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2007 , 78(12):2303-10.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||A Study of Bio-Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease|
|Authors||:||Meenakshi Sreeram, Suryakar AN, Kulhalli PM|
Abstract: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the most important health challenges faced by the world today, with new cases being added at an alarming rate. Controlling traditional risk factors has not been effective in bringing down the incidence of the disease. CKD is associated with inflammation, morbidity, poor quality of life, decreased life-expectancy and death. Oxidative stress represents the imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in our body. Though a number of studies have focussed on the association between CKD and oxidative stress, majority of them are based on patients on hemodialysis. Moreover, there is confusion about the way the levels of some of these biomarkers vary in response to oxidative stress. This study was designed to study the biomarker of inflammation (CRP), MDA as a marker of oxidative stress, and SOD, GPx and TAC as parameters of antioxidant activity in controls and patients in different stages of CKD. We found that CRP and MDA values increase as disease progresses while there is decrease in the levels of SOD and GPx. The TAC values in patients do not vary much from that of controls. Efforts should be made to identify and reduce oxidative stress from the time of diagnosis of CKD.
KEY WORDS: Chronic Kidney Disease, Glutathione peroxidase, Inflammation, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative Stress, Superoxide dismutase, Total Antioxidant Capacity
 Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, Li Z, Naicker S, Plattner B, et al, Chronic Kidney Disease: global dimension and perspectives. Lancet, 382(9888), 2013,260-72.
 Nimmi Singh, Rajarshi G Niyogi, Deepak Mishra, Mamta Sharma, Devika Singh, Antioxidants in Oral Health and Diseases: Future Prospects, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 10(3), 2013, 36-40.
 Lavin-Gomez BA, Palomar-Fontanet R, Gago-Fraile M, Quintanar-Lartundo JA, Gomez-Palomo E, Gonzalez_Lamuno D, et al, Inflammation markers, chronic kidney disease, and renal replacement therapy, Adv Perit Dial., 27, 2011, 33-7.
 Ramamoorthy RD, Nallasamy V, Reddy R, Esther N, Maruthappan Y,A review of C-reactive protein: A diagnostic indicator in periodontal medicine, Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences, 4(6), 2012,422-426.
 Massy ZA, Stenvinkle P, Drueke TB, The role of oxidative stress in CKD, Semin Dial., 22(4), 2009, 405-408.
 Atamer A, Kocyigit Y, Ecder SA, Selek S, IIhan N, Ecder T, Atamer Y, Effect of oxidative stress on antioxidant enzyme activities, homocysteine and lipoproteins in chronic kidney disease, J Nephrol., 21(6), 2008, 924-30.
 Small DM, Coombes JS, Bennett N, Johnson DW, Gobe GC, Oxidative stress, anti-oxidant therapies and chronic kidney disease. Nephrology (Carlton), 17(4), 2012, 311-21.
 Kei, Satoh, Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method, Clinica Chimica Acta, 90, 1978, 37-43.
 Das K, Samanta Luna, Chainy GBN, A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase using nitrite formation by superoxide radicals, Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 37, 2000, 201-204.
 Paglia DE, Valentine WN,Stud
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Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and optic disc measurements made with the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect glaucoma in an Asian population. Methods: One randomly selected eye of 532 Asian patients (132 healthy, 112 ocular hypertensive, 134 preperimetric glaucoma, and 154 perimetric glaucoma eyes) was evaluated. Results: Using the software-provided classification, the Total population sensitivity for GCC was 82.7% , RNFLT parameters did not exceed 73.6% and for the optic nerve head 62.8. Specificity was high (92.6–100%) for most RNFLT and GCC parameters, but low (74.0–76.4%) for the optic disc parameters. Positive predictive value (PPV) varied between 96.1 and 100% for the main RNFLT parameters, 94.6 and 100% for the 16 RNFLT sectors, 96.4 and 99.0% for the GCC parameters, but did not exceed 86.3% for any of the optic disc parameters. Positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was higher than 10 for average, inferior and superior RNFLT (28.5 to infinite), 12 of the 16 RNFLT sectors (14.6 to infinite), and three of the four GCC parameters (40.0 to 48.6). No optic disc parameter had a PLR higher than 2.0. Conclusion: RNFLT and GCC parameters of the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain OCT showed moderate sensitivity but high specificity, positive predictive value and PLR for detection of glaucoma. The optic disc parameters had lower diagnostic accuracy than the RNFLT and GCC parameters.
Keywords: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, Ganglion cell complex, Glaucoma , Optic disc, Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness.
. Zeimer R, Asrani S, Zou S, . Quantitative detection of glaucomatous damage at the posterior pole by retinal thickness mapping: a pilot study. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:224–231.
. Greenfield DS, Bagga H, Knighton RW Macular thickness changes in glaucomatous optic neuropathy detected using optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:41–46.
. Ojima T, Tanabe T, Hangai M, Yu S, Morishita S, Yoshimura N Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular volume for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2007;51:197–203
. Leung CK, Chan WM, Yung WH, Comparison of macular and peripapillary measurements for the detection of glaucoma: an optical coherence tomography study. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(3):391–400.
. Tan O, Li G, Lu AT, . Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:949–956.
. Ishikawa H, Stein DM, Wollstein G, . Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2012–2017.
. González-García AO, Vizzeri G, Bowd C, Medeiros FA, Zangwill LM, Weinreb RN. Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:1067–1074
. Garas A, Vargha P, Holló G. Reproducibility of retinal nerve fibre layer and macular thickness measurement with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:738–746.
. Garas A, Tóth M, Vargha P, Holló G. Comparison of repeatability of retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement made using the RTVue Fourier-domain optical coherence tomograph and the GDx scanning laser polarimeter with variable or enhanced corneal compensation. J Glaucoma. 2010;19 (6:412–417.
. Garas A, Vargha P, Holló G. Automatic, operator-adjusted, and manual disc definition for optic nerve head and retinal nerve fibre layer measurements with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph J Glaucoma 2010. E-pub ahead of print 29 April 2010, doi: doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e3181d787fd.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Domestic violence against married women in reproductive age group: A community based study.|
|Authors||:||Aswar N.R, Kale Kalpana M, Inamdar I.F, Sonali Borkar, Doibale M.|
Abstract: Domestic violence against women is a global problem present in every country which adversely affects health of women. Research needs to be carried out to reveal the true situation in the society. Objectives: 1. to find prevalence of domestic violence against married women in reproductive age group, 2. to ascertain its socio-demographic correlates, 3. to study its association with morbidities in women.
Keywords: Domestic violence, physical violence, psychological violence, reproductive age, morbidities
. Heise L., Ellsberg M. and Gottemoeller M. (1999) Ending Violence against Women. Population Reports, Series L, No 11. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.
. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Domestic violence against women and girls. United Nations Children's Fund. Innocenti Digest, no. 6. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre; June 2000.
. Burge SK. Partner violence. In: Rosenfeld JA, Acheson LS, Admire JB eds. Women's health in primary care. Pennsylvania, USA, Williams & Wilkins, 1997: 241-255
. Krug E G, Dahlberg L L, Mercy J A, Anthony B Z, Lozano R; World report on violence and health; World Health Organization Geneva 2002
. NFHS-III (2007): Report of National Family Health Survey NFHS-III (2005-06), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
. Beck AT, Steer RA, Ball R, Ranieri W (December 1996). "Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients". Journal of personality assessment 67 (3): 588–97
. Jain D, Sanon S, Sadowski, Hunter W. Violence against women in India: evidence from rural Maharashtra, India. Rural and Remote Health 4(online), 2004: no. 304
. Dogan O, Kocacik F. Domestic Violence against Women in Sivas, Turkey: Survey Study. Croat Medical Journal, 2006; 47: 742-9
. International Clinical Epidemiologists Network (INCLEN) Domestic violence in India; A summary report of a Multi-site household survey. International Centre for Research on Women; Washington, DC; May 2000
. Centre For Women's Studies & Development, The Research Institute, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, Rajagiri P.O, Kalamassery, Kochi, Kerala. A Situational Analysis of Domestic Violence Against Women In Kerala. September 2005.
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Abstract: Background : Selective in-vivo anti-fungal action of Potassium iodide (KI) is an enigma, but circumstantial evidences strongly indicate some immune mechanism. Aim : To demonstrate in-vitro immune-modulating role of KI. Materials & methods : 31 sample ( patient sera) collected for the detection of ANA (Anti-nuclear Abs) of the IgG serotype. Taking the positive sample, for each time ,KI solution (0.4%) was given at a different step ( before the addition of conjugate, substrate , before & after the addition of doubly diluted patient sera ) of the assay procedure, to note any significant change in the final O.D. reading, which is directly proportional to the antibody activity in the sample. Procedure repeated for five times & the average result was considered. Procedure repeated with inert carbon particles showed no visible change in O.D. value. Results : KI when introduced after addition of the doubly diluted patient sera ,the graphical interpretation showed that with increasing 2-fold serial dilution of patient sera, the corresponding O.D. read at 450 nm, almost showed a steady fall. Conclusion: KI probably imparts it's immune-modulating action by structural reformation of Ig molecule, explained in terms of affinity, that decreases proportionately with increasing 2-fold serial dilution of patient sera, with steady fall in the O.D. reading. Such immune-modulation may be related with therapeutic efficacy of this drug when used for clinical conditions, particularly, when no direct anti-microbial role of iodide is established.
Key words: Potassium iodide, immune-modulator ,ELISA, Serial dilution, O.D ( Optical Density.)
. Yangoo B G, et al. in-vitro susceptibilities of human and wild type isolates of Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 1984; 25: 413-416
. 2.Hassan I, Keen A. Potassium iodide in dermatology. Indian J Dermatol Venerol Leprol 2012;78:390-3
. Koppish, E. (1941).Studies on Shistosomiasis Mansoni in puerto Rico; VI. Morbid anatomy of the disease as found in Puerto Ricans. Puerto Rico publ. Hlth trop Med.16,395-455.
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. Beurmann D, Gougerot H. (1912) Les Sporotrichosis , Paris, Felix Alcan, Quoted by Kwon-Chung KJ & Bennett JE in Medical Mycology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia-London 1992;p707
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. Urabe I T, Nagashima T. Mechanism of anti-fungal action of potassium iodide on sporotrichosis. Dermatol Ints. 1969; 8 : 36-39
. Honma K, Saga K, Onodera H, Takahashi M. Potassium iodide inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis. Acta Derm Venereol 1990; 70: 247–249.
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Abstract: Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, is a congenital condition that results when the inferior lingual frenulum is too short and is attached to the tip of the tongue, limiting its normal movements. Ankyloglossia has been reported to cause feeding difficulties, dysarthria, dyspnea, and social or mechanical problems. Ankyloglossia occurs in 1.7% of all neonates. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. This article reports the surgical management of a patient having ankyloglossia and abnormally thick frenum associated with restricted movement of tongue and midline diastema respectively. The treatment involved surgical removal of the lingual and labial frenum, which healed uneventfully.
Key words: ankyloglossia, lingual frenum, midline diastema
 Messner AH, Lalakea ML. "The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children".Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 2002;127:539-545.
 M.Obladen Much Ado about Nothing: Two Millenia ofControversy on Tongue-Tie. Neonatology. 2009 Aug 25;97(2):83-
 M.W. Chu, D.C. Bloom . Posterior ankyloglossia: a case report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngology 2009,73:881-3
 Lalakea, M. Lauren, Messner, Anna H. Ankyloglossia: The adolescent and adult perspective. Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery. 2003;128:746-752.
 A. Kummer, Ankyloglossia: To clip or not to clip? That's the question, The ASHA Leader 10 (December (17)) (2005) 6–7, 30.
 Oringer MJ Electrosurgery for definitive conservative modern periodontal surgery Dent clin North Am vol13; 53: 1969
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 Suter VGA and Bornstein MM. Ankyloglossia: Facts and Myths in Diagnosis and Treatment. J Periodontol 2009;80:1204-1219.
 Trott JR, Love B. An analysis of localized gingival recession in 766 Winnipeg High School students. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1966;16:209-213.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Laparoscopic appendicectomy under spinal anaesthesia|
|Authors||:||Dr. Manish K. Singh, Dr. Aloke Kumar, Dr. Prof. Subrata Nag
Abstract: Nowadays laparoscopic appendicectomy ( LA ) is gaining popularity due to its certain benefits over the open technique. General anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation is the preferred mode of anesthesia in this technique. There are limited data about LA under spinal anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate LA under spinal anesthesia for uncomplicated appendicitis .
Key words: Laparoscopic appendicectomy, spinal anesthesia, monitored anesthesia care
. Semm K. Endoscopic appendectomy. Endoscopy. 1983;15:59–64. [PubMed] . Li X, Zhang J, Sang L, Zhang W, Chu Z, Li X, et al. Laparoscopic versus conventional appendectomy--a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:129. [PMC free article][PubMed]
. Yuksek YN, Akat AZ, Gozalan U, Daglar G, Pala Y, Canturk M, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia. Am J Surg. 2008;195:533–6. [PubMed]
. Sinha R, Gurwara AK, Gupta SC. Laparoscopic surgery under spinal anesthesia. JSLS. 2008;12:133–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
. van Zundert AA, Stultiens G, Jakimowicz JJ, Peek D, van der Ham WG, Korsten HH, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia: a feasibility study. Br J Anaesth. 2007;98:682–6. [PubMed]
. Tzovaras G, Fafoulakis F, Pratsas K, Georgopoulou S, Stamatiou G, Hatizitheofilou C. Spinal vs. general anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy; interim analysis of a controlled randomized trial.Arch Surg. 2008;143:497–501. [PubMed]
. van Zundert AA, Stultiens G, Jakimowicz JJ, van den Borne BE, van der Ham WG, Wildsmith JA. Segmental spinal anesthesia for cholecystectomy in a patient with severe lungs disease. Br J Anaesth.2006;96:464–6. [PubMed]
. Pursnani KG, Bazza Y, Calleja M, Mughal MM. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia in patients with chronic respiratory disease. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:1082–4. [PubMed]
. Hirvonen EA, Poikolainen EO, Paakkonen MF, Nuutinen LS. The adverse hemodynamic effects of anesthesia, head-up tilt, and carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Surg Endosc. 2000;14:272–7. [PubMed]
. El-Dawlatly Hemodynaic profile durings laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus laparoscopic bariatric surgery: the impact of morbid obesity. Middle East J Anesthesiol. 2007;19:51–60. [PubMed]
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Curing Efficacy of LED and QTH Light Curing Units for Curing Nanocomposite Resins – A Systematic Review|
|Authors||:||Dr.Nishad.N.T, Dr.Sujeer.R, Dr.Toby Thomas, Dr.Veronica.|
Abstract: Background: In adequate polymerization of composite resins has been associated with loss of biocompatibility, retention loss, breakage, excessive wear, and restoration softness. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the curing depth and surface microhardness of nanocomposite resin cured with LED and QTH Light curing units. Search Strategy: An electronic search was conducted of the PubMed, MEDLINE and MeSH data bases from 1994 to 20th July 2012. Hand searching included relevant journals and bibliographies of all relevant papers and review articles from 1994 to 2012. Main Results: Three studies compared curing depth of nanocomposites cured by LED and QTH. Out of which two showed significant increase in curing depth for LED and One study showed no significant difference. Eight studies compared the surface microhardness out of which three showed significant increase in surface microhardness of nanocomposites cured with LED, one study showed significant increase for nanocompsite cured with QTH and four articles showed no significant difference in microhardness between LED and QTH. Conclusion: LED light curing units offers equal or better performance for curing nanocomposite resins as compared to QTH light curing units.
Key Words: Nanocomposite, LED, QTH, Curing efficacy
[1.] Lu H, Lee YK, Oguri M, Powers JM, Properties of a dental resin composite with a spherical inorganic filler, Oper Dent 31(6) 2006, 734-740.
[2.] Mitra SB, Wu D, Holmes BN, An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials, J Am Dent Assoc 134(10) 2003, 1382-1390.
[3.] Cadenaro M, Antoniolli F, Codan B, Agee K, Tay FR, Dorigo Ede S, Pashley DH, Breschi L. Influence of different initiators on the degree of conversion of experimental adhesive blends in relation to their hydrophilicity and solvent content. Dent Mater 26(4) 2010, 288-294.
[4.] Jimenez-Planas A, Martin J, Abalos C, Llamas R, Developments in polymerization lamps, Quintessence Int39 (2) 2008, 74-84.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||"Aerosol"-A Prospective Contaminant of Dental Environment!|
|Authors||:||Yogeshwari Swaminathan, Julie Toby Thomas|
Abstract: Dental aerosols are produced in a wide range during the dental procedure. Air-water aerosol produced during dental treatment emerges from patient's mouth and mixes with the air in the surrounding, causing a change in its composition. This can result in contaminated environment which can be hazardous to the dentist as well as to the patient. Many methods can be undertaken to avoid the potential ill effects caused by the dental aerosol.
Keywords: Aerosol, splatter, chlorhexidine, herbal mouth wash, dental unit water line,
 Shanti priya Reddy, M.G.S Prasad, Sanjay Kaul, K.Satish, SabanaKakaral, Nirjhar Bhowmik, Efficacy of 0.2%tempered chlorhexidine as a pre-procedural mouth rinse: a clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol, 16(2), 2012 Apr-Jun, 213 – 217.
 Sagar Abichandani, Ramesh Nadiger, Cross contamination in dentistry: a comprehensive overview, J of Education and Ethics in Dentistry, 2(1), 2012, 3-9.
 zymańska J, Dental bioaerosol as an occupational hazard in a dentist's workplace, Ann Agric Environ Med 2007, 14(2), 203-207.
 Snophia S, M.Manimegalai, Uma S, Sopia, Comparison of efficacy of preprocedural rinsing with chlorhexidine and essential oil mouth in reducing viable bacteria in dental aerosols- a microbiological study, Int J of Contemporary Dentistry, 2(6), 2011 Dec, 1-6.
 Micik RE, Miller RL, Mazzarella MA, Ryge G, Studies on dental aerobiology: bacterial aerosols generated during dental procedures, J Dent Res, 48(1), 1969, 49-56.
 Holbrook WP, Muir KF, Macphee IT, Ross PW, Bacteriological Investigation of the aerosol from ultrasonic scallers, Br Dent J, 144(8), 1978, 245-247.
 Maria LC, Anna MS, Marina S, Maurizio D, Gianluca O, Roberto L, Fernanda P, Evaluation of risk of infection through exposure to earosols splatters in dentistry, Am J Infect Control, 36(4), 2008 May, 304-307.
 King TB, MuzzinKB, Berry CW, Anders LM, The effectiveness of an aerosol reduction device for ultrasonic scalers., J periodontal, 68(1), 1997 Jan, 45-49.
 CarolineL, Pankhurst, NW Johnson, Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: the scientific arguments, Int Dent J, 48(4), 1998, 359-368.
 Williams JF, Andrews N, Santiago JI, Microbial contamination of dental waterlines: current preventive measures and emerging options, Compend Contin Educ Dent, 17(7), 1996 July, 691-708.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||From Veneers to Thineers: Two Case Reports with three years follow up.|
|Authors||:||Dr. Panna Mangat, Dr. Rajesh Podar, Dr. Anjali Miglani|
Abstract: This article presents two cases of aesthetic rehabilitation Case 1) Discoloured anterior teeth (tetracycline staining) and Case 2) Diastema closure using minimal intervention dentistry by use of no preparation or minimally preparation teeth. In this Case report porcelain thineers are fabricated which provides best aesthetics with minimal preparation. The key learning points of the article are the following: Proper diagnosis, treatment plan and proper execution of the treatment plan are mandatory for a successful and pleasing result.
Keywords: Aesthetic Rehabilitation, Adhesive Technology, Minimal Invasive Dentistry, Thineers, Treatment Planning
. Heinlein WD. Anterior teeth: esthetics and function. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 44, 1980,389-393.
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. Magne P, Douglas WH. Rationalization of esthetic restorative dentistry based on biomimetics. Journal of Esthetic Dentistry 11, 1999, 5-15.
. Magne P, Besler U. Bonded porcelain restorations in the anterior dentition: A biometric approach. Chicago: Quintessenc 2002.
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. Tyas MJ, Anusavice KJ, Frencken JE, Mount GJ. Minimal intervention dentistry, a review. FDI Commision Project 1-97. International Dental Journal 50, 2000, 1-12.
. Magne P, Tan DT. Incisor compliance following operative procedure: A rapid 3-D finite element analysis using micro CT data. Journal of Adhesive Dentistry 10, 2008, 49-56.
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. Magne P, Douglas WH. Design optimization and evolution of bonded ceramics for the anterior dentition. A finite element analysis. Quintessence International. 30, 1999, 661-672.
. Stappert CF, Ozden U, Gerds T, Sturb J.R.Longevity and failure load of ceramic veneers with different preparation designs after exposure to masticatory simulation. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 94, 2005, 132-139.
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Abstract: Background: Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) gives an estimate of long-term average glycaemic status. It is used routinely to assess glycaemic control in diabetics to attain treatment goals and prevent long term complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the Chromatographic pattern of Glycated hemoglobin seen in a patient population at the Federal Medical Center Umuahia using the D-10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography machine.
Key words: Glycated hemoglobin, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, D-10 Machine, High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
. Umesh M, German MS. Pancreatic Hormones and Diabetes Mellitus; Glycated Hemoglobin Assays in: David GG, Dolores S (Eds). Greenspan's Basic and Clinical Endocrinology 8th Edi. Appleton Lange: an imprint of McGraw-Hill Inc. 2007. 18: 685.
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. Koenig RJ, Peterson CM, Jones RL, Saudek C, Lehrman M, Cerami A. Correlation of glucose regulation and hemoglobin AIc in diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 1976: 295 (8): 417–20.
. American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Recommendations. Executive summary: standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care; 2010: 33 (1): 4-5.
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Abstract: haematological and biochemical profile of induced male diabetic albino rats were investigated. Twenty one (21) male albino rats (7-8 months) within the weight range of 130-150g were used. They were placed into three groups each consisting of seven rats. Group 1 (control), Group 2 (induced diabetic rat on bitter leaf extract).and Group 3 (Induced diabetic rats on dianil tabs). They were kept in iron cage with constant light source (12 hrs per day) in animal house and for two weeks with normal rat feed. 1.0ml of the extract was administered daily to each of the rat using blunt syringe for 28 days in addition to their rat feed. The control group received clean water instead of the extract. 2.0ml of blood sample were collected via cardiac puncture from both the test rats and the control rats for analysis. The result obtained in the haemoglobin level estimation and packed cell volume did not indicate much significant difference (p<0.05). The haemoglobin estimation for control rat is 12.8±0.75g/dl, and test rats 12.57±0.46(Group 2) and 13.1±0.6g/dl(Group3). On fasting blood sugar, the value obtained in control rats was 85.5±1.0g/dl and in test rats 68±0.7 (group 2) was 64±2.8mg/dl in (group 3) respectively showing a significant difference (p<0.05). the value obtained in random blood sugar level in control rats (group 1) was 94±8.63mg/dl in control rats, 82.3±3.4mg/dl (group 2) and 80.0±6.0mg/dl (group 3) also indicating a significant difference (p<0.05), in packed cell volume, the value obtained were 37.0±1.2010 (control), 36.0±1.2% (group 2) and 34.0±4.2% (group 3) p<0.05 (not significant).
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Abstract: Introduction. Small bowel cancers are rare. The past decade has seen significant advances in the evaluation of the small bowel once considered to be blind to evaluate. Accumulation of data regarding their clinical presentation, pathologic features, prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcome is difficult. Methods. This is a retrospective study of 26 patients with small bowel cancers treated at the department of surgical gastroenterology at a tertiary health care centre in Kashmir valley of India. The records were analyzed in terms of clinical presentation, histopathological diagnosis, treatment and follow up (survival) of these small bowel tumors.
. Cheung DY Choi MG. Current Advance in Small Bowel Tumors. Clin Endosc 2011;44:13-21
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. Pilleul et al. Possible Small – Bowel neoplasms : Contrast enhanced Multidetector CT enterocalysis. Radiology:2006;241:3.
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. Ohmiya N, Yano T, Yamamoto H, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of obscure GI bleeding at double balloon endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 2007;66(3 Suppl).
. Kamaoui I, De-Luca V, Ficarelli S, Mennesson N, Lombard-Bohas C, Pilleul F. Value of CT enteroclysis in suspected small-bowel carcinoid tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010;194:629-633
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Abstract: Superficial vein thrombophlebitis is a common association with varicose vein. However it may rarely present with venous haemorrhage due to rupture of varicose vein leading to life threatening complication. A 56 years old male patient presented in our hospital with pain and swelling Right lower limb and a large haematoma near right Knee. USG suggested superficial thrombophlebitis of great saphenous vein with huge haematoma. Risk of further bleeding prompted the decision to surgically remove the haematoma and stripping of great saphenous vein.This is a rare presentation associated with varicose veins.
Keywords: Varicose vein, superficial thrombophlebitis, Fatal haemorrhage
Markovic MD, Lotina SI, Davidovic LB, et al. Acute superficial thrombophlebitis: modern diagnosis and therapy. Srp Arch Celok Lek 1997;125: 261-6. [PubMed]
Blättler W, Schwarzenbach B, Largiadèr J. Superficial vein thrombophlebitis--serious concern or much ado about little? Vasa. 2008 Feb;37(1):31-8.
Byard RW, Gilbert JD: The incidence and characteristic features of fatal hemorrhage due to ruptured varicose veins. A 10-year autopsy study. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2007, 28:299-302.
Hejna P: A case of fatal spontaneous varicose vein rupture – an example of incorrect first aid. J Forensic Sci 2009, 54:1146-1148.
E. Doberentz, L. Hagemeier, C. Veit, B. Madea, Unattended fatal haemorrhage due to spontaneous peripheral varicose vein rupture—Two case reports, Forensic Science International, Volume 206, Issues 1–3, 20 March 2011, Pages e12-e16
Garyfalia Ampanozi, Ulrich Preiss, Gary M. Hatch, Wolf Dieter Zech, Thomas Ketterer, Stephan Bolliger, Michael J. Thali, Thomas D. Ruder, Fatal lower extremity varicose vein rupture, Legal Medicine, Volume 13, Issue 2, March 2011, Pages 87-90
R.J. Beale, M.J. Gough Treatment Options for Primary Varicose Veins—A Review European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery 1 July 2005 (volume 30 issue 1 Pages 83-95 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.02.023)
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Abstract: Circumcisionis one of the commonest procedures done for medical or ritual reasons over the centuries. Currently, apart from traditional methods, circumcision is practiced in hospital under sterile conditions as well as in the community in a clean but nonsterile setting .Whereas the hazards of traditional circumcision have been extensively documented, the results of mass circumcision done in the community have not been objectively studied. This raises questions on the safety of such practice and whether improvements should be recommended to promote safety.
Key words : Circumcision, Complications,Location
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