Volume-8 ~ Issue-2
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Gene Xpert MTB/RIF---------A Novel Diagnostic Tool for Tuberculosis in Pulmonary Samples.|
|Authors||:||Abdul Hakeem, Muhammad Shahbaz Hussain, Muhammad Imran Sarwar|
Abstract:Objective: To access diagnostic usefulness of Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay technique in management of tuberculosis. Study Design: Observational Study. Setting: Pathology (Microbiology) Department Sheikh Zayad Medical College/Hospital Rahim Yar Khan Period: November2012 to Febrauary2013. Materials and Methods: 224 Sputum samples from pulmonology department. All samples were tested on Gene Xpert for MTB/RIF detection after AFB microscopy. Results: Chi-Square test applied; P value is <0.001. all results are highly significant. Conclusion: (I) Gene Xpert is more specific and sensitive technique. (II) It helps to avoid injudicious use of anti tuberculosis drug.
Key words; AFB, Gene Xpert, MTB/RIF, TB and ZN staining .
. WHO report 20081. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2008.
. Anti-tuberculosis resistance in the world: fourth global report. WHO/HTM/TB/ 2008.394.
. Morris SL, Bai G, Suffys P, Portillo-Gomez L, Fairchok M, Rouse D. Molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in clinical lisolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 1995; 171:954-60.
. Ashok Rattan, Awdhesh Kalia, and Nishat Ahmad. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Molecular Perspectives, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol.4 No.2.
. Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center and California Department of Public Health, 2008: Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, A Survival Guide for Clinicians, Second Edition.
. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedicallaboratories. Richmond JY and McKinney RW (eds) (1993). HHS Publication number(CDC) 93-8395.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Gradual Quadriparasis: a diagnostic dilemma|
|Authors||:||Dr. Piyudeo Mahant, Dr. Upasana Shobhane, Professor Seema Mahant, Professor Rakesh Biswas|
Abstract: This is a report of a 50 year old lady with quadriparasis who was extensively evaluated before presenting to us with imaging and nerve conduction study and diagnosed as sensory motor predominantly axonal polyneuropathy of unexplained etiology. When we evaluate the patient and a chest X-ray and further work up revealed a surprise finding.
Keywords: Polyneuropathy, paraneoplastic syndrome, Small cell lung cancer
. Massimo Camerlingo, MD; Raffaello Nemni. Malignancy and Sensory Neuropathy of Unexplained Cause. Arch Neurol. 1998;55(7):981-984.
. Thankappan KR & Thresia CU.Tobacco use & social status in Kerala.Indian J Med Res 2007;126:300-308
. Croft PB,Wilkinson M. The incidence of carcinomatous neuromyopathy with special reference to lung carcinoma .In:Brain R and Norris FH eds. The remote effects of cancer on the nervous system . New York : Grune and Stratton,1965:44-54
. Oppenhein H: Uber Hirnsymptome bei Carcinomatose ohne nachweisbare veranderungen im Gehirn.Charite-Annalen (Berlin) 1888;13:335-344
. Richardson GE, Johnson BE (1992) Paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 4, 323-333.
. Seute T, Leffers P, ten Velde GPM, Twijnstra A (2004) Neurologic disorders in consecutive patients with small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer 100, 801-806. . Rosenfeld MR, Dalmau J (2003) Current therapies for paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes. Curr Treat Options Neurol 5, 69-77.
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Abstract:AIMS AND OBJECTIVES- This study was undertaken to evaluate the extent of cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography assessment and TMT performance in patients of NIDDM with normal resting ECG. Methodology- Fifty type-II diabetic patients were evaluated with normal resting ECG irrespective of age and sex admitted in the wards of Department of Medicine was selected for the study. The diagnosis of diabetes was made according to WHO criteria -Symptoms of diabetes plus random blood glucose concentration 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl).Or Fasting plasma glucose 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl).Or Two hour plasma glucose 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) during an oral glucose tolerance test. All subjects were subjected to routine and special investigations which included 12 lead ECG, TMT, and echocardiographic assessment. Results: Out of the 50 patients, 33 patients (66%) had abnormal echocardiographic findings. 50% of the patients (25 out of 50 patients.) had diastolic dysfunction while 34% (17 out of 50 patients) had left ventricular hypertrophy. Diastolic dysfunction was highest in patients >60 years of age (90.91%) compared to 47.8% and 25% in the age group 46-60 years and 30-45 years respectively. The incidence of diastolic dysfunction was the highest (100%) in patients with diabetes duration >10 years. 40% of the patients had HbA1C level >10% of which 65% had diastolic dysfunction. TMT was positive in 05 out of 50 patients (10%). Out of the 17 females, two (11.76%) had positive TMT compared to three (9.09%) positive TMT out of 33 males. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the incidence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is higher in NIDDM patients who are free of clinically detectable heart disease. It was found that the incidence of diastolic dysfunction had a strong correlation with the age , duration of diabetes, HbA1C level and diabetic complications. Stress test positivity in type-2 diabetic patients didn't show any correlation with sex, age, addiction, duration of diabetes, and systolic blood pressure. In the present study, it was also found that asymptomatic coronary heart disease occurs in type 2 diabetic patients. Hence it is advisable to screen these patients by TMT and confirm/rule out coronary heart disease by coronary angiography.
Key wards- Normal resting ECG, Type II DM and Cardiac Evaluation.
1]. Bauters C, Lamblin N, McFadden EP, Van Bell E, Millaire A, DeGroote P: Influence of diabetes mellitus on heart failure risk and outcome. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2:1-16, 2003.
. Annonu AK, Fattah AA, Mokhtar MS, Ghareeb S, Elhendy A. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functional abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2001; 14:885-91.
. Falcone C, Nespoli L, Geroldi D, Gazzauruso C, Buzzi MP, Auguardo C, Tavazzi L, Schwartz PJ. Silent myocardial ischemia in diabetic and non diabetic patients with coronary artery disease; Int J Card, 2003; 90, 219-227.
. Gani Bajraktari, Spiro, Nehat Rexhepaj et al. Non insulin dependent diabetes as an independent predictor of asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Croat Med J 2005; 46(2):225-231.
. Gregg C Fonarow, Preethi Srikanthan Diabetic Cardiomyopathy. Endocrinol. Metab Clin N Am. 35 (2006) 575-599
. Roberto M. Saraiva, Dario M. Duarte Monica, PC Duarte et al. Tissue Doppler imaging identifies asymptomatic normotensive diabetics with diastolic dysfunction and reduced exercise tolerances. Echocardiograph, Vol 22;Aug 2005: page 561-570.
. S.M. Sohail Ashraf, Fasia Basir. Association of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pak. J. Med. Sci. 2007 Vol 23: No. 3.
. Schannwell CM, Schneppenheim M, Perings S, et al; Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as an early manifestation of diabetic cardiomyopathy; Cardiology 2002;98:33-9
. Struthers AD, Morris AD. Screening for and treating left ventricular abnormalities in diabetes mellitus : a new way of reducing cardiac deaths. Lancet 2002; 359:1430-32.
. Wackers FJ, Young LH, Inzucchi SE, Chyun DA, Davey JA, Barret EJ, TaiVefer R, Wittlin SD, Heller GV, Filipchuk N, Engle S, Ratner RE, Iskandrian AE. Detection of silent myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic diabetic subjects, the DIAD study. Diabetes care; 2004: 27:1954-1961.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Prevalence of extended spectrum β- lactamases inKlebsiellapneumoniae in a tertiary care hospital.|
|Authors||:||B. Fouzia, A. S. Damle|
Abstract: Purpose: To know the prevalence of extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBL) in multidrug resistant strains of Klebsiellapneumoniaefrom various clinical samples.Material and Methods: A total of 97 strains of Klebsiellapneumoniae were selected for the study, screened for ESBL and confirmed by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT)Results: 92(94.84%) of isolates were resistant to one or more 3rdGeneration cephalosporins (3GC) and which were confirmed for ESBL production by using the PCDDTmethod.Conclusion: Our study shows high prevalence of ESBL production. PCDDT is a simple and cost effective test which can be done as a routine in our microbiology labs.
Key words: ESBL, Klebsiellapneumoniae, PCDDT.
. D. Greenwood Resistance to antimicrobial agents: a personal view J.Medmicrobial 1998;47: 751-752.
. EPAbraham, E Chain. An enzyme from bacteria able to destroypenicillin.Nature, 1940;146-837.
. PABradford. Extended spectrum β-lactamases in the 21stcentury: characterization, epidemiology and detection of this important resistance threat.Clinmicrobiol Rev 2001;14: 933-951.
. Clinical Laboratory standard Institute. Performance standards for anti microbial susceptibility testing.22 informational supplement. Wayne. Pennsylvania: CLSI 2012; M100-S22:32(3).
. SHI Wei-feng, ZHOU Jun and QIN Jian-ping.Transconjugation and genotyping of the plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase and extended. Spectrum β-lactamasegenes in Klebsiellapneumoniae.ClinMed J2009;122(9):1092-1096.
. D LPaterson, RABonomo. Extended spectrum beta lactamases: A clinical update.ClinMicrobiol Rev.2005;657-686.
. MBanerjee, K Sahu, S Bhattacharya, S Adhyaetal.Outbreak of neonatal septicemia with multidrug resistant Klebsiellapneumoniae.Ind J Paediatr1993; 60(1):27-7.
. J. Amita, I. Roy etal prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CTX-M extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiellapneumoniae in Russian Hospitals.Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy2003;(47):3724-3732.
. V Rastogi, P S Nirwan, S Jain, A Kapil.Nosocomial outbreak of septicemia in neonatal intensive care unit due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiellapneumoniaeshowing multiple mechanisms of drug resistance.Ind J MedMicrobiol 2010; 28(4):380-4.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||An Anatomical Study of Triangle of Brocq & Mouchet in Human Cadaveric Heart & Its Clinical Relevance|
|Authors||:||Bharathi D., Sathyamurthy B.|
Abstract: Arteriovenous triangle of Brocq & Mouchet is formed by Great cardiac vein (GCV), Circumflex artery (CA) and Anterior Interventricular artery (AIA). The latter two are branches of left coronary artery which lies on left side of anterior surface of the heart. According to the pattern of disposition of vessels forming the triangle, the triangle is classified as closed, completely opened, inferiorly opened and superiorly opened. The triangle may also be absent. Thirty human cadaveric hearts were studied by dissection method in the Department of Anatomy, RRMCH and BMC&RI in Bangalore. The triangle of Brocq & Mouchet was identified and photographed. During the study, the triangle of Brocq and Mouchet was present in twenty-six hearts (86.7%) and was absent in four (13.3%). In our study the most common was Closed type as seen in 15(50%) and least common was Superiorly opened seen in 3(10%) specimens. There are several strategies in interventional cardiology tailored to the patients with Ischaemic heart disease. The anatomical knowledge of relations of these vessels provides a basis for newer cardiac interventional surgeries.
Keywords: Triangle of Brocq & Mouchet, Great cardiac vein, Circumflex artery, Anterior Interventricular artery, Cardiac interventional surgeries.
 Standring S. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice 40th edition. (Edinburgh: Elsevier/ Churchill Livingstone. 2008).
 Andrade FM, Ribiero DC, Babinski MA, Cisne R, Goes ML .Triangle of Brocq & Mouchet in Brazilian cadavers and clinical implications. J Morphol Sci, 27 (3-4), 2010, 127-129.
 El- Maasarany S, Colin GF, Firth A, Sheppard M, Michael Y. Henein. The coronary sinus conduit function: Anatomical study (relationship to adjacent structures) Europace, 7, 2005, 475-481.
 Pejkovic B, Bogdanovic D. The great cardiac vein. Surg radiol anat. 1992; 14(1):23-8.
 Kaczmarek M, Czerwinski F. Assessment of the course of the great cardiac vein in a selected number of patients. Folia Morphol, 666(3), 2007,190-193.
 Schumacher B, Tebbenjohanns J, Pfeiffer D, Omrah H, Jung W, Luderitz B. Prospective study of retrograde coronary venography in patients with postero-septal and left sided accessory atrioventricular pathways. Am Heart J, 130, 2005,1031-9
.  Ortale JR, Gabriel EA, Lost C, Marquez C. The anatomy of coronary sinus and its tributaries. Surg Radio Anat,23(1), 2001,15-21.
 Bales GS. Great cardiac vein variations. Clin Anat, 17(5), 2004, 436-43.
 Siminiak T, Lipiecki J. Trans-coronary-venous interventions. Circ Cardiovasc Intervent, 1, 2008, 134-142.
 Aoki J, Rodriguez- Granillo GA, Serruys PW. Emergent strategies in interventional cardiology. Rev Esp Cardio, 58, 2005, 962-73.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||THE GEAR OF RETENTION –PIN RETAINED AMALGAM Two Case Reports|
|Authors||:||Prof. (Dr.) Utpal Kumar Das, MDS, Prof. (Dr.) Aditya Mitra, MDS, Dr. Nabanita Bose, BDS|
Abstract: A pin retained amalgam restoration may be defined as a type of complex amalgam restoration requiring the placement of one or more pins in the dentin to provide adequate resistance and retention forms.Pins are used whenever adequate resistance and retention forms cannot be established with slots, locks, or undercuts only. The pin-retained amalgam is an important adjunct in the restoration of teeth with extensive caries or fractures.Not only the pins help in binding the amalgam to the tooth structure, they also help in binding the weak tooth structure to the amalgam. These case reports present the innovative technique that outlines the reconstruction of severely damaged, posterior teeth with missing functional cusp.
Keywords: Dental amalgam; Pin-retained amalgam; Self-threading pin.
. Bharti R, Wadhwani KK, Tikku AP, Chandra A. Dental amalgam: An update. J Conserv Dent 2010;13: 204-08.
. Outhwaite WC, Garman TA, Pashley DH. Pin vs. slot retention in extensive amalgam restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1979; 41(4): 396-400.
. Garman TA, Binon PP, Averette D.B.S., Talman RG. Self-threading pin penetration into dentin. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 43(3): 298-302.
. Letzel H, van't Hof MA, Marshall GW, Marshall SJ. The influence of the amalgam alloy on the survival of amalgam restorations: A secondary analysis of multiple controlled clinical trials. J Dent Res 1997; 76: 1787-98.
. Plasmin PJ, Creugers NH, Mulder J. Long term survival of extensive amalgam restorations. J Dent Res 1998; 77: 453-60.
. Smales RJ, Hawthorne WS. The long-term survival and cost effectiveness of five dental restorative materials which were used in various classes of cavity preparations. International Dental Journal 1996; 46: 126-130.
. McDaniel JR, Davis RD, Murchison DF, Cohen RB. Causes of failure among the cuspal-coverage amalgam restorations: A clinical survey. J Am Dent Assoc 2000; 131: 173-77.
. Deliperi S, Bardwell DN. Direct cuspal-coverage posterior resin composite restorations: a case report. Oper Dent 2006; 30(6): 143-50.
. Liebenberg WH. Assuring the restorative integrity in extensive posterior resin restorations: Pushing the envelope. Quintessence Int 2000; 31: 153-64.
. Mondelli J, Vieira DF. The strength of Class II amalgam restorations with and without pins. J Prosthet Dent 1972; 28: 179-88.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Evaluation of C-reactive protein as a biochemical marker for assessing disease severity in Malaria|
|Authors||:||Vandana Agrawal , Vaishali Jain, Shubho Biswas|
Abstract: Levels of C-reactive protein , a well characterised serum acute phase protein were measured in a total of 32 patients admitted to JK hospital with the diagnosis of Malaria (18 vivax malaria and 14 falciparum malaria) . Serum C-reactive protein concentrations were measured daily in all the patients over a seven day period .Percentage parasitemia , platelet count , serum bilirubin , alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were measured initially on the day of admission . Though Serum C-reactive protein concentration was significantly elevated in all the malaria patients , it was significantly higher (P<0.01) in Plasmodium falciparum(29.4±10.9 mg/L ) as compared to P. Vivax malaria(14.5± 3.7mg/L ) . The highest concentration was observed on day 2 ( Plasmodium falciparum :65.3±16.8 mg/L ; Plasmodium vivax: 27.1±13.0 mg/L )and fell significantly between day 1 and day 7 in parallel with clinical recovery. A significant positive correlation was found between serum CRP and conventional laboratory markers of severity of malaria like percentage parasitemia , serum bilirubin, serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in Plasmodium falciparum patients but not in Plasmodium Vivax.These results suggest that C-reactive protein can be used as a biomarker for assessing disease severity particularly in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Key words : Biochemical marker , C-reactive protein , malaria
. Malaria: Disease Burden in SEA Region .WHO publication; 2011[Updated 2011 Jan 18; Cited 2011 Sept 6]. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia; [about 2 screens].
. Sachs J, Malaney P (2002) The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature 415(6872): 680–5
. Gillespie SH, Dow C, Raynes JG, Behrens RH, Chiodini PL, McAdam KP. Measurement of acute phase proteins for assessing severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Clin Pathol 1991;44:228-31.
. McGuire W, D'Alessandro U, Olaleye BO, Thomson MC, Langerock P, Greenwood BM, Kwiatkowski D 1996. C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in the evaluation of a community-based malaria control programme. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 10-14.
. Conroy AL, Liles WC, Molyneux ME, Rogerson SJ, Kain KC 2011. Performance characteristics of combinations of host biomarkers to identify women with occult placental malaria: a case-control study from Malawi. PLoS ONE 6: e28540.
. Harpaz R, Edelman R, Wasserman SS, Levine MM, Davis JR, Sztein MB 1992. Serum cytokine profiles in experimental human malaria. Relationship to protection and disease course after challenge. J Clin Invest 90: 515-523.
. Ansar ,W, Bandyopadhyay ,S.M, Chowdhury ,S, Habib ,S.H, Mandal, C. 2006. Role of C-reactive protein in complement-mediated hemolysis in malaria. Glycoconj.J . 23: 233-240.
. Hurt N, Smith T, Tanner M, Mwankusye S, Bordmann G, Weiss NA, et al. Evaluation of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin as malaria episode markers in an area of high transmission in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994;88:182-6.
. Manning L, Laman M, Law I, Bona C, Aipit S, et al. (2011) Features and Prognosis of Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Mixed Plasmodium Species in Papua New Guinean Children. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029203
. Lima-Junior Jda C, Rodrigues-da-Silva RN, Pereira VA, Storer FL, Perce-da-Silva Dde S, Fabrino DL, Santos F, Banic DM, de Oliveira-Ferreira J. Cells and mediators of inflammation (C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, platelets and neutrophils) in the acute and convalescent phases of uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012 Dec;107(8):1035-41
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Abstract: Early detection of deterioration or impairment in renal function is critical in management of diabetic patients. Serum cystatin C may be the most sensitive indicator of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a clinical environment.
Keywords: Cystatin C, Early-deterioration-of-renal-function, type 2-diabetes, industrial-workers, Port Harcourt.
. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization.N Engl J Med 351, 2004, 1296-1305.
. Anavekar NS, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, Solomon SD, Kober L, Rouleau JL, et al. Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 351, 2004, 1285-1295.
. Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW, et al. National Kidney Foundation. National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med 139, 2003, 137-147.
. Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Colleton B, Hamm LL, et al. American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on kidney in cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 108, 2003, 2154-2169.
 Stevens LA, Levey AS. Measurement of kidney function.Med Clin North Am 89, 2005, 457-473.
 Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group.Ann Intern Med 130, 1999; 461-470.
 Rule AD, Larson TS, Bergstralh EJ, Slezak JM, Jacobsen SJ, Cosio FG. Using serum creatinine to estimate glomerular filtration rate: accuracy in good health and in chronic kidney disease.Ann Intern Med 141, 2004, 929-937.
 Levin A. Cystatin C, serum creatinine, and estimates of kidney function: searching for better measures of kidney function and cardiovascular risk. Ann Intern Med 142, 2005, 586-588.
 Dharnidharka VR, Kwon C, Stevens G. Serum cystatin C is superior to serum creatinine as a marker of kidney function: a meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 40, 2002, 221-226.
 Filler G, Bokenkamp A, Hofmann W, Le Bricon T, Martinez-Bru C, Grubb A. Cystatin C as a marker of GFR-history, indications, and future research. ClinBiochem 38, 2005, 1-8.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Effect of Yoga on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index.|
|Authors||:||Dr. P. Satyanarayana, Dr. G. Vijaya Benerji, Rekha Kumari Dulala, Farid Babu Meka, N. Ratna Kummari|
Abstract: Background: Yoga is an ancient Indian system of exercise and therapy, is an art of righteous living or an integrated system for the benefit of the body, mind and inner spirit. Regular practice of Yoga can help to decrease stress and anxiety. Forward bends such as the Paschimottana Asana help to increase blood flow to the brain, reduce stress, have a calming effect on the nervous system, and greatly help in reducing hypertension. Aim: The aim of yoga is the attainment of the physical, mental and spiritual health and to control the blood pressure. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of yoga training on 50 male (with or without CAD) subjects. Methods: We examined the effects of yoga on hemodynamic and laboratory parameters in a 6-months pilot study. A course in yoga was given to all the subjects for 1.5 Hours six days in week for twenty four weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, body mass index (BMI) were all studied , before and after 6-months of yoga practice. Results: This prospective cohort study included 50 subjects (mean age 52 ± 2 years) both with CAD (30%) and without established coronary artery disease (CAD) (70%). Yoga training causes decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (average 20%), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (11%), heart rate (HR) (average12.5%) and BMI (8%). SBP, HR and BMI value shows statistically highly significant (p<0.05). These results suggest that there is a significant reduction in blood pressure, heart rate, and BMI in the total cohort with yoga. Conclusion: Yoga appears to control blood pressure of CAD patients.
Key words: Yoga, heart rate, blood pressure, coronary artery disease and body mass index.
. Nayak NN, Shankar K. Yoga: a therapeutic approach. Phys Med Rehab Clin N Am 2004;15:783–98.
. Garfinkel M, Schumacher HR., Jr. Yoga. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000;26: 125–32, x. doi: 10.1016/S0889-857X(05)70126-5.
. Chandler K. The emerging field of yoga therapy. Hawaii Med J. 2001;60:286–287
. Raub JA. Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8:797–812. doi: 10.1089/10755530260511810.
. Saper RB, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Culpepper L, Phillips RS. Prevalence and patterns of adult yoga use in the United States: results of a national survey. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004;10:44–49.
. Kreitzer MJ, Gross CR, Ye X, Russas V, Treesak C. Longitudinal impact of mindfulness meditation on illness burden in solid-organ transplant recipients. Prog Transplant 2005;15:166–72.
. Madanmohan, Udupa K, Bhavanani AB, Shatapathy CC, Sahai A. Modulation
. of cardiovascular response to exercise by yoga training. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48:461–5.
. McCaffrey R, Ruknui P, Hatthakit U, Kasetsomboon P. The effects of yoga
. on hypertensive persons in Thailand. Holistic Nurs Prac 2005;19:173–80. Vasan RS, Beiser A, Seshadri S, Larson MG, Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB, Levy
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Malaria Vaccine Development: A Challenge for Africa|
|Authors||:||Musa Sunday Akagwu Unyene, Dr. Mrs. Ani Agatha (PhD)|
Abstract: Malaria remains one of the most widespread and deadly tropical diseases with more than 300 million cases and more than one million deaths each year. Since ninety percent of the cases occur among children in Sub-Saharan Africa and the poorer communities are worst affected, malaria clearly posses a huge threat to the existence and development of Africa. A malaria vaccine could greatly reduce the effects of the disease in terms of suffering and loss of lives. It also could prevent the spread of malaria more cost effectively than any existing treatment. This review was undertaken to highlight the basic challenges of malaria vaccine development in Africa and specifically highlights and discusses: reported progress on malaria vaccine development across the globe and particularly in Africa; challenges associated with the success rate of malaria vaccine development efforts; and Africa-specific operational and resource challenges in malaria vaccine development.
. Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore (2009). Effective Vaccine For Malaria Possible, Study Shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 17, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/07/090730074340.htm
. Alonso PL, Sacarlal J, Aponte JJ, Leach A, Macete E, Milman J, Mandomando I, Spiessens B, Guinovart C, Espasa M, Bassat Q, Aide P, Ofori-Anyinam O, Navia MM, Corachan S, Ceuppens M, Dubois MC, Demoitie MA, Dubovsky F, Menendez C, Tornieporth N, Ballou WR, Thompson R, Cohen J (2004). "Efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease in young African children: randomised controlled trial". Lancet 364 (9443): 1411–20. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17223-1. PMID 15488216.
. Alsop Z. (2009). Malaria vaccine researchers face cultural challenges. The Lancet, Volume 374, Issue 9684, Pages 104 - 105, 11 July 2009 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61269-1
. Aponte, J. J., Aide, P., Renom, M., Mandomando, I., Bassat, Q., Sacarlal, J., Manaca, M. N., Lafuente, S., Barbosa, A., Leach, A., Lievens, M., Vekemans, J., Sigauque, B., Dubois, M., Demoitié, M., Sillman, M., Savarese, B., McNeil, J. G., Macete, E., Ballou, W. R., Cohen, J. and Alonso P. L. (2007). "Safety of the RTS,S/AS02D candidate malaria vaccine in infants living in a highly endemic area of Mozambique: a double blind randomised controlled phase I/IIb trial". Lancet 370 (9598): 1543–51. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61542-6. PMID 17949807.
. Ballou, W. R., Cahill, C. P. (2007). Two Decades of Commitment to Malaria Vaccine Development: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77(6_Suppl), 2007, pp. 289-295 Copyright © 2007 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
. Boutin, J. P., Pradines, B., Pages, F., Legros, F., Rogier C., Migliani (2005). Epidemiology of malaria. Rev Prat. 55: 833-40.
. Breman, J. G., Alilio, M. S., Mills, A. (2004). Conquering the Intolerable Burden of Malaria: What's New, What's Needed: A Summary. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71(2), pp. 1-15.The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene . Breman, J. G., Alilio, M. S., White, N. J. (2007). Towards an African-Driven Malaria Vaccine Development Program: History and Activities of the African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET). Defining and Defeating the Intolerable Burden of Malaria III: Progress and Perspectives: Supplement to Volume 77(6) of American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
. Carter, R. (2001). Transmission blocking malaria vaccines. Vaccine, 19:2309-2314.
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|Paper Type||:||Research Paper|
|Title||:||Orbital Index in Urhobos of Nigeria|
|Authors||:||Ebeye O. A., Otikpo O.|
Abstract: The orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. Normal values of orbital height, orbital width and orbital index are vital measurements in evaluation and diagnosis of craniofacial syndromes and post traumatic deformities, treatment of abnormalities to produce the best aesthetic and functional result is important. Thus the study was conducted to document normal orbital values in a Nigeria population. Two hundred and thirty six males and one hundred and fifty two female volunteer adult Urhobos were selected randomly among the student of Delta State University Abraka age ranged 18-30years. There orbital height and orbital width were measured and the orbital index calculated (OI/OW X 100). Result showed mean orbital height and width were higher in males (33.01mm and 42.24mm) than in females (31.92mm and 40.82mm). This was statistically significant (p<0.05). The study showed sexual dimorphism and places the population in microseme (small) category. This study will be of importance in anthropology, forensic medicine and craniofacial surgery.
Key Words: orbit, orbital height, orbital width, urhobos
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Abstract: The cranial capacity of 527 living subjects (269 males and 268 females) between the ages of 14 – 20 years old of the Ogidi community of Anambra state of Nigeria were determined. Maximum head width was measured using spreading caliper. Auricular height was measured using auricular head spanner. Maximum head height was measured using measuring tape. Weight was measured using weighing scale. Height was measured using measuring rod in meter. The results showed the mean and standard deviation of cranial capacity of males; 1410.832± 162.405cc and that of females; 1443.212 ± 154.283cc. The difference was significant (p<0.05) this investigation shows that cranial capacity is slightly higher in females than in males among adolescent Ogidi's. A positive correlation was found between cranial capacity and age, body weight, body height, and BMI. This result shows variation from the result obtained by similar studies in the south-East of Caspian Sea boarder (North of Iran), Asia were cranial capacity is higher in males. The difference is due to racial factors.
Keywords: Cranial capacity, Sex, Ogidi community, Body weight, Body height, and BMI.
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Abstract: Cell proliferation can be described as the process in which cells reproduce themselves by growing and then dividing into two equal copies. The cancer cell differs from the normal cell in a sense that it is aberrantly regulated. Failure to regulate functions of biomolecules that are necessary for survival, proliferation, differentiation as well as expression of many cell-type functions leads to an altered phenotype and cancer. The aim of the study is to assess the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS) using Alamar Blue and live cell imaging.Standard curve for U2OS cells was produced by incubating different counts of U2OS cells for 24 hours before addition of Alamar Blue dye and absorbance reading at 570 nm and 600 nm. For cell proliferation study, 1 x 103 of U2OS cells were cultured for 10 days. Absorbance readings were recorded once in every two days (day 2, 4, 6, 8, 10) and the percentage of Alamar Blue reduction was calculated. The cell division process was studied using live cell imaging for 48 hours employing fluorescent expression systems. From both Alamar Blue assay and live cell imaging, population doubling time (PDT) was determined. The percentage of Alamar Blue reduction increased from day 2 to 10 which indicated the increase in the number and proliferation activity of U2OS cells. The PDT of U2OS cells determined based on Alamar Blue assay was 29.15 hours and through live cell imaging, was 32 ± 3 hours.U2OS cells proliferate over days based on Alamar Blue assay and live cell imaging with PDT of approximately 29 hours.
Keywords - osteosarcoma, cell proliferation, Alamar Blue assay, live cell imaging, population doubling time
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Abstract: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory infections in humans. Although it is usually associated with mild acute respiratory infections such as sore throat, pharyngitis, rhinitis and tracheobronchitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of M. pneumoniae among the patients of respiratory tract infection (RTI) in hospitalized patients. A total of 290 patients were included and one specimen of throat and Nasopharyngeal swabs from each patient was taken. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 (±9.80) years and 57.2% were males. The prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was significant higher (15.5%) among NPS samples compare with throat (7.9%) samples (RR=0.51, 95%CI=0.32-0.82, p=0.005). The prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was found to be decreased with increase in the age of the patients among both throat and Nasopharyngeal swabs, however, this was statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The prevalence was higher among male patients compared with female among both throat and Nasopharyngeal swabs, and this was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was seasonal variations in the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The prevalence was higher in winter season than summer among both throat (Winter=5.9%, Summer=9.3%) and Nasopharyngeal (Winter=2.1%, Summer=6.2%) swabs.
Key words: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, prevalence, seasonal variations
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